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The Connectivity Declaration - Walter Hook, Executive Director at the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy



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  • Robert Crumb:My favorite San FranciscanHis vision of the future as a logical consequence of the history of development in…
  • Nice design, most brt features, but does not pass through the strip.
  • Very low demand, low capacity system. People complain about cost.
  • Orange line not at level boarding. No pre-paid boarding at first. Later implemented.
  • Not very long, used to stimulate economic revitalization. Not successful yet, construction hurt businesses during recession.
  • 广州市的系统是特别针对广州客流条件而提出的系统(专用走廊+灵活车辆),乘客既可以享有封闭式系统的优点,又免却多次换乘。
  • Social equity aims, not as clear-cut as a technical project.1970’s gov’t stopped providing public transit; these guys started on the gray market, few entrepeneurships to operate in the townships (black and color-owned); today seen as a black african business – pride; formed with the idea of protection – protect routes, mafia mentality. Chance to revolutionize industryPoliticians promised that “No taxi operator will be worse off”Weak internal governance of taxi associations responsible for hold-up, “no mechanism for making a decision on behalf of the whole “Interim operations mean some taxi routes are being affected already
  • Freeze the existing parking supply in the city center and only permit an increase in the off-street supply if parking is needed at a particular site, but there should be a caveat that an equal number of on-street spaces must be removed. This type of cap-and-trade keeps the supply constant while repurposing on-street spaces for other uses.


  • 1. Dreaming a new Detroit
    Walter Hook, Executive Director, ITDP
    Detroit, November 2010
  • 2. Is this the future?
    Robert Crumb (1988)
  • 3. Or this?
    Times Square, 1985
  • 4. Or this? Hundertwasser’s Vienna
  • 5. Or this?
    RemKoolhaas’ Netherlands
    Ceate a mobility, aceesibility and people-oriented square
    Project principles
    Create An interaction, civic
    and cultural central square
    3. people-oriented designs
    -activities for summer, night time, winter
    -Abundant sitting and
    -implement an attractive
    night lighting scheme
    Melbourne revitalizes downtown (Gehl)
  • 7. Critical trends:
    Bus rapid transit
    New pedestrian-oriented spaces
    Bike sharing and bike networks
    Parking reform
  • 8. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) initiated in Curitiba, Brazil in 1974
  • 9. Basic Bus Rapid Transit: Quito
  • 10. Road Configuration:
    Lanes of mixed traffic
    Bus express lane
    Central median location removes conflict with turning vehicles, double parked taxis and delivery vehicles, etc. Left turns normally prohibited where possible!
  • 11. Stations feel like metro systems: station floor level with the bus floor
    Bogota TransMilenio
  • 12. Passengers pay at the turnstile, not the bus driver: passengers board all doors at once.
    Quito, Ecuador
    Porto Alegre, Brazil
  • 13. Size and number of doors is more important than bus size. TransMilenio buses have 4 x 1.1 meter doors
  • 14. Guangzhou BRT day I: no guidance system.
  • 15. One station in the middle or two on the curb side
    Quito Line 2
    Quito Line 1
    Requires special buses.
    Buses only operate on BRT corridor or have doors on both sides.
    Difficult to transfer
    Stations are Narrow Impossible to reconstruct for higher volume
  • 16. BRT in the United States
  • 17. Las Vegas, Nevada:
  • 18. Eugene, Oregon
  • 19. Los Angeles, California
  • 20. Los Angeles Orange Line
  • 21. Cleveland, Ohio
  • 22. Mid block station location increases the level of service for both buses and mixed traffic at minimal pedestrian inconvenience
  • 23. Bus stop – Intersection interference
    Bus stop before intersection, buses waiting at light can disrupt functioning of the bus stop
    Bus stop after intersection, buses queuing at stop disrupt intersection
  • 24. Direct service full featured Bus Rapid Transit
  • 25. Special concerns about BRT in the USA
    Low demand
    Strip mall development form
    High labor costs
    Administrative rigidity
  • 26. TransJakarta
  • 27. Mexico City Metrobus opens 2004
  • 28. Ahmedabad opens first full featured BRT in India, 2009
  • 29. Majority is surface median stations with at-grade crossing
  • 30. Segregated median bus lanes
  • 31. Level boarding 900 mm
  • 32. Guangzhou decides to build BRT on high demand corridor, 2006
  • 33. Guangzhou BRT opens 2010, 800,000 passengers per day
  • 34. Real time passenger information
  • 35. Full integrated with Metro, at 4 stations
  • 36. China: this is the competition
  • 37. What’s happening at the next station down…
  • 38. Route using corridor /route length more than 30%
    561 242
    BRT Vehicle,can leave corridor
    Don’t need feeder
    Flexible Operation
    优点: 专用走廊,走廊内Guangzhou and Cali, Colombia, are the first BRT systems to combine full BRT features with ‘direct’ routes
  • 39.
