Pathology of the male genital tract

5,249 views
4,831 views

Published on

0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,249
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
57
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pathology of the male genital tract

  1. 1. Pathology of the Male Genital Tract<br />by: Noel C. Santos, M.D.<br />
  2. 2. Structural/Congenital Anomalies<br />Urethral groove/canal malformation produces abnormal urethral opening<br />Hypospadias - ventral<br />Epispadias - dorsal<br />Phimosis/Paraphimosis<br />
  3. 3. Inflammatory Conditions<br />Urethritis<br />Balanoposthitis<br />Nonspecific Inflammatory Process<br />Sexually Transmitted Diseases<br />
  4. 4. Neoplastic Conditions of the Penis<br />Benign – condylomaacuminatum<br />Pre-neoplastic Conditions<br />Bowen’s disease<br />Bowenoidpapulosis<br />Erythroplasia of Queyrat<br />Malignant<br />Verrucous Carcinoma<br />Squamous Cell Carcinoma<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Diseases of the Prostate<br />Inflammatory Conditions<br />Acute Bacterial Prostatitis<br />Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis<br />Chronic AbacterialProstatitis<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Diseases of the Prostate<br />Tumors<br />Benign<br />Malignant<br />
  13. 13. Nodular Hyperplasia (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy)<br />Related to effects of androgens (DHT) probably mediates prostatic growth<br />Estrogen (estradiol) may further sensitize the prostate to the effects of DHT<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Prostatic Carcinoma<br />Most common form of cancer in men<br />Unknown (advancing age, race, hormonal influence, genetic and environmental factors)<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Gleason’s Grading<br />Predicts biologic behavior<br />
  29. 29. Staging<br />Selection of therapy<br />Determination of prognosis<br />
  30. 30. Stage I – Microscopic<br />A1 – focus<br />A2 – diffuse<br />Usually asymptomatic<br />Favorable prognosis<br />
  31. 31. Stage II – Macroscopic<br />B1 – one lobe,  1.5 cm nodule<br />B2 – both lobes, > 1.5 cm<br />Palpable prostatic nodule<br />Progress to locally aggressive<br />Metastasize if untreated<br />
  32. 32. Stage III – Extracapsular<br />C1 – localized,  70 gm<br />C2 – fixed to pelvic wall, > 70 gm<br />Locally advanced<br />Urinary obstruction, local pain, bone pain<br />
  33. 33. Stage IV – Metastatic<br />D1 – confined to pelvis<br />D2 – extrapelvic<br />Signs and symptoms secondary to metastatic foci<br />
  34. 34. Diseases of the Testis<br />Congenital Anomalies<br />Cryptorchidism = failure of descent<br />Atrophy<br />Primary (Klinefelter’s syndrome)<br />Secondary (vascular disease, inflammatory, hypopituitarism, malnutrition, etc.)<br />
  35. 35. Inflammatory Conditions<br />With epididymitis which secondarily involve the testis (except in syphilis)<br />Nonspecific<br />Granulomatous (Autoimmune)<br />Specific (gonorrhea, tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.)<br />
  36. 36. Vascular Disturbances<br />TORSION<br />Twisting of the spermatic cord<br />With pre-existing lesion – cryptorchidism<br />Congestion to interstitial hemorrhage (depending on the duration and severity)<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. TESTICULAR TUMORS<br />Germ Cell Tumors<br />Seminoma<br />Nonseminoma: EST, Choriocarcinoma, Embryonal Carcinoma, Teratoma<br />Non-germ Cell Tumors<br />Leydig cell tumor, Sertoli cell tumor<br />
  39. 39. Testicular Tumors<br />Pathogenesis:<br />Cryptorchidism<br />Genetic factors<br />Testicular dysgenesis<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Staging<br />I – confined to the testis<br />II – below the diaphragm<br />III – above the diaphragm<br />Tumor Markers<br />HCG<br />AFP<br />
  50. 50. Pathology of the Male Genital Tract<br />by: Noel C. Santos, M.D.<br />

×