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Aging and Cardiovascular Problems - Chapter 8
 

Aging and Cardiovascular Problems - Chapter 8

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) ...

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Disease of the blood vessels of the heart
Heart failure
The end stage of CVD
Atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis
Accumulation of fatty materials that line the blood vessels
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Leading cause of death in the U.S.

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    Aging and Cardiovascular Problems - Chapter 8 Aging and Cardiovascular Problems - Chapter 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Aging and CardiovascularProblemsChapter 8
    • Introduction• Cardiovascular disease (CVD)– Disease of the blood vessels of the heart• Heart failure– The end stage of CVD• Atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis– Accumulation of fatty materials that line the bloodvessels• Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease– Leading cause of death in the U.S.
    • Nutrition Epidemiologyof Heart Disease
    • Recommended Foods to MaintainHealthy Heart (from Table 8-2)• Swiss chard• Herbs• Nonfat/low-fat yogurt• Extra-virgin olive oil• Almonds• Salt• Carrots• Barley• Cayenne chili• Broccoli• Pork, lean• Oranges• Salmon• Black beans• Dried cherries
    • Research on Heart DiseasePrevention Through Diet• 2007 American Heart Association Guidelines– Manage blood pressure– Stop smoking– Lose weight– Reduce saturated fat intake– Increase omega-3 fatty acid intake– Do not take hormone replacement for preventionof heart disease
    • Research on Heart DiseasePrevention Through Diet• 2007 American Heart Association Guidelines(cont.)– Do not use antioxidant supplements forprevention of heart disease– Do not use folic acid for prevention of heartdisease– Consider routine low-dose aspirin in women 65and older (325 mg/day)– Consider lowering LDL-c to less than 70 mg/dL
    • Research on Heart DiseasePrevention Through Diet• Flavonoids and Cardiovascular disease– Inverse relationship between food rich inflavonoids and CVD and mortality
    • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
    • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease• Heart disease is leading cause of death forwomen– Greater incidence of ischemic heart disease– Coronary artery disease– Hypertension in older women
    • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease• National programsto help inspirewomen to takeaction to reducetheir risk for heartdiseaseNational Institute on Aging/NationalInstitutes of Health, 2008
    • Hypertension• Prevalence in older adults in U.S.– 50% to 70%• Major risk factor for– Stroke– Coronary artery disease– Heart attack– Heart failure
    • Hypertension• Diastolic hypertension– Occurs most often in those middle-aged and older– The second number in blood pressure reading• 130/90 mm Hg• Systolic hypertension– Most common in older adults– The first number in blood pressure reading• 140/70 mm Hg
    • HypertensionNational Institute on Aging/NationalInstitutes of Health, 2008
    • Hypertension• Prehypertension– More likely to• Have above normal cholesterol levels• Be overweight or obese• Have diabetes• Gender and Ethnic Factors for Hypertension– Varies with age
    • Hypertension• Dietary Factors and Hypertension– Reducing sodium intake lowered BP inhypertensive subjects– DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)Diet– Low potassium stores and ratio of potassium tosodium may cause hypertension– Protein recommendations– Whole-grain intake associated with reduced riskof hypertension
    • Tobacco• Smokers are two to four times more likely todevelop coronary heart disease thannonsmokers
    • Exercise• Physical activity declines with age© Gualberto Becerra/ShutterStock, Inc.
    • Dyslipidemias• Reduce cholesterol levels• Dyslipidemias lead to atherosclerosis– Increase risk of MI and strokeInsel P, Turner RE, Ross D. Nutrition. 3rded. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett; 2007, p.405. Reproduced with permission.
    • Dyslipidemias
    • Cholesterol• Cholesterol-lowering diet is initial therapy fordyslipidemias– Cholesterol under 160 is marker for malnutrition
    • Low Density Lipoprotein• The “bad” cholesterol• Improve serum levels with diet or medications
    • Low Density Lipoproteins
    • High Density Lipoprotein• The “good” cholesterol• Improve serum levels with lifestyle changesand diet– Red wine– Polyphenols (berries)– Mono and polyunsaturated fat– Stop smoking– Exercise– Lose weight if needed
    • Triglycerides• Chemical form of fat that exists in food and inblood plasma• Forms blood plasma lipids• Hypertriglyceridemia is linked to heart disease– Management: weight loss, cutting calories,reducing saturated fat, reducing alcoholconsumption, eating low fat dairy products, eatinghigh omega 3 fatty acid foods, medications
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Arrhythmias– Irregular heartbeats– Atrial fibrillation• Thrombi may form and cause a stroke• Many causes• Treatment with medications–Warfarin interacts adversely with manymedications and foods
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)– Atherosclerosis– Risk factors and management same as for CADNational Institute of Aging, National Heart,Blood and Lung Institute, 2008.
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Myocardial Infarction
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Myocardial Infarction– Caused by the sudden rupture or erosion ofplaque in blood vessel lining– Heart is deprived of oxygen-rich blood– Management: urgent care
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Heart Failure (HF)– End stage of cardiac disease– Heart is unable to deliver a sufficient blood supplyto meet the body’s needs– Systolic or diastolic dysfunction– “Left-sided failure” or “Right-sided failure”– Risk factors and predictors among women withCHD include diabetes
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Heart Failure– Assessment• Signs and symptoms of heart failure (table 8-10)
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Heart Failure– Management• Weekly weight–Assessing fluid-volume overload• Medication• Sodium management• Stop or limit alcohol intake• Measure serum potassium and magnesium
    • Other Cardiovascular Diseases• Anorexia of Cardiac Disease– Weight loss in late-stage heart failure– Some medications used to manage heart diseasesuppress appetite– Preserve the pleasure of eating and quality of life
    • Conclusion• Good nutrition is vital– Can prevent heart disease to a great extent– Every adult with CV problems should have adietary evaluation by a health professional