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  1. 1. Using Learning Styles toSupport Struggling Learners30th National Conference on the Training &Employment of ParaprofessionalsMarch 1-3, 2012San Antonio, TXLudmila Battista, MAKaplan University
  2. 2. Agenda• Welcome/Introduction• What is Learning Style/MI Theory?• Strategies for Application• Breakout Sessions• Title I Overview• Conclusion
  3. 3. Welcome!Ludmila Battista, MALBattista@Kaplan.eduFull Time Faculty,College of Arts & SciencesEducational Studies Dept.Kaplan University•
  4. 4. Learning Style Theory & MI TheoryAssessing prior knowledgeWhat do YOUknow about LSand MI Theory?
  5. 5. Getting to knowParaprofessional you… State/School District RepUniversity Professor/Administrator Other?Kinesthetic &Auditory Learners•Name, where are you from?•Your position/background•Knowledge of LS and MI Theory (0-3)
  6. 6. Learning Style TheoryNeil Fleming VAK/VARK (1987) - Visual (Symbolic/Graphic) - Auditory - Read/Write - Kinesthetic *Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Multi-modal *Kolb/McCarthy Learning Cycles *many others!Controversy-what does the research say?•Increased demands on teachers•Children can learn through non-preferential LS•Benefits of using variety of LS in instruction•Benefits of knowing your own LS preferences
  7. 7. Your Turn! Take the VARK Questionnaire16 MC QuestionsSelect one preference for each
  8. 8. Scoring the VARKFor each question, write the letter (V, A, R, or K) thatgoes with the choice you selected.Count the number of each (V, A, R, K) that you selectedand tally on the last page of the survey.What is your highest score?
  9. 9. Visual Learning StyleSource: VARK-a guide to learning styles, Neil Fleming, 2011 at
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  12. 12. Sandwich Strategy for Writing
  13. 13. Auditory Learning Style• Class discussions• Partner/small group discussions• Debates• Explain ideas/concepts to others (teaching others)• Use of tape recorder--summarize notes/understanding• Note interesting details, examples, stories, jokes• Describe (orally) what was on visual aids• Leave spaces in notes for later recall and filling in• Read aloud (notes/assignments)• Explain notes to othersSource: VARK-a guide to learning styles, Neil Fleming, 2011 at
  14. 14. Give One Get One
  15. 15. Read/Write Learning Style• Use of printed materials (lists, headings, dictionaries• glossaries, definitions, handouts, readings, etc.)• Study by use of writing (practice responses to essay questions, summarizing materials)• Reread notes often• Rewrite ideas/key concepts in different words• Interpret visual aids in words• Practice with sample questions (MC, essay)• Write lists• Arrange words into hierarchiesSource: VARK-a guide to learning styles, Neil Fleming, 2011 at
  16. 16. Which Learning Style?
  17. 17. Kinesthetic Learning Styles• Use all senses (taste, touch, smell, vision, etc.)• Labs/experiments• field trips• Examples/demonstrations• Hands-on• Trial and error (project based learning)• collections, samples• For notes: think of concrete/relevant/real life experiences• Plenty of examples in notes (case studies, applications)• Recall experiences/role playSource VARK-a guide to learning styles, Neil Fleming, 2011 at
  18. 18. Fernauld’s VAKT method• Say it, trace it while saying it, say it again• Write it (without looking); compare• Repeat until 3X correctly
  19. 19. LS Theory in Education• Early childhood- 3rd grade: kinesthetic• Grades 4-8: Visual• Grades 9-college: auditory (lectures)• Create materials/activities to capitalize on a variety of learning styles/address individual needs• Create “helpsheets” for learners• Special Needs/SLL• Shift to more active learning (away from the "empty vessel" approach)• Respond to diversity• Reinvigorate your teaching
  20. 20. Multiple Intelligence Theory•Verbal- Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart”)•Logical-Mathematical (“number/reasoning smart”)•Visual-Spatial (“picture smart”)•Bodily Kinesthetic (“body smart”)•Musical•Interpersonal (“people smart”)•Intrapersonal (“self smart”)•Naturalistic (“nature smart”)•Spiritual/ExistentialHoward Gardner, 1983Source:
  21. 21. Verbal Linguistic Intelligence• Read it• •Prepare a report Spell It •Write a play or essay• Write it •Compose a poem• Listen to it •Listen to audio/watch• Tell it video• Say it •Interview •Label a diagram• Use mnemonics •Presentations/case• Chunk information studies• Recall/summarizeThink Abraham Lincoln, Maya Angelou, Shakespeare
  22. 22. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence• Make a pattern• Chart it •Describe a sequence• Sequence it or a process• Create a mnemonic •Develop a rationale• Analyze it •Classify, rank,• Abstract thinking compare •Interpret evidence• Use numbers •Study math formulas• Prove it •Abstract analysis• Data/STatistics •Use of computersThink Bill Gates and Albert Einstein!
