KM is the explicit and systematic managements
of vital knowledge and its associated process of
creation, organization, diffusion, use, and
Knowledge is the full utilization of information
and data, coupled with the potential of people‘s
skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions,
commitments, and motivation.
Organizational knowledge can be defined as
understanding of the intrinsic systems and
processes that could be employed to take
effective action to achieve the orgnal goal.
Is to defined with respect to
Intelligence :- ability to gain and apply
Memory :- to store and retrieve experience at
Learning :- is knowledge or skill that is
acquired by instruction or study
Common sense refers to inflective opinion of
ordinary humans, which comes naturally to a
child as young as 3 to 4 years
you are participating in a race. You overtake
the second person. What position are you in?
Take 1000 and add 40 to it. Now add another 1000. Now add 30. Add
another 1000... Now add 20. Now add another 1000
Now add 10. What is the total?
Mary's father has five daughters:
1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono.
What is the name of the fifth daughter?
Shallow and deep –Minimal Understanding, years
Knowledge as know –how- practical Knowledge
Common sense as knowledge-set personal
experience and facts acquired over time
Reasoning and heuristics-one concept to other ,
reasoning with facts
Procedural Knowledge to episodic Knowledge-
how to carry out procedure, experimental
information based on long term
Explicit and Tactic Knowledge
Tactic knowledge is knowledge embedded in
the human mind through experience and
It includes intuitions values, beliefs, real life
Explicit Knowledge is codified and digitized in
books, documents, reports, white papers,
spreadsheets , memos, training courses
A job is
to reused by
the team for
An applied ‗brain drain‘
Transfer of problem solving expertise from
some knowledge source to a repository
Capturing is crucial for the building as well as
effectively using organizational information
On site observation
Nominal group techniques
Refers to design and development of
Ensures easier retrieval , creation and sharing
Abstracting :- concrete/conceptual
Cataloguing :- sorting /classification
Attitude Work Norms
The process used to create, communicate and
apply Knowledge results in the generation of
new Knowledge and resultant expansion of
the organization Knowledge base
This cycle transform data into information
which is enhanced and converted into
knowledge whose application creates new
data and information thereby repeating the
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In this age of information, knowledge is the
most important factor in the long-term
success of both an individual and an
organization. In fact,
It is believed that the only source of
competitive advantage in the future will be
the knowledge that an organization contains
and an organization‘s ability to learn faster
than the competition.
With knowledge taking on increased
importance, it makes sense that there is an
opportunity to create competitive
advantage by effectively managing its
storage and use.
An effective knowledge
creates competitive advantage by bringing
appropriate knowledge to the point of action
during the moment of need.
Employee turnover is also reduced because a
large portion of the knowledge and expertise
acquired by the employee is captured in the
A successful knowledge management
architecture must be:
• Available (if knowledge exists, it is available for
• Accurate in retrieval (if available, knowledge is
• Effective (knowledge retrieved is useful and correct)
• Accessible (knowledge is available during the time of need)
This is an area that falls under the purview of
traditional library services.
Successful knowledge management
architecture must leverage these services and
their lessons learned.
Outside knowledge resources must be
evaluated and tapped.
At the source of where most knowledge is
created — the corporate word processing
application — replace the standard Save
command with an applet that automatically
prompts the user to see if he/she would
like to add the document to the knowledge
If the employee agrees, the document is
saved to both the file location of his/her
choice and the knowledge base with the click
of a button
Accurate retrieval of documents is critical to
the success of any knowledge architecture.
If a search for knowledge comes up
consistently empty or not relevant, the user
will usually look for another method to find
Making the knowledge internal to an
organization available is a more difficult task
because the knowledge available is not
already in the form of a finished product.
Advanced technology can make a large,
positive impact in this area.
The challenge of making knowledge that
exists in the heads of individual knowledge
workers available to an organization is
tackled by creating a pervasive sharing
infrastructure and culture
The knowledge available in a knowledge base
must be of a high quality for the knowledge
base to be successful. If the quality of the
knowledge in the knowledge base degrades,
employees will stop using it as a source of
The knowledge in an effective knowledge
management architecture should be available
during the time of need. By basing the client
side of the architecture on open Web
technologies, the architecture will be able to
leverage the mobile capabilities of IP-based
The use of an effective knowledge
architecture enables an organization to start
on the path to becoming a learning
organization. Effective knowledge propagates
rapidly throughout the organization.
Tell me about yourself.
