To Be or Not To Be Intrusive Handout

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To Be or Not To Be Intrusive Handout

  1. 1. 30th NRCP Conference • San Antonio, TexasFriday March 2, 2012To Be or Not To Be Intrusive in Inclusive SettingsMary Lasater, Ed.D. Levels of Support Definitions and ExamplesLowThis support is always available but not needed on a regular basis by the student.The student would be able to function in the environment without the support, just notas successfully. Example: Casey is assigned to a general education math class, along with four other students with disabilities. The paraeducator is always in the environment and is able to support Casey when needed. Typically, Casey only requests help two or three times each week and it is usually to check his work or to clarify activity or worksheet directions.MediumThis level of support is necessary on a regular basis in order for the student to besuccessful or to learn in the environment. Example: Sharon participates in a vocational training program in the community. Each afternoon she is accompanied by the paraeducator onto the training site. The paraeducator is always available and provides verbal cues when Sharon struggles to remember the next step in the task sequence. At times, the paraeducator leaves Sharon to work independently and completes paperwork in the employee lounge.HighHigh levels of support are generally intrusive in nature. The support is absolutelynecessary for the student to learn and must be provided consistently. Thestudent could not function in the environment without the support.Example: Jim attends computer lab with his peers. Although he enjoys this class, he needs a high level of support. The paraeducator sits next to Jim and provides both physical and verbal cues. She useshand-over-hand support to help him turn on the computer, use the mouse to select the desired program and to complete the task. She provides many verbal cues to help Jim stay on task.TransitionalThe amount of support (low, medium, or high) is provided temporarily to assist astudent in gaining independence in new environments, activities, and/or acquisition ofnew concepts. Example: Marlene had never required specific support in the elementary school cafeteria where she was independent during lunch. During the first two weeks of middle school, Marlene was provided a medium level of support to transition into the middle school cafeteria where procedures, routines, communication and social skills were much more complex. After two weeks, Marlene understood the requirements and the culture of the middle school cafeteria and no longer required the additional support.Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 1mlasater1@mac.com
  2. 2. Intrusive GuidelinesYou know you’re being less intrusive when you...• use “wait time” to see if the student follows teacher directions and works independently• dignify the student by not singling him/her out in front of others when giving support with a low tone of voice and/or assisting several students at once in a group• “know” the student and give just the right amount of support - not too much/not too little• give support and the student does not react in a negative manner (embarrassed, angry or noncompliant)• “move on” to other students once the support is given• don’t give support when none is needed - but do give specific praise to any student for work done correctly• provide support with a stress on building student independence and perseverance• assist other students needing helpMary Lasater, Ed.D. 2mlasater1@mac.com
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Questioning, Verbal Cues, and Prompts Less • draw attention to the natural cues/ prompts in some intrusive way: nonverbally using gestures - or verbally in a normal tone Example: “Look, it’s time for math.” • ask a question about necessary action Example: “What do you need to take out when it’s math time?" • give an option Example: “It’s time for math, do you need take a science book or a math book?” • tell the student what action to take Example: "It’s math time, take out your math book." • tell the student and physically guide through what action to take Example: Get the math book and put it in one hand of the student and using a hand-over-hand prompt, guide the student through the process of opening the book and Most getting the remainder of the needed supplies. intrusive This activity was taken from ©Paraeducators: LifeLines in the Classroom Module 6 - Least Restrictive Environment (2006) Lasater, M., Johnson, M & Fitzgerald, M. LRP PublicationsMary Lasater, Ed.D. 3mlasater1@mac.com
  4. 4. Five reasons to concerned about 1:1 paraeducator supports in self- contained and inclusive settingsReason 1: The least qualified staff members are teaching students with the mostcomplex learning characteristics.Reason 2: Paraeducator supports are linked with inadvertent detrimental effects, suchas, separation from classmates, unnecessary dependence, interference with peerinteractions, insular relationships, feeling stigmatized, limited access to competentinstruction, interference with teacher engagement, loss of personal control, loss ofgender identify, provocation of problem behaviors.Reason 3: Individual paraeducator supports are linked with lower levels of teacherinvolvement.Reason 4: Teachers, parents, and students may not be getting what they deserve andexpect.Reason 5: Providing paraeducator support may delay attention to needed changes inschools. Source: Giangreco, M., Yuan, S., McKenzie, B., Cameron, P., & Fialka, J. (2007) “Be Careful What You Wish for…”: Five Reasons to Be Concerned About the Assignment of Individual Paraprofessionals. Teaching Exceptional Children, May/June, 2005, pp. 28 – 34Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 4mlasater1@mac.com
