Organic Chemistry
THS Food Science
Organic Chemistry
• What is organic chemistry?
• Study of compounds containing
carbon.
Carbon Symbol: C
Valence
Electrons:...
Organic Chemistry
• Carbon can make strong bonds with
itself. (Covalent Bonds)
• Covalent bond: sharing of electrons.
Organic Chemistry
• The constituents of foods:
• Water
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Lipids (Fats and Oils)
• Except water,...
Vocabulary
• Nutrient
• Carbohydrate
• Fructose
• Glucose
• Galactose
• Sucrose
• Lactose
• Alcohol
• Dextrose
• Ripening
...
Water
• Water is a nutrient.
• Nutrients are food components
necessary to sustain life.
• Six Groups:
• Carbohydrates, fat...
Water
• Chemically composed
of one oxygen and two
hydrogens atoms.
• Unique because of
how electrons are
shared between th...
Water
• Gases in the air are pressing against
our bodies all the time.
• This is called atmospheric pressure.
• The force ...
Water
• Water boils at 100 C˚ (212 F˚).
• As atmospheric pressure changes so
does the boiling point.
• Lower the pressure,...
Atmospheric Pressure
• As elevation
increases, pressure
decreases.
• Why?
• Less air is
pressing down.
Low Pressure Cooking
• The lower the atmospheric pressure
the lower the BP.
• What does that mean for cooking your
food?
•...
Sugar
The Simplest Carbohydrate
Sugar
• Carbohydrates make up the bulk of
the biomass in food.
• Provide 55% - 80% of energy humans
need.
• Provide energy...
Sugar
• Rarely do food items not contain
carbohydrates.
• Can be grouped into three categories:
• Sugars
• Starches
• Fibe...
Carbohydrate
Production
• All carbohydrates are composed of:
• Carbon
• Oxygen
• Hydrogen
Organic
Compounds
Carbohydrate
Production
• Originally thought that carbon was
bonded to water.
• Carbon Hydrate (Carbon-Water)
• C6(H2O)6
•...
Carbohydrate
Production
• Carbohydrates are how
nature stores solar energy.
• Uses photosynthesis.
• Plants convert solar
...
Carbohydrate
Production
• Glucose is considered a sugar.
• -ose ending = SUGAR
• What are some other types of sugars
that ...
Carbohydrate
Production
• Photosynthesis required specific
materials in order to take place.
• CO2
• H2O
• Chlorophyll
• Su...
Carbohydrate
Production
All carbohydrates are
first made as glucose.
Plants then convert glucose into other
carbs that they...
Sugars
• Sugars are the simplest type of
carbohydrates.
• Saccharide is the term given to carbs
that are considered sugars.
Sugars
• Organic compounds are group by their
structure.
• Hydroxyl group = oxygen bonded to
hydrogen.
Sugars
• Simple sugars are known as
monosaccharides (one basic molecule)
• Found widely in food products.
• Fructose, Gluc...
Sugars
• Glucose: Most
abundant; found in
blood, grapes, and
corn.
• Human body
converts all sugars
into glucose to use
as...
Sugars
• Mannose is found in
eggs.
• Galactose can be
found in animals and
humans.
Sugars
• Sugars were
thought to be
constructed in a
linear fashion.
• Sugars are in
ring-shaped.
Long Hand Short Hand
C6H1...
Sugars
• Sugars in nature do not normally stay
as monosaccharides.
• They combine with other
monosaccharides to form
disac...
Sugars
• Sucrose (notice the -ose) is table sugar.
• 1 molecule of glucose
• 1 molecule of fructose
• Lactose - sugar foun...
Sugars
• Monosaccharides join together they
release H2O.
This guy gives some people the runs!!
Why is that?
Alcohols
• Organic compounds that contain at least
one -OH group.
• Ending -ol
• Ethanol
• Propanol
Alcohols
Sources
Description
Cautions
Wine and beer;
soap
manufacturing
Seaweed
apples, berries,
pears, plums
Seaweed and
...
