Presentation Slovakian Partners on SpainPresentation Transcript
Spain Your name : Nika Hornakova Your teacher : Mrs. Klonckova Your class : Kvinta
Kingdom of Spain ( Spanish : Reino de España ), is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula . [note 6] Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar ; to the north by France , Andorra , and the Bay of Biscay ; and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal . Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa , Ceuta and Melilla , that border Morocco . With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe after France.
Spain is located at the Iberian Península, of which it occupies approximately 80% (the remaining 20% are occupied by Portugal), in the southwest of Europe. In the north Spain borders on France and Andorra, with the Pyrenees as a natural frontier. Additionally the Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza) in the Mediterranean Sea, Canary Islands in Atlantic Ocean close to the Moroccian coast, and Ceuta and Melilla, located in northern Africa, are Spanish territory. Spain is the 3rd country of Europe in extension and the 5th in population. There are five big mountain ranges crossing the country, and about 50% of it are located at an elevated plain. Landscapes are extremely varied, some almost desert-like, others green and fertile, and of course there are the long coasts, in the east along Mediterranean Sea from Pyrenees to Gibraltar, and in the west (the major part of the Iberian peninsula's western coast is occupied by Portugal) along the Atlantic Ocean and Cantabrian Sea.
Due to Spain's geographical situation and orographic conditions, the climate is extremely diverse; it can be roughly divided into four areas:
A Continental Mediterranean climate in the inland areas of the Peninsula (largest city, Madrid ).
A Mediterranean climate region extends from the Andalusian plain along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the mountain ranges that run near the coast (largest city, Barcelona ). They get warm winds from the Saharas called Leveche , also known as Sirocco.
An Oceanic climate in Galicia and the coastal strip near the Bay of Biscay or (largest city,) Bilbao. This area is often called Green Spain .
A Subtropical climate in Canary Islands is a very humid place and the islands have palm trees and beaches.
Fauna and flora
Because of its wide variety of climate, Spain has a greater variety of natural vegetation than any other European country; some 8,000 species are cataloged. Nevertheless, vegetation is generally sparse. In the humid areas of the north there are deciduous trees (including oak, chestnut, elm, beech, and poplar), as well as varieties of pine. Pine, juniper, and other evergreens, particularly the ilex and cork oak, and drought-resistant shrubs predominate in the dry southern region. Much of the Meseta and of Andalucía has steppe vegetation. The Canaries, named for the wild dogs ( canariae insulae ) once found there, support both Mediterranean and African flora. A small, yellow-tinged finch on the islands has given the name "canary" to a variety of yellow songbirds widely bred as house pets. Animal life in Spain is limited by the pressure of population and few wild species remain.
Education in Spain and its system is known as LOGSE for Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo , or the Law on General Education. State education in Spain is free and compulsory education lasts from ages 6 to 16 years of age.
Below Higher Education the system can be seen as consisting of four levels:
Pre-school ( Educación Infantil , segundo ciclo) - 3 to 5 years of age
Primary School ( Educación Primaria ) six years of schooling - 6 to 11 years of age
Compulsory Secondary Education ( Educación Secundaria Obligatoria ) four years of schooling - 12 to 15 years of age
Post-Compulsory Schooling ( Bachillerato ) two years of schooling - 16 to 17 years of age
History Spain, originally inhabited by Celts, Iberians, and Basques, became a part of the Roman Empire in 206 B.C., when it was conquered by Scipio Africanus. In A.D. 412, the barbarian Visigothic leader Ataulf crossed the Pyrenees and ruled Spain, first in the name of the Roman emperor and then independently. In 711, the Muslims under Tariq entered Spain from Africa and within a few years completed the subjugation of the country. In 732, the Franks, led by Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims near Poitiers, thus preventing the further expansion of Islam in southern Europe. Internal dissension of Spanish Islam invited a steady Christian conquest from the north.
Important people 1
1. José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero The Spanish prime minister was born in 1960 in León. By 1986 he was the youngest representative of the Parliament. Against all issues, he defeated José Bono in the elections to be lider of his party, the Spanish Socialist Party (progressive party). With a political position that he defined as "the easy going change", some sectors of the left criticized him for considering it soft. Nevertheless his popularity grew thanks to his position against the war in Iraq. In March 2004 he gained the general elections, Which were celebrated three days after the terrorist attacks in Madrid .
Important people 2
Pedro Solbes He is one of the independent members of the progressive government, he is in charge of the Economy Minister, also other departments depend on him, such as Labour or Environment. He was also a minister in the government of Felipe González. His biggest challenge is to carry out apolitic economy that would attend all the social demands without leaving a side the economic growth of the conservative phase.
Monuments and historical sites
The Great Mosque of Cordoba, a universal gem The Great Mosque, universal symbol of Moorish heritage in Spain, and one of history's most extraordinary works of art, awaits you in Cordoba. Come and admire this architectural jewel - a unique space made up of forms, light, columns and colours, where you will feel all the splendour of ancient Al-Andalus.
A tour of the Royal Palace of Madrid Few European royal residences still show the splendour of Madrid’s Royal Palace. Its majestic rooms contain important artistic treasures and continue to witness historic events. Magnificent and resplendent, this official residence of the King and Queen of Spain rises in the heart of the nation’s capital on an exceptional spot offering extraordinary views of the mountains of Madrid. You do not have to be a prince to enjoy them.
