Lecture 2: Matter, Elements and Compounds, States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes
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Lecture 2: Matter, Elements and Compounds, States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes

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Lecture 2: Matter, Elements and Compounds, States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS STATES OF MATTER PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND CHANGES Lecture for 9/11/2007
  • 2. What is matter?
      • Anything that has mass and volume
      • Ancient Greece and India – intrigued by the origin of matter and the makeup of the universe
      • Is there anywhere that doesn’t contain matter?
  • 3. States of matter
      • Solid – holds a particular shape and has definite volume
      • Liquid – doesn’t hold its own shape but it does occupy a definite volume
      • Gas – has no definite shape or volume
      • Plasma – exists inside stars and forms briefly on Earth when electrical sparks separate atoms into their component parts.
      • Changes in state - Heating or cooling a substances
  • 4. Properties of matter
      • Physical properties
        • Characteristics of a substance that can be observed without altering the identity of the substance
      • Chemical properties
        • Characteristics of a substance that cannot be observed without altering the substance
  • 5. Physical and Chemical Changes
      • Physical changes – changes that don’t alter the identity of a substance
      • Chemical changes – alter the identity of the substance
    • Identify the following as physical or a chemical change:
    • Sugar ferments to form alcohol.
    • Gallium metal melts in your hand.
    • Platinum reacts with hydrogen peroxide oxygen at room temperature.
    • Leaves turn color in the Fall.
  • 6. Identify the following as physical or a chemical change CON’T:
    • Milk turns sour.
    • Wax is melted over a flame and then catches fire and burns.
    • You make scrambled eggs.
    • You step on a piece of chalk and it becomes powdered.
    • You light a candle when the electricity goes out.
    • Steam from your hot shower condenses on a cold mirror.
  • 7. Law of conservation of matter
      • Antoine Lavoisier (1743 – 1794)
      • Matter, like energy, is
      • neither created nor destroyed
      • in any process
  • 8. Elements and Compounds
  • 9. Distinguishing Between Elements and Compounds
    • Both elements and compounds are pure substances
      • Difficult to determine when a more “fundamental” element was reached
      • Tear apart substances to see if a more simpler element can be reached