The History of Child Protection <ul><li>In 1866, Henry Bergh, a philanthropist and diplomat, who recognized the inhumane treatment suffered by many “ animals” in our society, founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) prompting the New York state legislators to pass the country's first effective anti-cruelty to animals law. The ASPCA is the oldest humane organization in America. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Eight years later, a young girl was found tied to a bed like an animal, neglected and brutally beaten by her foster parents. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1874, animals were legally protected from inhumane treatment, children weren't. </li></ul><ul><li>Child abuse and neglect was considered a family matter and there was no one to intervene on behalf of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>That is until a small group of concerned citizens in New York City came together in 1875--with the assistance of Henry Bergh-- to become the first organized child protective institution in the world-- The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC). </li></ul>
<ul><li>So let’s meet the little girl who started it all… </li></ul>
Meet Mary Ellen McCormack-Wilson at 10 years of age
<ul><li>We meet Mary Ellen by way of an excerpt from her testimony in a New York City courtroom in 1874. </li></ul>
<ul><li>My name is Mary Ellen McCormack. I don't know how old I am... </li></ul><ul><li>I have never had but one pair of shoes, but I can't recollect when that was. I have no shoes or stocking this winter... </li></ul><ul><li>I have never had on a particle of flannel. </li></ul><ul><li>My bed at night is only a piece of carpet, stretched on the floor underneath a window, and I sleep in my little undergarment, with a quilt over me. </li></ul>
<ul><li>I am never allowed to play with any children or have any company whatever. </li></ul><ul><li>Mamma has been in the habit of whipping and beating me almost every day. </li></ul><ul><li>She used to whip me with a twisted whip, a raw hide. The whip always left black and blue marks on my body. </li></ul><ul><li>I have now on my head two black and blue marks which were made by mamma with the whip, and a cut on the left side of my forehead which was made by a pair of scissors in mamma's hand. </li></ul><ul><li>She struck me with the scissors and cut me. </li></ul>
<ul><li>I have no recollection of ever having been kissed, and have never been kissed by mamma. </li></ul><ul><li>I have never been taken on my mamma's lap, or caressed or petted. </li></ul><ul><li>I have never dared to speak to anybody, because if I did I would get whipped. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever mamma went out I was locked up in the bedroom... </li></ul><ul><li>I have no recollection of ever being in the street in my life. </li></ul>
<ul><li>After Mary Ellen told her story in court, her foster mother was prosecuted for assault and battery. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Ellen was placed into a new home in upstate New York and grew up a normal child. </li></ul><ul><li>She became a favorite to all those who knew her. </li></ul><ul><li>At twenty-four she married and had two daughters of her own. She also adopted a third orphaned child. </li></ul><ul><li>Her daughters reported that Mary Ellen was always reluctant to speak of her past, but she did show them the scars of burns on her arms and the scissor scar was always noticeable on her face. </li></ul>
<ul><li>It was her pride and joy to be able to provide her own daughters with a happy childhood in contrast to her own. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Ellen died in 1956, at the age of 92 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thus ... the beginning of an American society to confront its inherent moral obligation to protect kids --- even from their parents. But, reporting abuse was not required; reports stemmed only from incidents which involved serious physical injury or death. </li></ul>
<ul><li>And so it was, still in the late 1950's, what happened in the family was regarded as a very private manner; children were considered their parent's chattel, until: </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962, Dr. Henry C. Kempe described "The Battered Child Syndrome" and urged physicians to report suspected child abuse. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Eventually many states responded to their perceived moral and legal responsibility by making child abuse a criminal act during the late 1960's. </li></ul><ul><li>However, reporting child abuse was still not legally required. Consequently, most incidents of suspected child abuse remained behind closed doors and were neither acknowledged nor challenged. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Finally in 1974, The United States Congress, in enacted the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which provided federal funds - dedicated to prevent child abuse - for states that passed laws requiring certain professionals (law enforcement professionals, educators, and medical and mental health care professionals) to report suspected child maltreatment. </li></ul><ul><li>In short order, every state had mandatory reporting laws enacted in their legislatures. </li></ul>
Four basic types of abuse: <ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Child Neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional abuse </li></ul>
Did you Know! <ul><li>ONE in every 4 girls will be sexually abused by the age of 18 </li></ul><ul><li>ONE in every 6 boys will be sexually abused by the age of 18 </li></ul><ul><li>ONE in every 5 children in our county is affected by some form of child abuse (emotional, sexual, physical, neglect) </li></ul><ul><li>ONE in every 10 children in our county is seriously injured by child abuse </li></ul>
Child Abuse Basics How many children are abused and neglected in the United States? Each week, child protective services (CPS) agencies throughout the United States receive more than 50,000 reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. In 2002, 2.6 million reports concerning the welfare of approximately 4.5 million children were made. In approximately two-thirds (67 percent) of these cases, the information provided in the report was sufficient to prompt an assessment or investigation. As a result of these investigations, approximately 896,000 children were found to have been victims of abuse or neglect—an average of more than 2,450 children per day.