Customs and traditions
The Spanish people are very traditional. Old-age traditions like flamenco dancing and bullfighting are still very relevant today. There are bullfighting arenas in most Spanish cities and flamenco shows on almost every night of the week. Traditional winemaking methods, dating back centuries, are still used today. Traditional Spanish recipes are used to create most of vast variety of food that you´ll find served in the restaurants . The Spanish love to celebrate and have fun and take every opportunity to do so. You´ll find a huge list of fiestas (parties) taking place all throughout the year. Locals from the villages, towns and cities dress up in traditional costumes and celebrate till the early hours. There´s a fantastic range of food, wine, sangria and beer available on every corner. Spain was once a great empire. It had numerous colonies throughout the world and the language is still spoken in many nations today. It was considered an underdeveloped country right up until the mid-1900´s. During this period a rapid economic development began to take place. Nowadays, Spain is a prosperous nation with a well developed economy based on the tourism, services and manufacturing industries. It joined the EU in 1986. In the past it was mainly elderly people who retired here. Nowadays more and more young people are escaping the rat-race and moving here permanently. The Spanish way of life has so much more to offer; friendly people, excellent climate , spectacular scenery and a very laid back, easy-going lifestyle.
Hobbies and Music
The most common instrument in traditional Spanish music is the castanets, which are held in the hand and clicked together. Other percussion instruments include bells, such as cowbells, in a variety of different sizes. Tambourines and several types of drum are used, which are referred to by the non-specific term tambor (tam-BOR). The most popular fretted instrument is the guitar, which is found in all regions. Smaller guitars, with fewer strings, are used in ensembles and are strummed, not plucked. One of these, called the guitarro (geh-TAHR-roh), has 12 strings.
A good number of dishes and recipes can be named which can be considered typical of Madrid. Among them, the Cocido Madrileńo must be mentioned; a stew combining chickpeas with vegetables (cabbage, celery, carrots, turnips and potatoes) and chicken, beef and pork and which is turned into a huge succulent meal. Callos or tripe is another of the typical dishes identified with local cuisine and may be found in some of the well-known restaurants in Madrid. We must not neglect the humble and savoury Sopa de Ajo (garlic soup), Caracoles (snails), Tortilla de patatas (potato omelette), the famous recipe of Besugo al horno (baked bream), so typical in the capital in spite of its distance from the ocean, or dishes in which bacalao (cod) is the main ingredient. Madrid's sweet tradition can be appreciated through its dessert; from torrijas (a type of French toast), typical in the springtime and likened to Holy Week, to the barquillos (rolled wafers), bartolillos con crema (a type of small pie with custard) the buńuelos (a type of fritter filled with custard whipped cream, etc.) in November, the mazapán (marzipan) and turrón (soft and hard nougat) at Christmas and the rosquillas de anís (anise-flavored doughnuts) during the festival of San Isidro. In Madrid, as well as in the rest of Spain, the tapa (savoury titbits of a variety of dishes served as appetisers) is an old gastronomic tradition. You can find numerous establishments specialised in serving these tapas. "Ir de tapeo" (going out for tapas) is a tradition; hundreds of bars scattered throughout the streets of Madrid serve a tapa accompanied by a small glass of wine or beer.
Not surprisingly, swimming ( natación ) is a favourite sport and pastime in Spain, with its glorious weather, 2,000km (1,240mi) of beache s ( playas ), and a profusion of swimming pools ( piscinas ).
The beach season in Spain lasts from around Easter to October .
Spanish beaches, almost all of which are public, vary considerably in size, surface and amenities. Surfaces include white, grey, black (in the Canaries) and even red (fine and coarse) sand, shingles, pebbles and stones. Beaches are generally kept clean all year round .
Sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Basketball , tennis , cycling , handball , motorcycling and, lately, Formula 1 are also important due to presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports power, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona and promoted a great variety of sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing .
Famous sportman/woman 1
Barcelona and Madrid are the two most important clubs in Spain, and they have always been huge rivals. This Spanish football player is called by his fans the Angel of Madrid, or simply Raúl. Born in the city's suburb Marconi de San Cristóbal de los Ángeles, he devoted his talent to the capital of Spain as well as to the national team. Beginning in 1990, he played in two local youth teams, only to join Real Madrid in 1994. He made a successful debut in October 1996, in an international match between Spain and the Czech Republic. With Real, he won the UEFA Champions League three times – in 1998, 2000 and 2002. In 2002, he was chosen to be the captain of Real Madrid and the national team. His skills have been analysed, acclaimed and criticised by the media throughout his sport career. Raúl is married to a Spanish model, Mamen Sanz, and they have four sons. He has a habit of kissing his wedding ring every time he scores a goal.
Famous sportman/woman 2
Coached by Xavier Budo and Marc Casabo at the Pro-Ab Team Tennis Academy in Barcelona
Father's name is José Luís (plays handball); mother's name is Lali (was gymnast, now a teacher); has one brother, José Suárez Navarro
Began playing at age 9 when mother encouraged her to start
Began working with Spanish Federation in 2005; moved from Canary Islands to Barcelona in June 2007 to train at Pro-Ab Team Tennis Academy
Favorite surface is clay; favorite shot is crosscourt backhand
Favorite move is Pearl Harbor; favorite actress is Sandra Bullock
Favorite type of music is pop; favorite singer is Luis Fonsi
Admires Steffi Graf, Lleyton Hewitt, Justine Henin and Michael Jordan