Dreaming a new Detroit
Walter Hook, Executive Director, ITDP
Detroit, November 2010
Is this the future?
Robert Crumb (1988)
Times Square, 1985
Or this?
Or this?
Hundertwasser’s
Vienna
Or this?
Rem Koolhaas’
Netherlands
MOD POD-TIME SQUARE IN HARBIN
Ceate a mobility, aceesibility and people-oriented square
Project principles
Create An inter...
Critical trends:
• Bus rapid transit
• New pedestrian-oriented spaces
• Bike sharing and bike networks
• Parking reform
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) initiated
in Curitiba, Brazil in 1974
Basic Bus Rapid Transit: Quito
Lanes of mixed
traffic
Bus express lane
Central median location removes conflict with
turning vehicles, double parked taxi...
Stations feel like metro systems: station
floor level with the bus floor
Bogota TransMilenio
Passengers pay at the turnstile, not
the bus driver: passengers board
all doors at once.
Quito, Ecuador
Porto Alegre, Braz...
Size and number of doors is more important than bus size.
TransMilenio buses have 4 x 1.1 meter doors
Guangzhou BRT day I: no guidance system.
One station in the middle or
two on the curb side
Difficult to transfer
Stations are Narrow Impossible
to reconstruct for ...
BRT in the United States
Las Vegas, Nevada:
Eugene, Oregon
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles Orange Line
Cleveland, Ohio
Mid block station location increases the level
of service for both buses and mixed traffic at
minimal pedestrian inconveni...
Bus stop – Intersection
interference
Bus stop before intersection, buses waiting at light
can disrupt functioning of the b...
Direct service full featured Bus Rapid Transit
Special concerns about BRT in
the USA
• Low demand
• Strip mall development form
• High labor costs
• Administrative rigid...
TransJakarta
Mexico City Metrobus opens
2004
Ahmedabad opens first full
featured BRT in India, 2009
Majority is surface median stations
with at-grade crossing
Segregated median bus lanes
Level boarding 900 mm
Guangzhou decides to build BRT on high demand corridor, 2006
Guangzhou BRT opens 2010, 800,000 passengers per day
Real time passenger information
Full integrated with Metro, at 4 stations
China: this is the competition
What’s happening at the next station down…
Flexible Operation
优点: 专用走廊,走廊内Guangzhou and Cali, Colombia, are the first
BRT systems to combine full BRT features with ‘...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
WorldwidecombinedlengthofBRTsystems(km)
BRT ...
Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya BRT becomes first
full BRT in Africa, Opens 2009
41
Combining Trunk, Feeder and Complimentary Service:
Johannesburg: A good option
Downtown Johannesburg has
crime problems. Rea Vaya
station areas become secure
havens
• Pre-paid, level boarding
• Secure
•weather-protected
• Aesthetically pleasing
The Stations are World Class
Central verge configuration on narrow
downtown one way streets is daring
and innovative
The Taxi Transition:
Bus operators are former minibus taxi
operators from 10 competing ‘mafias’.
This was KEY to political...
Transport minister of the city had her house
attacked, and 2 security guards were killed.
Guangzhou, China’s new pedestrian promenade along
rediscovered ancient canal, Opened Nov 2010
Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
think
New pedestrian street,
Guangzhou, China.
Every Chinese city has new
pedestrian zones
Mexico City
Centro Historico Newly
Pedestrianized Streets
Cities rediscover pedestrians
The magic of waterfronts is being rediscovered from
London to Guayaquil (below)
Victoria, British Colombia, Canada
Source: Curbless Streets/Shared Space in Urban Contexts, Background, Issues & Examples,...
Shared Streets Appear in Guangzhou, China
NewKensingtonHighStreet. Children bike safelyin the
MIDDLE of theroad....
Poor people can lower cost of
living by bicycling. Slums of
Bogota
After a decade of tearing out bike lanes, China is
rebuilding them
Guangzhou, first new bike lane on a major arterial since the early 1990s
Delhi builds first modern
Indian bike lanes, 2008
Paris’ new bike lanes
New York followed with major
initiative starting 2008
Car Free Days: Mexico City
emulates Bogota
New York copies
Bogota and Mexico
New York’s
Summer Streets
Programs: Over
1,000,000 people
participated in 3
Sundays in
A...
Bike sharing takes off globally after Paris
Velib opens
Lyon’s new waterfront
w/ bikeshare
Milan, Montreal, Washington DC, Stockholm, and dozens
of other cities in Europe
Then Hangzhou becomes largest bike
sharing system in the world, 2009
Model
Rio launches bike sharing,
2009
Mexico city launches
bike share, 2010
Guangzhou bike sharing opened in
August, now 5000 bikes
Road Removal:
Highway tear-downs have become
fashionable
Seoul, Milwaukee, San Francisco,
New Bikestation Long Beach, CA,
Adjacent to Blue Line Light Rail
Sao Paulo
• 11km bike lanes
along the river
• Bike trips
increased from
0.3% to 0.6% of
total trips over a
decade
BEFORE
AFTER
Breda, The Netherlands
Multi-modal Station with P&R
Hamburg, Germany (Altona District)
Parking Podiums
Chicago Bangkok
Detroit?