  • 40. Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya BRT becomes first full BRT in Africa, Opens 2009
  • 41. 41
    Combining Trunk, Feeder and Complimentary Service: Johannesburg: A good option
  • 42. Downtown Johannesburg has crime problems. Rea Vaya station areas become secure havens
  • 43. The Stations are World Class
    • Pre-paid, level boarding
    • 44. Secure
    • 45. weather-protected
    • 46. Aesthetically pleasing
  • Central verge configuration on narrow downtown one way streets is daring and innovative
  • 47. The Taxi Transition:
    Bus operators are former minibus taxi operators from 10 competing ‘mafias’. This was KEY to political success
  • 48. Transport minister of the city had her house attacked, and 2 security guards were killed.
  • 49. Guangzhou, China’s new pedestrian promenade along rediscovered ancient canal, Opened Nov 2010
  • 50. Gehl Architects · Urban QualityConsultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  • 51. think
  • 52. Every Chinese city has new pedestrian zones
    New pedestrian street, Guangzhou, China.
  • 53. Mexico City Centro Historico Newly Pedestrianized Streets
  • 54. Cities rediscover pedestrians
    The magic of waterfronts is being rediscovered from London to Guayaquil (below)
  • 55. Shared Streets
    Hans Mondermann develops shared street concept
    Odense, Denmark
    de Brinkgood, Netherlands
    Victoria, British Colombia, Canada
    Source: Curbless Streets/Shared Space in Urban Contexts, Background, Issues & Examples, July 2007
  • 56. Shared Streets Appear in Guangzhou, China
  • 57. New Kensington High Street. Children bike safely in the MIDDLE of the road....
  • 58. Poor people can lower cost of living by bicycling. Slums of Bogota
  • 59. After a decade of tearing out bike lanes, China is rebuilding them
  • 60. Guangzhou, first new bike lane on a major arterial since the early 1990s
  • 61. Delhi builds first modern Indian bike lanes, 2008
  • 62. Paris’ new bike lanes
  • 63. New York followed with major initiative starting 2008
  • 64. Car Free Days: Mexico City emulates Bogota
  • 65. New York’s Summer Streets Programs: Over 1,000,000 people participated in 3 Sundays in August
    New York copies Bogota and Mexico
  • 66. Bike sharing takes off globally after Paris Velib opens
  • 67. Lyon’s new waterfront w/ bikeshare
  • 68. Milan, Montreal, Washington DC, Stockholm, and dozens of other cities in Europe
  • 69. Then Hangzhou becomes largest bike sharing system in the world, 2009
  • 70. Model
    Rio launches bike sharing, 2009
  • 71. Mexico city launches bike share, 2010
  • 72. Guangzhou bike sharing opened in August, now 5000 bikes
  • 73. Road Removal:
    Highway tear-downs have become fashionable
    Seoul, Milwaukee, San Francisco,
  • 74. New Bikestation Long Beach, CA, Adjacent to Blue Line Light Rail
  • 75. Sao Paulo
    11km bike lanes along the river
    Bike trips increased from 0.3% to 0.6% of total trips over a decade
  • 76. Breda, The Netherlands
  • 77. Multi-modal Station with P&R
    Hamburg, Germany (Altona District)
  • 78. Parking Podiums
  • 79. Detroit?
  • 80. Chicago privatizes downtown parking
  • 81. Supply Caps
    Hamburg: Sealed inventory in Central Business District at roughly 30,000 spaces in 1976
    Zurich: “Historic Compromise” instituted in 1996
    Amsterdam: Every spot created off-street should remove a spot from on-street.
  • 82. Imagining the city we want…
  • 83. Ahmedabad(current site)
  • 84. Ahmedabad(rendering)
    Bimal Patel, HCP Design and Project Management
  • 85. Johannesburg (current site)
  • 86. Johannesburg (rendering)
    Osmond Lange Architects, Ikemeleng Architects
  • 87. New York (current site)
  • 88. New York (rendering)
    Architect: Michael Sorkin Studio
  • 89. Guangzhou (current site)
  • 90. Guangzhou (rendering)
    Urbanus Architecture and Design
  • 91. “Until we know what kind of city we want, we cant decide what sort of transportation system we should have.”
    Enrique Penalosa, ITDP President, Former Mayor, Bogota, Colombia