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Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Older Adult - Chapter 22

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Older Adult - Chapter 22



Aging ...

Chronological aging
Number of years a person has lived
Biological aging
Changes in anatomy and physiology that affect all body systems and occurs over time
Social aging
Social habits and roles with respect to culture
Psychological aging
Interchanges between the person and the psychological or social environments



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    Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Older Adult - Chapter 22 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Older Adult - Chapter 22 Presentation Transcript

    • Health Promotion and DiseasePrevention in the Older AdultChapter 22
    • Healthy Aging• Health– “A state of completephysical, mental, andsocial well-being and notmerely the absence ofdisease or infirmity”© Rohit Seth/Dreamstime.com
    • Healthy Aging• Aging– Chronological aging• Number of years a person has lived– Biological aging• Changes in anatomy and physiology that affectall body systems and occurs over time– Social aging• Social habits and roles with respect to culture– Psychological aging• Interchanges between the person and thepsychological or social environments
    • Pathological Aging• Unhealthy or “disease” state• Consider all individuals along the continuumof aging
    • Health Promotion Versus DiseasePrevention• To achieve optimal level of wellness– Incorporates the spiritual, social, emotional,intellectual, and physical dimensions to obtainingquality of life• Health Promotion– Actions that are deliberately taken with the intentof moving an individual to a higher level ofwellness
    • Health Promotion Versus DiseasePrevention• Disease Prevention– Those activities that an individual deliberatelytakes part in to prevent illness or disease
    • Frailty and Disability inPathological Aging• Frailty– “Multidimensional syndrome of loss of reservesthat gives rise to vulnerability”• Disability– A decline in physical ability or mental capacity tothe extent that the individual cannot perform theusual activities of daily living without greatdifficulty
    • Factors that Influence Quality of Life
    • Quality of Life• Encompasses many dimensions– Physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual• Health-related quality of life– A person or group’s perceived physical and mentalhealth over time– Can identify subgroups with poor physical ormental health and can help guide policies orinterventions to improve their health
    • Successful Aging as the Product ofHealth Promotion and DiseasePrevention• Consider successful aging to be the product ofeffective health promotion activities coupledwith evidence-based disease preventionstrategies aimed at the promotion of optimallevels of health and well-being.
    • Heart Disease• Conditions affecting the heart– Hypertension– Coronary artery disease– Myocardial infarction– Heart failure• Risk factors– Modifiable– Nonmodifiable
    • Heart Disease• Health Promotion and Disease Prevention inHeart Disease– Primary prevention activities– Secondary prevention– Tertiary prevention• Cholesterol and Dietary Fat– Hypercholesterolemia
    • Heart Disease• Exercise– Accumulate at least 30minutes of exercise onmost, but preferably all,days of the week• Smoking Cessation– If necessary, encourageolder adult to quit© Noam Armonn/Dreamstime.com
    • Diabetes• A disorder resulting from deficiency of orresistance to the hormone insulin• A generalized disorder of carbohydrate, fat, andprotein metabolism• Can results in vascular complications• Primary prevention– Maintain a healthy weight and engage in regularphysical activity• Secondary prevention– Screening for diabetes
    • Diabetes• Diabetes and Exercise– Exercise improves insulin sensitivity– Aerobic activity, weight lifting or progressiveresistance training
    • Pulmonary Disease• Diseases that affect the lungs– Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease• Most common pulmonary disorder• Cigarette smoking is the single most importantrisk factor for development of COPD• COPD in nonsmokers
    • Pulmonary Disease• Nutritional interventions– Nutrition Screening Initiative (2002)– Pharmacologic interventions• Smoking Cessation– Considered one of the most essential parts oftherapy in the treatment of COPD– Appropriate nutritional counseling• Weight Control– Malnutrition
    • Osteoporosis• Nutritional Intervention in Patients withOsteoporosis– Primary prevention begins in childhood andadolescence• Adequate diet• Regular activity– Recommendations for older adults• 1,000 - 1,200 mg of calcium per day• 200 to 400 IU of Vitamin D• Adequate sunlight exposure
    • Osteoporosis• Weight-Bearing Exercise– Walking, mild-to moderate-impact aerobics, andresistance exercise– Regular exercise• Increases muscle mass and strength• Improves balance and coordination• Has been shown to reduce the risk of falls infrail elderly persons
    • Drugs That May Worsen Osteoporosis• Many medications used to treat other chronicconditions may worsen osteoporosis– Steroids– Anticonvulsants– Some antineoplastic agents
    • Obesity• A public health epidemic• Obesity-related disability is of greater concernthan obesity-related death in older adults• Responsible for billions of dollars in directcosts to the U. S. health care system
    • Obesity• Obesity and Diet– Overall number of calories required decreaseswith age• Obesity and Exercise– Exercise is essential to weight loss and to the long-term maintenance of weight loss
    • Nutritional Products and DietarySupplements• Appropriate use of alternative nutritiontherapies and nutritional supplementation• Complementary and Alternative Medicine– It is likely that many older adults are taking sometype of nontraditional supplementation– Caution interactions with other medications
    • Food Safety• Older adults at risk of foodborne illnesses– Comorbidities– Immunosenescence• Potential hazards to food safety– Biological hazards from bacteria and othermicroorganisms– Chemical hazards– Physical hazards
    • Food Safety• Biological Hazards– Viruses• Unable to replicate independently, require ahost (food)–Transmitted via poor food handling–Biological threats»Time-temperature»Cross-contamination»Poor personal hygiene by food handlers
    • Food Safety• Preventing Foodborne Illness– Food Handling and Preparation• Hand washing!– Food Storage• Hot food should be kept hot• Cold food should be kept cold• “Danger zone”–Temperature between 40 and 140 degrees F
    • Food Safety• Preventing Foodborne Illness– Food Storage• Refrigerate or freeze perishables within twohours of purchase or preparation• Marinate food in refrigerator• Cook to appropriate internal temperature
    • Specific Strategies for DiseasePrevention and Health Promotion• American Diabetes Association– Careful attention given to reduce the likelihood ofmedical consequences of diabetes– Recommendations for choosing healthy foods andrecipes and exercise guidelines• National Cancer Institute and the AmericanInstitutes for Cancer Research– Guidelines generated toward cancer prevention– Consistent with the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines forAmericans
    • Specific Strategies for DiseasePrevention and Health Promotion• American Heart Association– Use at least as many calories as you take in– Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the foodgroups– Eat fewer nutrient-poor foods– Do not smoke tobacco, and stay away fromtobacco smoke
    • Specific Strategies for DiseasePrevention and Health Promotion• National Cholesterol Education Program byNHLBI– Reduce the risk of illness and death from coronaryheart disease by reducing the percentage ofAmericans with high blood cholesterol• Exercise Guidelines– Effective method for minimizing the functionaldeclines commonly associated with aging
    • Specific Strategies for DiseasePrevention and Health Promotion• Medical Nutrition Therapy– To prevent or reduce complications fromconditions that can be modifiable• Initial assessment of nutrition and lifestyle• Nutritional counseling• Information regarding managing lifestylefactors that affect diet• Follow-up visit to monitor progress of diet
    • Specific Strategies for DiseasePrevention and Health Promotion• Other Nutritional Interventions– State and local governments as well as privatesources provide a large number of programs andresources.
    • Conclusion• A nutritionist is part of the health care teamresponsible for assessing and implementingthose activities aimed at health promotionand disease prevention.