Chicago privatizes downtown parking
Supply Caps
• Hamburg: Sealed inventory in
Central Business District at
roughly 30,000 spaces in 1976
• Zurich: “Historic ...
Imagining the city we want…
Ahmedabad (current site)
Ahmedabad (rendering)
Bimal Patel, HCP Design and Project Management
Johannesburg (current site)
Johannesburg(rendering)
Osmond Lange Architects, Ikemeleng
Architects
New York (current site)
New York (rendering)
Architect: Michael Sorkin Studio
Guangzhou (current site)
Guangzhou (rendering)
Urbanus
Architecture
and Design
“Until we know what kind of city we
want, we cant decide what sort of
transportation system we should
have.”
Enrique Penal...
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The Connectivity Declaration - Walter Hook, Executive Director at the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

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  • Robert Crumb:My favorite San FranciscanHis vision of the future as a logical consequence of the history of development in…
  • Nice design, most brt features, but does not pass through the strip.
  • Very low demand, low capacity system. People complain about cost.
  • Orange line not at level boarding. No pre-paid boarding at first. Later implemented.
  • Not very long, used to stimulate economic revitalization. Not successful yet, construction hurt businesses during recession.
  • 广州市的系统是特别针对广州客流条件而提出的系统(专用走廊+灵活车辆),乘客既可以享有封闭式系统的优点,又免却多次换乘。
  • Social equity aims, not as clear-cut as a technical project.1970’s gov’t stopped providing public transit; these guys started on the gray market, few entrepeneurships to operate in the townships (black and color-owned); today seen as a black african business – pride; formed with the idea of protection – protect routes, mafia mentality. Chance to revolutionize industryPoliticians promised that “No taxi operator will be worse off”Weak internal governance of taxi associations responsible for hold-up, “no mechanism for making a decision on behalf of the whole “Interim operations mean some taxi routes are being affected already
  • Freeze the existing parking supply in the city center and only permit an increase in the off-street supply if parking is needed at a particular site, but there should be a caveat that an equal number of on-street spaces must be removed. This type of cap-and-trade keeps the supply constant while repurposing on-street spaces for other uses.
  • The Connectivity Declaration - Walter Hook, Executive Director at the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

    1. 1. Dreaming a new Detroit Walter Hook, Executive Director, ITDP Detroit, November 2010
    2. 2. Is this the future? Robert Crumb (1988)
    3. 3. Times Square, 1985 Or this?
    4. 4. Or this? Hundertwasser’s Vienna
    5. 5. Or this? Rem Koolhaas’ Netherlands
    6. 6. MOD POD-TIME SQUARE IN HARBIN Ceate a mobility, aceesibility and people-oriented square Project principles Create An interaction, civic and cultural central square 3. people-oriented designs -activities for summer, night time, winter -Abundant sitting and amenities -implement an attractive night lighting scheme Melbourne revitalizes downtown (Gehl)
    7. 7. Critical trends: • Bus rapid transit • New pedestrian-oriented spaces • Bike sharing and bike networks • Parking reform
    8. 8. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) initiated in Curitiba, Brazil in 1974
    9. 9. Basic Bus Rapid Transit: Quito
    10. 10. Lanes of mixed traffic Bus express lane Central median location removes conflict with turning vehicles, double parked taxis and delivery vehicles, etc. Left turns normally prohibited where possible!
    11. 11. Stations feel like metro systems: station floor level with the bus floor Bogota TransMilenio
    12. 12. Passengers pay at the turnstile, not the bus driver: passengers board all doors at once. Quito, Ecuador Porto Alegre, Brazil
    13. 13. Size and number of doors is more important than bus size. TransMilenio buses have 4 x 1.1 meter doors
    14. 14. Guangzhou BRT day I: no guidance system.