More than half (60 percent) of victims experienced neglect, meaning a caretaker failed to provide for the child's basic needs. Fewer victims experienced physical abuse (nearly 20 percent) or sexual abuse (10 percent), though these cases are typically more likely to be publicized. The smallest number (7 percent) were found to be victims of emotional abuse, which includes criticizing, rejecting, or refusing to nurture a child. An average of nearly four children die every day as a result of child abuse or neglect (1,400 in 2002).
Who is more likely to be abused or neglected? No group of children is immune. Boys and girls are about equally likely to be abused or neglected. Children of all races and ethnicities experience child abuse.
<ul><li>Children of all ages experience abuse and neglect, but the youngest children are most vulnerable. Children younger than 1 year old accounted for 41 percent of all abuse-related deaths reported in 2002; three-quarters (76 percent) of those killed were younger than 4. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Girls are sexually abused three times more often than boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are at a greater risk of serious injury and of emotional neglect than are girls. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers (National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992). </li></ul><ul><li>The incidence of fatally injured girls has declined slightly, while the incidence of fatally injured boys rose. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Poverty is significantly related to incidence rates in nearly every category of maltreatment. Compared to children whose families earned $30,000 or more, children in families with annual incomes below $15,000 were: </li></ul><ul><li>More than 22 times more likely to experience maltreatment under the Harm Standard and 25 times more likely under the Endangerment Standard. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Children whose parents abuse drugs or alcohol are put at a greater risk for violent victimization (National Commission on Children, 1993). </li></ul>
Who are the abusers? <ul><li>Most abusers are members of the victim's family, either a caretaker or parent or a close relative. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of confirmed physical abuse and neglect cases involve caretakers of children. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to common belief, males and females perpetrate abuse against their own children at surprisingly similar rates. </li></ul>
Who are the abusers? Conti. <ul><li>"Among all abused children, those abused by their birth parents were about equally likely to have been abused by mothers as by fathers (50% and 58%, respectively), but those abused by other parents, parent-substitutes, or other, non-parental perpetrators were much more likely to be abused by males (80 to 90% by males versus 14 to 15% by females). </li></ul>
California’s Proactive Role in the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect The California Department of Justice takes a proactive role in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. The Department launched Safe from the Start , a statewide effort designed to reduce children's exposure to violence. It also developed the Megan's Law sex offender registry to help parents protect their children from child sex predators. The Crime and Violence Prevention Center administers the California State Child Death Review Council which continues to support local child death review teams in their efforts to prevent fatal child abuse and neglect. Information on natural, intentional and unintentional injuries to children is included in its report, Child Deaths in California (June 2005).
The California Safe from the Start (SFTS) Initiative is a comprehensive strategy to assist communities in reducing the impact of violence on children. The initiative targets children ages 0 to 18 with an emphasis on children ages 0 to 5, who have been exposed to family, school and/or community violence. It is partially funded by First 5.
Megan’s Law: California law, Assembly Bill 488 (Nicole Parra) , sponsored by the Attorney General now provides the public with Internet access to detailed information on registered sex offenders.
This expanded access allows the public for the first time to use their personal computers to view information on sex offenders required to register with local law enforcement under California's Megan's Law. Previously, the information was available only by personally visiting police stations and sheriff offices or by calling a 900 toll-number. The new law was given final passage by the Legislature on August 24, 2004 and signed by the Governor on September 24, 2004
Now lets Take a look at Mandated Reporting as we watch Shadows to Light