  5. 5. More detail on Reason 2 on inadvertent detrimental effects: Category of Effect Description Separation from Student with a disability and paraeducator are seated together Classmates in the back or side of the room, physically separated from the class. Unnecessary Student with a disability is hesitant to participate without Dependence paraeducator direction, prompting, or cueing. Interference with Paraeducator can create physical or symbolic barriers that Peer Interactions interfere with interactions between a student with disabilities and classmates. Insular Relationships Student with a disability and paraeducator do most everything together, to the exclusion of others (i.e., teachers and peers). Feeling Stigmatized Student with a disability expresses embarrassment/discomfort about having a paraeducator; makes him or her stand out in negative ways. Limited Access to Paraeducators are not necessarily skilled in providing Competent competent instruction; some do the work for the students they Instruction support. Interference with Teachers tend to be less involved when a student with a Teacher disability has a paraeducator because individual attention is Engagement already available. Loss of Personal Paraeducator does so much for the student with disabilities Control that he does not exercise choices that are typical for other students. Loss of Gender Student with a disability is treated as the gender of the Identity paraeducator (e.g., male student taken to the female restroom). May Provoke Some students with disabilities express their dislike of Problem Behaviors paraeducator support by displaying inappropriate behaviors.Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 5mlasater1@mac.com
  6. 6. Prevent Possible Negative Effects of Paraeducator Support SeparationEffect Students receiving support are separated physically from their classmates when grouped at the back or the side of the room.Remedy Whenever possible, walk to where students are seated among their classmates to provide support. Be sure to assist any student in the class, which will reduce the stigma of being different for those with special needs. Unnecessary DependenceEffect Student becomes hesitant to participate without paraeducator direction, prompting, or cueing.Remedy Use a hierarchy of cueing and prompting before immediately providing a solution. This gives the student more opportunities to think and respond independently. Interference with Peer InteractionsEffect Paraeducator creates a physical or symbolic barrier that interferes with interactions between students with disabilities and their non-disabled classmates.Remedy Avoid hovering over student(s) and move on to assist other students so that peers can interact more easily. Insular RelationshipsEffect Student and paraeducator do most everything together, to the exclusion of others (i.e., teachers and peers).Remedy Include other students whenever possible to encourage relationships between peers. Feeling StigmatizedEffect Student expresses embarrassment/discomfort about having to work with the paraeducator, which he perceives as making him stand out from others.Remedy Include other students whenever possible and move away as soon as possible to assist other students. Limited Access to Competent InstructionEffect Paraeducators are not necessarily skilled in providing competent instruction; rather, some do the work for the students they support.Remedy Direct student attention to the teacher during instruction to reinforce what has been taught. Continue to access training on needed skills for reinforcing teacher instruction. Interference with Teacher EngagementEffect Teachers tend to be less involved with a student with a disability who has a paraeducator because individual attention is already available.Remedy Continue to ask direction from the teacher regarding the role of the paraeducator in supporting the student. Encourage the teacher to model appropriate re-teaching directly with the student. Loss of Personal ControlEffect Paraeducator does so much for the student that he does not exercise choices that are typical for other students.Remedy Give the student a choice of which of the teacher-directed activities to do first. Loss of Gender IdentityEffect Student with a disability is treated as the gender of the paraeducator (e.g.,Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 6mlasater1@mac.com
  7. 7. male student taken to the female restroom).Remedy Whenever possible, assign a paraeducator of the same gender as student or elicit another teacher or peer of the same gender as the student to assist a child when appropriate. Problem BehaviorsEffect Some students express their dislike of paraeducator support by displaying inappropriate behaviors.Remedy Assist all students throughout the class so that the focus is not entirely on one particular student. Draw the disgruntled student’s attention to your open support and willingness to help any student. Be sure to offer encouragement and praise to all students for work well done. Unprepared ParaeducatorsEffect Teachers, parents, and students may not be getting what they deserve and expect.Remedy Ensure that paraeducators are adequately trained and supervised. Delay in Needed ChangesEffect Providing paraeducator support may delay attention to needed changes in schools.Remedy Ensure that adequate number of teachers are hired so that paraeducators do not take on role of primary instructor. Adapted by Mary Lasater from Giangreco, M., Yuan, S., McKenzie, B., Cameron, P., & Fialka, J. (2007). Teaching Exceptional Children, May/June, 2005, pp. 28 – 34Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 7mlasater1@mac.com
  8. 8. Handout M6 - 7.5 Supporting and ReportingDirections: Once the student has been included in an environment, it is necessary to continue toexamine the effectiveness of the strategies being utilized. This tool should be used on a regular basis toguide the on-going communication between the partner teacher(s) and the paraeducator. The generaleducation teacher and/or paraeducator should complete the form. When there are significant concernsregarding the strategies being utilized, a meeting should take place in which the partner teacher(s) andparaeducator can use a problem-solving format to make the necessary changes.StudentEnvironment/Class DatePerson(s) Completing Form The instructional and behavior strategies being utilized are Yes No Comments helping the student make progress in ……managing their own behavior.demonstrating appropriate social skillswith adults and other students.communicating their needs.initiating and sustaining appropriateinvolvement in the classroom.achieving a level of independence.following teacher directions.completing classroom tasks andassignments.completing outside assignments.Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 8mlasater1@mac.com