    15. 15. One station in the middle or two on the curb side Difficult to transfer Stations are Narrow Impossible to reconstruct for higher volume Requires special buses. Buses only operate on BRT corridor or have doors on both sides. Quito Line 1 Quito Line 2
    16. 16. BRT in the United States
    17. 17. Las Vegas, Nevada:
    18. 18. Eugene, Oregon
    19. 19. Los Angeles, California
    20. 20. Los Angeles Orange Line
    21. 21. Cleveland, Ohio
    22. 22. Mid block station location increases the level of service for both buses and mixed traffic at minimal pedestrian inconvenience
    23. 23. Bus stop – Intersection interference Bus stop before intersection, buses waiting at light can disrupt functioning of the bus stop Intersection Intersection Bus stop after intersection, buses queuing at stop disrupt intersection
    24. 24. Direct service full featured Bus Rapid Transit
    25. 25. Special concerns about BRT in the USA • Low demand • Strip mall development form • High labor costs • Administrative rigidity
    26. 26. TransJakarta
    27. 27. Mexico City Metrobus opens 2004
    28. 28. Ahmedabad opens first full featured BRT in India, 2009
    29. 29. Majority is surface median stations with at-grade crossing
    30. 30. Segregated median bus lanes
    31. 31. Level boarding 900 mm
    32. 32. Guangzhou decides to build BRT on high demand corridor, 2006
    33. 33. Guangzhou BRT opens 2010, 800,000 passengers per day
    34. 34. Real time passenger information
    35. 35. Full integrated with Metro, at 4 stations
    36. 36. China: this is the competition
    37. 37. What’s happening at the next station down…
    38. 38. Flexible Operation 优点: 专用走廊,走廊内Guangzhou and Cali, Colombia, are the first BRT systems to combine full BRT features with ‘direct’ routes 210 560 Route using corridor /route length more than 30% BRT Vehicle,can leave corridor Don’t need feeder 296 561 242
    39. 39. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 WorldwidecombinedlengthofBRTsystems(km) BRT expansion after “Gold Standard” BRT Projects after Curitiba after Quito, Brisbane, & European cities after Bogotá
    40. 40. Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya BRT becomes first full BRT in Africa, Opens 2009
    41. 41. 41 Combining Trunk, Feeder and Complimentary Service: Johannesburg: A good option
    42. 42. Downtown Johannesburg has crime problems. Rea Vaya station areas become secure havens
    43. 43. • Pre-paid, level boarding • Secure •weather-protected • Aesthetically pleasing The Stations are World Class
    44. 44. Central verge configuration on narrow downtown one way streets is daring and innovative
    45. 45. The Taxi Transition: Bus operators are former minibus taxi operators from 10 competing ‘mafias’. This was KEY to political success
    46. 46. Transport minister of the city had her house attacked, and 2 security guards were killed.
    47. 47. Guangzhou, China’s new pedestrian promenade along rediscovered ancient canal, Opened Nov 2010
    48. 48. Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
    49. 49. think
    50. 50. New pedestrian street, Guangzhou, China. Every Chinese city has new pedestrian zones
    51. 51. Mexico City Centro Historico Newly Pedestrianized Streets
    52. 52. Cities rediscover pedestrians The magic of waterfronts is being rediscovered from London to Guayaquil (below)
    53. 53. Victoria, British Colombia, Canada Source: Curbless Streets/Shared Space in Urban Contexts, Background, Issues & Examples, July 2007 de Brinkgood, Netherlands Odense, Denmark Shared Streets Hans Mondermann develops shared street concept
    54. 54. Shared Streets Appear in Guangzhou, China
    55. 55. NewKensingtonHighStreet. Children bike safelyin the MIDDLE of theroad....
    56. 56. Poor people can lower cost of living by bicycling. Slums of Bogota
    57. 57. After a decade of tearing out bike lanes, China is rebuilding them
    58. 58. Guangzhou, first new bike lane on a major arterial since the early 1990s
    59. 59. Delhi builds first modern Indian bike lanes, 2008
    60. 60. Paris’ new bike lanes
    61. 61. New York followed with major initiative starting 2008
    62. 62. Car Free Days: Mexico City emulates Bogota
    63. 63. New York copies Bogota and Mexico New York’s Summer Streets Programs: Over 1,000,000 people participated in 3 Sundays in August
    64. 64. Bike sharing takes off globally after Paris Velib opens
    65. 65. Lyon’s new waterfront w/ bikeshare
    66. 66. Milan, Montreal, Washington DC, Stockholm, and dozens of other cities in Europe
    67. 67. Then Hangzhou becomes largest bike sharing system in the world, 2009
    68. 68. Model Rio launches bike sharing, 2009
    69. 69. Mexico city launches bike share, 2010
    70. 70. Guangzhou bike sharing opened in August, now 5000 bikes
    71. 71. Road Removal: Highway tear-downs have become fashionable Seoul, Milwaukee, San Francisco,
    72. 72. New Bikestation Long Beach, CA, Adjacent to Blue Line Light Rail
    73. 73. Sao Paulo • 11km bike lanes along the river • Bike trips increased from 0.3% to 0.6% of total trips over a decade
    74. 74. BEFORE AFTER Breda, The Netherlands
    75. 75. Multi-modal Station with P&R Hamburg, Germany (Altona District)
    76. 76. Parking Podiums Chicago Bangkok
    77. 77. Detroit?
    78. 78. Chicago privatizes downtown parking
    79. 79. Supply Caps • Hamburg: Sealed inventory in Central Business District at roughly 30,000 spaces in 1976 • Zurich: “Historic Compromise” instituted in 1996 • Amsterdam: Every spot created off-street should remove a spot from on-street.
    80. 80. Imagining the city we want…
    81. 81. Ahmedabad (current site)
    82. 82. Ahmedabad (rendering) Bimal Patel, HCP Design and Project Management
    83. 83. Johannesburg (current site)
    84. 84. Johannesburg(rendering) Osmond Lange Architects, Ikemeleng Architects
    85. 85. New York (current site)
    86. 86. New York (rendering) Architect: Michael Sorkin Studio
    87. 87. Guangzhou (current site)
    88. 88. Guangzhou (rendering) Urbanus Architecture and Design
    89. 89. “Until we know what kind of city we want, we cant decide what sort of transportation system we should have.” Enrique Penalosa, ITDP President, Former Mayor, Bogota, Colombia www.itdp.org

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