Oral Health and Smell and Taste Problems in Older Adults - Chapter 6
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Oral Health and Smell and Taste Problems in Older Adults - Chapter 6

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Changes in olfactory nerves and receptors

Changes in olfactory nerves and receptors
Poor chewing and swallowing
Declining sensitivity
Medical conditions
Medication
Nicotine
Caffeine
Alcohol

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Oral Health and Smell and Taste Problems in Older Adults - Chapter 6 Oral Health and Smell and Taste Problems in Older Adults - Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • Oral Health and Smell and TasteProblems in Older AdultsChapter 6
  • Age-Related Changes to Oral Cavity• Changes in olfactory nerves and receptors• Poor chewing and swallowing• Declining sensitivity• Medical conditions• Medication• Nicotine• Caffeine• Alcohol
  • Oral Cavity• Oral and Pharyngeal cancers– Survival rate = 50%– Risk factors• Age• Male• Smoking or smokeless tobacco• Drinking alcohol• Sunlight exposure (lips)• Diet low in fruits and vegetables• HPV– Infectious diseases
  • Oral Cavity• Anatomy of the Oral CavitySource: Insel, P, Turner, RE, Ross D. Discovering Nutrition. 2nded. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2006, p 117.
  • Oral Cavity• TongueSource: NIH SeniorHealth. Problems with taste.July 2005. Available at:http://nihseniorhealth.gov/problemswithtaste/toc.html.Accessed February 13, 2007.Source: Chernoff, R. Geriatric Nutrition. 3rded. Sudbury, MA:Jones and Bartlett; 2006, p. 119.
  • Tongue• Physiologic role– Trigger reflex– Enhances pleasure and satiety– Distinguishes nutrients• Taste dysfunction– May alter food choices and patterns
  • Problems of the Tongue• Appearance may indicate nutrition problems– Dehydration– Hypothyroidism– Malnutrition– Black hairy tongue– Geographic red tongue
  • Salivary dysfunction(dry mouth)• Xerostomia or hyposalivation– Caused by medication use• Three pair of salivary glands– Protect tissues– Maintain speech– Chewing and swallowing– Taste perception– Neutralize bacterial acid
  • Salivary dysfunction(dry mouth)• Causes of dry mouth– Some chronic illnesses– Depression– Stress– Dehydration• Often cannot be cured• Treatment options– Gene therapy to manage this disorder
  • Dental and Gingival problems• Periodontal disease– Gingivitis– PeriodontitisSource: NIH SeniorHealth. Problems with taste.July 2005. Available at:http://nihseniorhealth.gov/problemswithtaste/toc.html.Accessed February 13, 2007.
  • Dental and Gingival problems• Dental caries– If abscess goes untreated may cause infections inany part of the body• Increase risk of MI and stroke• Dentures– Potential problems with food intake
  • Chemosensory Perception• Taste perception and olfaction decline– Cells regularly replaced throughout lifespan– Pharmaceutical agents– Pathophysiologic problems and diseases
  • Taste• True tastants– Salt– Sugar– Sour– Bitter– Umami• Ageusia and hypogeusia• A function of multiple nerves in the tongue
  • Taste• Cause of impaired taste– Damage to taste buds– Damage to hippocampus of the brain– Nutrition deficiencies– Damage to nerves– Chemotherapy treatments– Loss of third molar– Metallic taste caused by medication use– Persistent salty taste– Loss of salivary gland function
  • Taste• Renewal of taste bud cells– Turnover ~ 10 ½ days– Pronounced by age 70– Slower renewal• Menopause• Protein and zinc shortages
  • Smell• Loss of smell– Risk factors– Olfactory receptors are continually renewed• 30 – 120 days– Caranial nerve 1 carries odors• Nostrils• Nasopharynx
  • Smell• Causes of smell loss– Upper respiratory infection– Head trauma– Rapid head movement– Rhinosinusitis– Exposure to toxic agents– Neurologic diseases
  • Smell• Degree of smell loss– Hyposmia– Parosmia– Cacosmia– Anosmia
  • Flavor• Taste, smell, appearance, temperature,texture, sound, and feel in the mouth• Perception impaired in older adults
  • Causes of Chemosensory Losses inOlder Adults• Sense of smell depends on one nerve• Receptors are lodged in a small sinus region– Directly exposed to environmental toxins andagents• Full sense of smell depends on adequatechewing
  • Causes of Chemosensory Losses inOlder Adults• Impairments of taste and smell caused by– Age-related factors– Medical conditions– Medical treatments (radiation, etc.)– Medication use
  • Ingredients that Enhance Flavor andSensory Enjoyment• Extracts to amplify flavor– Strongly flavored foods and ingredients– Concentrated fruit sauces and jams– Sour– Herbs and Spices– Dry Rubs– Sugar– Fat– Monosodium Glutamate– Wine
  • Techniques That Enhance Flavor andSensory Enjoyment• Foods must appeal to all senses– Visual appeal– Sounds that they produce
  • Techniques That Enhance Flavor andSensory Enjoyment• Choose high-quality foods• Focus on appearance• Arouse hunger• Activate smell memory• Contrast texture, size, and shape• Vary temperature• Liberalize diet• Encourage good mastication
  • Applications of Flavor Enhancement• Home and Institutional Menus• Restaurant Menus• Hispanic-Inspired and High-Flavor Cuisine• Appetizers as Entrees
  • Conclusion“No food is nutritious unless it is consumed andlittle food is consumed unless it tastes good.”“Sensory enhancement of food for older adultsmakes good sense.”