  9. 9. In-Class Support LogCourse: Teacher: Support Staff:Week of: Period/Time: Student Attendance M T W T F Accommodations Support Activities: (Comment as needed) Level(s) Provided PS N T L M H Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday(Level of support needed – PS = Peer Support; N = None: T = Transitional; L = Low; M = Medium; H = High)Class Activities/Homework:MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday Developed by Mary Lasater, Ed.D., (2010)Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 9mlasater1@mac.com
  10. 10. Instructional Support Activity Sheet for the week of:Student: Subject: Time:Classroom Teacher: Support Staff:MondayStudent worked on: Student’s Participation: Support required/provided: High; very involved Understood with no direct support Moderate; paid attention Understood with low support Low; distracted or disinterested Understood with medium support Concerning; disruptive behavior Understood with high support May require re-teachingComments: (i.e., concerns, observations, or specific strategies that helped the student)TuesdayStudent worked on: Student’s Participation: Support required/provided: High; very involved Understood with no direct support Moderate; paid attention Understood with low support Low; distracted or disinterested Understood with medium support Concerning; disruptive behavior Understood with high support May require re-teachingComments: (i.e., concerns, observations, or specific strategies that helped the student)WednesdayStudent worked on: Student’s Participation: Support required/provided: High; very involved Understood with no direct support Moderate; paid attention Understood with low support Low; distracted or disinterested Understood with medium support Concerning; disruptive behavior Understood with high support May require re-teachingComments: (i.e., concerns, observations, or specific strategies that helped the student)Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 10mlasater1@mac.com
  11. 11. Instructional Support Activity Sheet for the week of: (p. 2)ThursdayStudent worked on: Student’s Participation: Support required/provided: High; very involved Understood with no direct support Moderate; paid attention Understood with low support Low; distracted or disinterested Understood with medium support Concerning; disruptive behavior Understood with high support May require re-teachingComments: (i.e., concerns, observations, or specific strategies that helped the student)FridayStudent worked on: Student’s Participation: Support required/provided: High; very involved Understood with no direct support Moderate; paid attention Understood with low support Low; distracted or disinterested Understood with medium support Concerning; disruptive behavior Understood with high support May require re-teachingComments: (i.e., concerns, observations, or specific strategies that helped the student) Developed by Mary Lasater, Ed.D., (2010)Mary Lasater, Ed.D. 11mlasater1@mac.com
  12. 12. Shifting GearsDirections: Rate your performance on the following actions from one to five as follows: 1 never 2 seldom 3 occasionally 4 regularly 5 alwaysThen identify the three actions you might focus on for improvement.Interaction with Student(s) Priorities• address students by name 1 2 3 4 5• give students his/her attention when requested 1 2 3 4 5• use a calm, firm tone of voice when 1 2 3 4 5 reprimanding a student(s)• ensure that his/her actions do not draw attention to the student in a manner that 1 2 3 4 5 singles him/her out from the other students• utilize nonverbal actions that indicate respect 1 2 3 4 5 (i.e., allows for personal space)Planning Priorities• plan with partner teacher on a regular basis 1 2 3 4 5• demonstrate active listening during planning by asking questions and responding to 1 2 3 4 5 information• keep a record of important information from 1 2 3 4 5 planning sessions• brings pertinent information to the planning 1 2 3 4 5 processCommunication Priorities• utilize information and suggestions provided by 1 2 3 4 5 the partner teacher(s)• maintain confidentiality with all information 1 2 3 4 5• use written documentation as part of the 1 2 3 4 5 communication processMary Lasater, Ed.D. 12mlasater1@mac.com
  13. 13. Handout M6 - 9.1b• direct questions and concerns from teachers and/or parents to the partner teacher an 1 2 3 4 5 appropriate manner• keep partner teacher aware of information 1 2 3 4 5 regarding the student• seek partner teacher approval for any changes in instructional materials and/or techniques 1 2 3 4 5 being utilized with the student(s)Interaction with Partner Teacher Priorities• give the partner teacher(s) his/her attention 1 2 3 4 5 when requested• openly discuss concerns and issues with the 1 2 3 4 5 partner teacher(s)• utilize verbal and nonverbal communication 1 2 3 4 5 that indicates respect• bring information and suggestions to the 1 2 3 4 5 partner teacher(s) that show self-initiativeDelivery of Services & Supports Priorities• have necessary materials prepared for 1 2 3 4 5 instruction• make necessary adaptations in instructional materials and techniques based on the 1 2 3 4 5 students’ responses/performance• understand and implement levels of support 1 2 3 4 5 based on the needs of the student(s)• utilize natural cues and supports whenever 1 2 3 4 5 possible• use redirecting as an effective behavior 1 2 3 4 5 improvement strategy• fade services and supports when appropriate 1 2 3 4 5• use appropriate data collection techniques to 1 2 3 4 5 bring pertinent information to the IEP process• am aware of and support the IEP goals/ 1 2 3 4 5 objectives established for the student(s)• provide services and supports as least 1 2 3 4 5 intrusively as possibleMary Lasater, Ed.D. 13mlasater1@mac.com

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