  23. 23. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence• Role Play• •Construct a model Walkabout •Put on a play/skit• Dance/lip sync •Work on a project• Skits/charades (hands-on)• Construction/projects •Use materials• Math manipulatives •Simulations• Sign language• Sports• Activity CentersThink Michael Jackson, Baryshnikov, Michael Phelps
  24. 24. Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence• Sing it• •Make connections to Create a beat music/percussion• Rap it •Write poems/songs on• Make a cheer/jingle topic• Hum it• Identify sounds• Use Music• PoetryThink Beethoven, Kanye West, John Williams
  25. 25. Visual Spatial Intelligence• Mind maps• Graphic organizers • Draw a picture• Video • Create a mural or• Color display • Illustrate an event coding/highlighting • Make a diagram• Shape a word • Create a cartoon• Read a chart/study • Paint/design a poster illustrations • Use color• Visualize it • Computer graphicsThink graphic artists, designers, architects
  26. 26. Interpersonal Intelligence• Think/Pair/Share• Jigsaw• Cooperative Groups •Partners/Groupwork• Drama/Debates •Come to conclusions •Solve problems together• Role Play •Survey/interview others• Peer Counseling •Dialogue• Tutors/buddies •Presentations/group• Sharing feedback leaders• Shared journalsThink Martin Luther King, Jr., Gandhi, FranklinRoosevelt
  27. 27. Intrapersonal Intelligence• Think about and •Use self-talk plan •Work independently• Write in journal •Solve in your own way• Review/visualize •Understand self/make personal connections• Make a connection •Have ownership with past •Relate to own experiences/informa goals/challenges tion• Metacognitive momentsThink Socrates, Jesus, Buddha
  28. 28. Naturalistic Intelligence• Interest in plants, animals, rocks, etc.• Label it •Discovery learning• Categorize it •Ideas/connections from• Identify it nature• Form a hypothesis •Examine materials to• Experiment make generalizations •Outdoor activities• Adapt/Classify it •Environmental• Investigate it connectionsThink Charles Darwin, Steve Irwin
  29. 29. Breakout Sessions – Apply what you’ve learned Topics Learning Styles •Visual•Word problems •Auditory•Letters •Reading/Thinking •Kinesthetic•Voyage of Columbus•Writing a formal letter Multiple Intelligence Areas •Verbal-Linguistic•Playing a sport •Logical-Mathematical •Bodily-Kinesthetic•The solar system •Musical-Rhythmic•Counting money •Visual-Spatial •Interpersonal Show 3 ways •Intrapersonal •Naturalistic
  30. 30. Title I Overview• Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) aka No Child Left Behind Act (2001)• Additional financial/instructional support for disadvantaged students• Reading, Writing Math Skills• Whole school, or aspects within the school• Eligible students can be identified through assessments• NCLB states all children must be proficient by 2013-14 (NCLB)• Title I funded schools must meet AYP goals for total student population, or are classified "in need of remediation“• (school choice, tutoring, restructure school, replace school staff, state takeover)
  31. 31. ReferencesArmstrong, T. Multiple Intelligences at, D. Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Learning Styles (VAK) at, N. VARK a guide to Learning Styles at Schools. No Child Left Behind at, R. Reading Quest: Strategies for Reading Comprehension at, D. Learning and Succeeding in a Caring Environment at, H. Multiple Intelligence Overview at, P. Learning Styles at