Sources of Sugar
• Sugars have a sweet flavor and provide
4 calories of energy per gram.
• Types of sugars for food ingredi...
Sources of Sugar
• Sweet syrups
are extracted.
• Sources:
• sugar cane,
sugar beets,
maple trees,
corn, and
sorghum
Functions of Sugar
• Sugar is used as:
• Sweeteners - Makes items sweet (duh!)
• Tenderizers - Makes dough tender.
• Compa...
Hydrolysis
• Cutting or cleavage of
chemical bonds by
adding water.
• Carbohydrates are
broken into sugar
components.
• Di...
Nutritional Value of
Sugar
• All sugars produce 4 calories per gram
when digested.
• Once absorbed into the bloodstream,
t...
Nutritional Value
• Glucose that is not needed is
converted into Glycogen for storage.
• Two-thirds of glycogen stored in ...
Nutritional Value
• Sugars also increase the release of a
brain chemical called serotonin.
• Serotonin is a calming agent ...
Organic Chemistry: Water/Sugar
Organic Chemistry: Water/Sugar
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Organic Chemistry: Water/Sugar

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry THS Food Science
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry • What is organic chemistry? • Study of compounds containing carbon. Carbon Symbol: C Valence Electrons: 4
  3. 3. Organic Chemistry • Carbon can make strong bonds with itself. (Covalent Bonds) • Covalent bond: sharing of electrons.
  4. 4. Organic Chemistry • The constituents of foods: • Water • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids (Fats and Oils) • Except water, ALL organic chemicals • Determine the most essential properties of foods. • (Flavor, consistency, rheology, color, rancidity, nutritional value, and odor.)
  5. 5. Vocabulary • Nutrient • Carbohydrate • Fructose • Glucose • Galactose • Sucrose • Lactose • Alcohol • Dextrose • Ripening • Caramelization • Polysaccharide • Monosaccharide • Polymer • Glyceride • Fatty Acid • Saturated • Unsaturated • Hydrogenation • Rancidity • Proteins • Amino Acids
  6. 6. Water • Water is a nutrient. • Nutrients are food components necessary to sustain life. • Six Groups: • Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
  7. 7. Water • Chemically composed of one oxygen and two hydrogens atoms. • Unique because of how electrons are shared between the atoms.
  8. 8. Water • Gases in the air are pressing against our bodies all the time. • This is called atmospheric pressure. • The force of the weight determined by the Earth’s gravitational pull.
  9. 9. Water • Water boils at 100 C˚ (212 F˚). • As atmospheric pressure changes so does the boiling point. • Lower the pressure, lower the BP.
  10. 10. Atmospheric Pressure • As elevation increases, pressure decreases. • Why? • Less air is pressing down.
  11. 11. Low Pressure Cooking • The lower the atmospheric pressure the lower the BP. • What does that mean for cooking your food? • At 1,000m (3,000 ft) water boils at 96 ˚C (205 ˚F)
  12. 12. Sugar The Simplest Carbohydrate
  13. 13. Sugar • Carbohydrates make up the bulk of the biomass in food. • Provide 55% - 80% of energy humans need. • Provide energy reserve for all living things. • DNA made up of carbohydrate base.
  14. 14. Sugar • Rarely do food items not contain carbohydrates. • Can be grouped into three categories: • Sugars • Starches • Fibers
  15. 15. Carbohydrate Production • All carbohydrates are composed of: • Carbon • Oxygen • Hydrogen Organic Compounds
  16. 16. Carbohydrate Production • Originally thought that carbon was bonded to water. • Carbon Hydrate (Carbon-Water) • C6(H2O)6 • This is now abandoned but the name stayed a carbohydrate.
  17. 17. Carbohydrate Production • Carbohydrates are how nature stores solar energy. • Uses photosynthesis. • Plants convert solar energy into glucose. • Glucose is the most common carbohydrate.
  18. 18. Carbohydrate Production • Glucose is considered a sugar. • -ose ending = SUGAR • What are some other types of sugars that you have encountered in foods? • List with 2 O’clock partner.
