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Professional Journal PowerPoint

  1. 1. Nancy QueisiTSL 5085Article 1: Connecting Literacy and Science to IncreaseAchievement for English Language LearnersArticle 2: Urban Elementary School Teachers’ Knowledge andPractices in Teaching Science to English Language Learners.Article 3: Text-Based Questioning: A Comprehension Strategy toBuild English Language Learners Content Knowledge
  2. 2.  There has been an overwhelming increase in the number ofEnglish language leaners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. There has been changes in the science curriculum. Standards have been created which explain what students mustknow and what to do in science class. Elementary, middle, and high school students are assessed onscience knowledge and skills yearly. ELLs must acquire both the English language and learn sciencesimultaneously in order to become successful.
  3. 3.  A study was conducted to find the correlation between vocabularyand reading comprehension in addition to questioning andreading comprehension in the content of science in a 5th gradeclassroom. The results concluded both vocabulary knowledge andquestioning had a powerful impact on the reading compression ofall students. English only speakers (EOs) text-based questioning was a strongerpredictor of reading comprehension whereas ELLs generalvocabulary was the stronger predictor. Questioning is beneficial for ELLs only after they achieved acertain level of vocabulary.
  4. 4.  Another study was conducted to examine the instructionaltechniques used to help 4th grade students enhance their text-based questioning in the content of science. The results concluded that regardless of students’ Englishlanguage proficiencies and initial questioning skills, all of theirquestioning skills improved. It also showed that ELLs with the at least intermediate languageproficiency are able to improve their questioning over a period oftime by being taught the skill explicitly.
  5. 5.  Vocabulary plays a big role in reading comprehension. ELLs must gain vocabulary knowledge before they cancomprehend a skill or a concept that is being taught. Vocabulary development is the first step in readingcomprehension. When students including ELLs acquire good vocabulary, they arethen able to learn a content such as science.
  6. 6.  Teachers should focus their teaching on four components whichare listening, reading, writing, and speaking. According to research, individuals retain 90% of contentinformation when they write and talk about what they learned. Teachers should create an inquiry-based classroom givingstudents an opportunity to ask open and closed ended questionsbecause it helps with the development of students’ high-orderthinking and vocabulary. Teachers should also incorporate student collaboration and hands-on activities in their classrooms which will increase studentmotivation.
  7. 7.  This teacher advises other teachers to implement two research-based instructional strategies into their instruction. The two strategies include word walls and science notebooks. The purpose of these strategies is to help incorporate literacy skillsand science content simultaneously. As these strategies are implemented, teachers must be aware ofELLs English levels of proficiency.
  8. 8.  The study was conducted to examine the knowledge and practicesof 38 teachers from urban elementary schools. The knowledge and practices of teachers in their first year ofprofessional intervention were compared to the knowledge andpractices of teachers who used reform-oriented practices. The goal of the study was to develop a better professionaldevelopment intervention to help teachers use methods in orderto inform and explain their content, specifically science, to ESOLstudents. The intervention focused on helping teachers create plans for ELLsand for them to better understand the science content to teach it toall students.
  9. 9.  The results of the study concluded that teachers had the properknowledge to teach the content of science to their students butthey were having difficulties with scientific inquiry within theirstudent population. Teachers were uncomfortable teaching science to ELLs. Teachers using reform-oriented practices were more successfulwith the constructs mentioned above. Modifications must be applied to future interventions in order togain a higher success rate in teaching ELLs.
  10. 10.  They must understand that each student has a different learningstyle. It is important to reinforce accommodations for each ELL in orderfor them to acquire literacy skills and learn content areas such asscience. Students are more prone to comprehending content when they useall four components listening, reading, writing, and speakingwhen learning. Some students are visual learners, therefore, it is beneficial toinclude writing and drawing activities in lessons (showstrategies). Incorporating literacy skills and content simultaneously willbenefit ELLs tremendously.
  11. 11.  All three articles were informative and can be applied to teaching. They aim at providing an opportunity for ELLs to develop literacyskills and content knowledge such as science simultaneously. They all include teaching techniques and activities that fall undershow, show and tell, tell strategies which are beneficial for ELLs. An example of a show strategy is building word walls. An example of a tell strategy is allowing students to ask open andclosed ended questions. An example of a show and tell strategy is creating a sciencenotebook that includes drawings and explanations .
  12. 12.  Adamson, K., Lee, O., Lewis,S., Maerten-Rivera, J., &Secada, W.G., (2007). Urban elementary school teachers’ knowledgeand practices in teaching science to English language learners. ScienceTeacher Education, 733-758. Huerta, M., & Jackson, J. (2010). Connecting Literacy and Science toIncrease Achievement for English Language Learners. Early ChildhoodEducation Journal, 38(3), 205-211. Nagy, W. E., National Council of Teachers of English, U. L., ERICClearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, U. L., &International Reading Association, N. E. (1988). Teaching Vocabulary ToImprove Reading Comprehension. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1992). Text-Based and Knowledge-Based Questioning by Children. Cognition And Instruction, (3), 177.doi:10.2307/3233513 Taboada, A., Bianco, S., & Bowerman, V. (2012). Text-BasedQuestioning: A Comprehension Strategy to Build English LanguageLearners Content Knowledge. Literacy Research AndInstruction, 51(2), 87-109.