“The words are all tangled upinside my head. I’m confused. I get tangled up in writing the words and I stop.” Fifth-grade girl with learning disabilities.
So, Let’s Talk• How were you taught to write?• How is it going with your students?
Most of Us WereTaught to Write… • Write • Read • Speak • Listen
Today, Students are Taught to Write… • Listen • Speak • Read • Write
Writing is Complex• Background knowledge• Oral language• Attention and motivation• Many skills involved
What Do Students Need? • Help with ideas • Talk first, before writing • Make it hands-on • Explicit instruction • Provide strategies
Create an Experience to Write About • Read a story or chapter • Watch a video clip • Go on a field trip
Get ‘em Talking! • With you • In pairs • In groups
Beginning Sentences • Start with pictures of nouns • Add action verbs • Make simple sentences • Just begin by talking • Give students words
Beginning Sentences, cont. • Make it concrete • Start with pictures of nouns • Add action verbs • Make simple sentences
Teaching Sentences• A sentence is a complete thought that starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. It also makes sense.• A statement sentence tells about something.• A question sentence needs an answer. It starts with a capital letter and ends with a question mark.
Sequence for Teaching Sentences• A word that names a person, place, or thing is called a noun.• A word that tells about an action is called a verb.• A small word called an article may be placed before a noun to make a longer sentence (the, a, an, some, etc.)
Sentence Sequence• A word that describes a noun is called an adjective.• A word that tells how an action is done is called an adverb.• A word that may be used to take the place of a noun is called a pronoun.
Teaching Sentences, cont.• Teach two part sentences• Teach three part sentences• Expand sentences and sentence variety• Work on word choice• Combine sentences• Work on paragraphs
Students Can Be Creative While Learning Skills• Students need explicit, direct instruction at each step of the writing process• Skills need to be taught and allowed to practice first separately and then together so that students can write with success and confidence
Teach Students Two-Part Sentences Noun Verb(Who/What) (Action) The eagle stared.
Teach Students Three-Part Sentences Noun Verb Details (Who/What) (Action) (Finish your thought) The eagle stared intently.
Two Part Sentence Noun Action Verb (past tense) girl lookedsomeone’s danced daughter
Ask Students… • To fold a piece of paper burrito style to make 3 distinct columns Noun Verb Details Who or What Action Finish your thought The girl danced with the crowd.Someone’s daughter swayed to the music
Ask: How, When, & Where• How did the girl dance? – Beautifully and gracefully• When did the celebration begin? – During a holiday• Where did this take place? – In the town’s plaza (Ask students to write how, when, and where phrases on separate paper strips – small sticky notes, if possible)
Masterpiece Sentences• Prepare your canvas• Paint your verb• Move the verb painters• Paint your noun• Paint your words• Finishing touches
To Generalize...• Create an experience to write about• Have students talk first• Be concrete and hands on• Give students words to use (teach vocabulary)• Arrange for students to work in pairs and groups• Combine fun with structure
Steps in a Summary Paragraph• Three part summary topic sentence• Make a quick list• Write your paragraph
Writing Summaries• A summary is a shortened, condensed version.• The purpose of a summary is to share the main ideas.
Step 1Write a topic sentence using the three- part topic sentence method (the burrito fold)Identify the Item Select a verb Finish Your ThoughtChapter 2 in tells about theour Science four seasons book
The Three-Part Summary Topic Sentence Identity Verb Finish your thought a number ofPainless Public provides practical hints for Speaking, by people who areSharon Bower afraid of speaking in front of a group. The movie entertains the audience with a Forest Gump great story and quick review of history
Guided Practice for the Four-Step Summary Identify Verb Finish Your ThoughtThe movie tells about wizards Harry and magicPotter and theChamber of Secrets
Guided Practice for the Four-Step Summary Identify Verb Finish Your ThoughtThe movie entices the viewer with a Harry mixture of fantasyPotter and and adventure theChamber of Secrets
Step 1 Write a topic sentence using the three- part topic sentence method (the burrito fold) Identify the Item Select a verb Finish Your Thought Chapter two ofThe Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain
Verb Reference List for Summaries List A: A good place to startTells Explains ComparesLists Shows Defines
Verb Reference List for Summaries List B: Try Theseacknowledges evaluates classifies adds defends asserts features depicts identifies entertains confirms names considers offers judges contrasts praises demonstrates provides recommends endorses asks suggests entices
Step 1 Write a topic sentence using the three- part topic sentence method (the burrito fold) Identify the Item Select a verb Finish Your Thought Chapter two of demonstrates how Tom gotThe Adventures of others to do his Tom Sawyer work for him by Mark Twain
Step 2Make a Short Outline of 3-5 Phrases• Whitewash fence as punishment• Plan to make the whitewashing look fun• Buddies come by and beg for a turn• Work gets done with no effort by Tom
Step 3 Identify the item Select a verb Finish your thought Chapter two of demonstrates how Tom gotThe Adventures of others to do his Tom Sawyer work for him by Mark Twain -
Step 4Chapter two of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer byMark Twain describes how Tom got others to do hiswork for him. Because he played hooky from school,Aunt Polly punishes Tom by having him whitewash thefence on Saturday. Tom, instead of making thewhitewashing look like a chore, makes it appear to bea fun activity of his choosing. As his buddies come by,they beg to have a turn at this delightful activity, oftenpaying for the opportunity. By the end of the day, notonly was Tom’s chore done by others, they paid himfor the pleasure of doing it.
Everyone Can Learn• Everyone can write clear, concise, and organized paragraphs if they are provided with: • Direct instructions • Step-by-step guidelines • Examples • Multiple opportunities to respond and practice, and • Specific feedback Maureen Auman
Review Steps• Three part summary topic sentence• Make a quick list – write the facts• Write your paragraph
What Do Students Need? • Help with ideas • Talk first • Make it hands-on • Explicit instruction • Provide strategies