* What are your strengths?
* What are your weaknesses?
* What kind of personality do you work best with
* Why do you want this job?
* Where would you like to be in your career five
years from now?
* Tell me about your proudest achievement.
* If I were to give you this salary you requested
but let you write your job description for the next
year, what would it say?
How would you feel about working for someone
who knows less than you?
* Was there a person in your career who really
made a difference?
* What‘s your ideal company?
* What attracted you to this company?
* What are you most proud of?
* What are you looking for in terms of career
* What do you look for in terms of culture —
structured or entrepreneurial?
1. Entomology is the science that studies
A. Behavior of human beings
C. The origin and history of technical and
D. The formation of rocks
2. For which of the following disciplines is
Nobel Prize awarded?
A. Physics and Chemistry
B. Physiology or Medicine
C. Literature, Peace and Economics
D. All of the above
Exposure to sunlight helps a person improve
his health because
A. the infrared light kills bacteria in the body
B. resistance power increases
C. the pigment cells in the skin get stimulated
and produce a healthy tan
D. the ultraviolet rays convert skin oil into
Chlorophyll is a naturally occurring chelate
compound in which central metal is
Which of the following is used in pencils?
Galvanised iron sheets have a coating of
Change is the single most thing happening in
the world of commerce
Those organizations and people who do not
see it coming or, are not prepared for
managing it when it happens, get left behind
Anticipating change and leveraging your
leadership skills and that of the
organizational resources is a fine art that can
be ably aided by KM.
The major input for KM has come from the
accelerating rate of change in the business
When change occurs, whether external or
internal to an organization, people need new
knowledge to do their work.
What they knew before becomes obsolete.
When change comes rapidly, the organization
cannot rely on its old informal ways of gaining
and trans-ferring knowledge.
KM has enabled many organizations of
worldwide repute to comprehensively change
their approach and service delivery capability,
both towards their internal employee community
and towards external stakeholders
Knowledge is being built about vital processes
Some of the companies that have
undergone changes and leveraged these
changes to build stronger companies are:
(1) HP; (2) IBM; (3) Intel; (4) AT&T; (5) Ports of
Singapore and Seattle; (6) Warner Brothers
The techniques requisite to achieve the core
knowledge management processes, the
associated methodologies for implementation as
well as the tools are presented here.
Tools mentioned here are most commonly used
one in most of the organization.
Today World wide Web is a distributed
hypermedia system available internationally
through the internet.
It provides general purpose client server
technology which supports interaction through
documents with embedded graphic user interface
There are three creation techniques employed
Organizational Knowledge ecosystem: a
knowledge ecosystem can be constructed as
a tri-layered network comprising of the
Organizational network analysis: It is an
Object-Oriented model of an organization
With objects such as
teams, and technologies interlinked,
sending messages to each other
and invoking their respective methods to
accomplish the organization goal.
An escalating rate in the growth and diversity
of Knowledge and information
The fragmentation of discipline
An increase in professional mobility
The lack of any formal framework which
explicitly represents the collective K base.
K mapping represents the ongoing question
within an organization.
to help discover the location, ownership,
value and use of K artifacts,
to learn the roles & expertise of people
to identify constraints
to the flow of K and
to highlight opportunities to leverage
K mapping is an important Practice
consisting of surveys, audit, and syntheses.
It aims to track the acquisition and loss of
information and Knowledge
It maps how K flows throughout an
It is a navigational aid to explicit (codified)
information and tacit knowledge, highlighting
the importance and relationship between
knowledge stores and dynamic.
Location, ownership, validity, access rights
Explicit and tacit Knowledge
Encourage reuse of organizational knowledge and
Highlights islands of expertise
Discover effective and emergent communities of
Provide a baseline for measuring progress
Reduce the burden on experts by helping staff to find
critical information quickly
Improve customer response
Highlights opportunities for learning
Research for designing a Knowledge architecture.
Provide an inventory and evaluation of intellectual
K mapping technique is dependent on the
understanding of the organizational
knowledge structures and the mediums of
representations appropriate to these
It also depends on the need for a shared
network of developers and users that would
interact in advancing the techniques.
A general organizational map is constructed of four
interconnected representational spaces as mentioned
Dialogue space: An area for free exploration, notation
and diagramming that helps Organization knowledge
mapper to question or clarify intents, identify
justification, categories the key construct and explore
the possible relationship between constructs. Brain
storming etc can be used.