  19. 19. Carbohydrate Production • Photosynthesis required specific materials in order to take place. • CO2 • H2O • Chlorophyll • Sunlight
  20. 20. Carbohydrate Production All carbohydrates are first made as glucose. Plants then convert glucose into other carbs that they need at that time.
  21. 21. Sugars • Sugars are the simplest type of carbohydrates. • Saccharide is the term given to carbs that are considered sugars.
  22. 22. Sugars • Organic compounds are group by their structure. • Hydroxyl group = oxygen bonded to hydrogen.
  23. 23. Sugars • Simple sugars are known as monosaccharides (one basic molecule) • Found widely in food products. • Fructose, Glucose, Galactose, Mannose
  24. 24. Sugars • Glucose: Most abundant; found in blood, grapes, and corn. • Human body converts all sugars into glucose to use as energy. Young tender corn kernels are sweeter than mature corn kernels because they contain a higher percentage of sugars.
  25. 25. Sugars • Mannose is found in eggs. • Galactose can be found in animals and humans.
  26. 26. Sugars • Sugars were thought to be constructed in a linear fashion. • Sugars are in ring-shaped. Long Hand Short Hand C6H12O6 C6H12O6 Can you find the missing H’s? Carbon = 4 bonds Oxygen = 2 bonds Hydrogen = 1 bond
  27. 27. Sugars • Sugars in nature do not normally stay as monosaccharides. • They combine with other monosaccharides to form disaccharides (two joined monosaccharides) • Most sugars are disaccharides.
  28. 28. Sugars • Sucrose (notice the -ose) is table sugar. • 1 molecule of glucose • 1 molecule of fructose • Lactose - sugar found in milk. • 1 molecule of glucose • 1 molecule of galactose
  29. 29. Sugars • Monosaccharides join together they release H2O. This guy gives some people the runs!! Why is that?
  30. 30. Alcohols • Organic compounds that contain at least one -OH group. • Ending -ol • Ethanol • Propanol
  31. 31. Alcohols Sources Description Cautions Wine and beer; soap manufacturing Seaweed apples, berries, pears, plums Seaweed and algae Apples, berries, plums, and other foods Warm, sweet, oily liquid Sweet, white, odorless, crystal Sweet, white powder, flakes, or granules Sweet, white, granules None May worsen kidney disease. Excess consumption may cause diarrhea Excess consumption may cause diarrhea
  32. 32. Sources of Sugar • Sugars have a sweet flavor and provide 4 calories of energy per gram. • Types of sugars for food ingredients: • granulated, brown, and confectioner's sugars; honey; corn syrup; molasses; and maple syrup. • Each sweetener is listed separately in the ingredient list on product labels.
  33. 33. Sources of Sugar • Sweet syrups are extracted. • Sources: • sugar cane, sugar beets, maple trees, corn, and sorghum
  34. 34. Functions of Sugar • Sugar is used as: • Sweeteners - Makes items sweet (duh!) • Tenderizers - Makes dough tender. • Compare Italian hard roll, white bread, sweet rolls. • Preservatives - Helps prevent food spoilage. • Single celled contaminates dehydrate and die in sugary environment. • Helps cakes stay moist. • Maintains freshness.
  35. 35. Hydrolysis • Cutting or cleavage of chemical bonds by adding water. • Carbohydrates are broken into sugar components. • Disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides.
  36. 36. Nutritional Value of Sugar • All sugars produce 4 calories per gram when digested. • Once absorbed into the bloodstream, they head to the liver. • Fructose and galactose are changed into glucose • How are they changed? Why are they changed?
  37. 37. Nutritional Value • Glucose that is not needed is converted into Glycogen for storage. • Two-thirds of glycogen stored in the muscles and the remaining third in the liver.
  38. 38. Nutritional Value • Sugars also increase the release of a brain chemical called serotonin. • Serotonin is a calming agent and acts as an antidepressant.

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