2. Construct- Relation space: Here each of the
construct developed in the dialogue space is formally
defined and described
.e.g infn about the author of construct etc.
3. Operational space: Here the constructs
defined above are represented, located,
combined, classified. It shows the evolving
map of the overall orgn.
4. Interpretive space: The additional K that
may required by the user to understand the
map created in the operational space is
introduced or additional references are
provided through the interpretive space.
1.Visual Concept is a ―visual thinking software‖;
providing a medium for all kinds of creative and
Advantages of this software:
It enhances the structuring of thoughts to write
It serves as a medium for involving others in
sharing infn and for thinking together
It helps to access the full power of an individual‘s
It can be used to access Knowledge repositories
and to enhance organizational thinking.
2. Concept mapping: are tools for organizing and
representing Knowledge. They include concepts –
usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type
– and relationship between concepts or
proposition, indicated by a connecting line b/w
Key concepts a regularity in events or objects, or
records of events or objects, designated by a
Propositions are statements about some object
or events in the event considered. They contains
two or more concept connected with other words
to form a meaningful statements.
Organizational Knowledge Acquisition
methods assists in the standardization of the
requirements of an organization and make
this process as cyclic.
Methods ranges from informal techniques
like user observation
Methods ranges from informal techniques
like user observation through common
methods such as interviews, questionnaires,
and workshops to more formal techniques
and deployment of collaborative tools within
Hold short duration seminars on key
organizational processes and procedures,
technology advancements etc.
It is work-process-oriented
Organization culture is as important as tool
to aid effective KA & capture within an orgn.
The rise of internet & related technologies
has contributed to the requirement of a new
level KA tools.
Programs from Alta Vista to Yahoo and
Google Search have designed.
Grapevine, an KA tool uses a chart and other
components to add value to information to
individual basis, promoting KA and K
The software tools used to generate indexes
come in many flavors and varieties. The
techniques depends on variables such as
budget, reusability, time constraint, media
used to publish the material, File size and
transfer issues, and individual preferences.
Innovation is the key to competitive
advantage. Innovation begins by empowering
an org‘s employee through learning, sharing
K, and collaborations.
OK whether created, acquired, captured
needs to be stored, structured or organized
and processed or analyzed before it can
passes on to the OK base for dissemination
Document Management System
Database Management System- this consist of
Data Warehouse- is a collection of data in
support of management‘s decision-making
process that is subject-oriented, integrated,
time-variant, and nonvolatile.
DBMS provide access to the data stored but this
was only a small part of what could be gained
from the data.
Traditional on line transaction processing
systems(OLTP) are good for inserting data into
databases quickly, safely, and efficiently but are
not good at delivering meaningful analysis in
Analysis of data can provide further knowledge
about a business
Data mining or Knowledge Discovery in
provides an orgn with more benefits in data
Online analytical Processing
Data mining- Is the search for relationships
and global patterns that exists in large
databases but are hidden among the vast
amount of data, such as a relationship
temperature of a room and the productivity
of the employee.
The mining process begins with the raw data
and terminates with the extracted knowledge
acquired as a result of the foll. Stages:
Interpretation and evaluation
It is an increasingly popular technology, that can
dramatically improve business analysis, but
characterized by expensive tools, difficult
implementation, inflexible deployment.
Microsoft has developed a solution.
Microsoft SQL Server OLAP Service is a fully featured
OLAP capability that is components of Microsoft SQL
Server version 7.0 as well as SQL Server version 2000.
OLAP services includes:
a middle-tier server that allows users to perform
sophisticated analysis on large volumes of data with
PivotTable service allows user to conduct analysis
while disconnecting from the corporate network.
There are three main barriers to sharing
Knowledge: Temporal, spatial, and Social
Tools can be used to overcome these barriers
Time can also be a barrier – historical and
Groupware and similar Internet-based tools
allow individuals to create virtual spaces to
carry on conversation regardless of time and
distance, work on documents, create virtual
libraries and knowledge bases, and
coordinate activities from remote locations.
If a peanut falls from a tree when the wind is
blowing north, where will it land?
North for sure!
On the ground?
Peanuts don`t grow on trees!
If a red house is made of red bricks, a blue
house is made of blue bricks, and a yellow
house is made of yellow bricks.... What is a
green house made of?
Not enough information to answer
Silverville has a red house, blue house, purple
house, and a green house. But where is the
Not enough information
A farmer has 33 cows. But a lightning bolt
kills 10 of them. How many does the farmer