Module 6


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Module 6

  1. 1. Module 6
  2. 2.  KM is the explicit and systematic managements of vital knowledge and its associated process of creation, organization, diffusion, use, and exploitation.  Knowledge is the full utilization of information and data, coupled with the potential of people‘s skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions, commitments, and motivation.  Organizational knowledge can be defined as understanding of the intrinsic systems and processes that could be employed to take effective action to achieve the orgnal goal.
  3. 3.  Is to defined with respect to  Intelligence :- ability to gain and apply knowledge Memory :- to store and retrieve experience at will Learning :- is knowledge or skill that is acquired by instruction or study  Experience  Common sense refers to inflective opinion of ordinary humans, which comes naturally to a child as young as 3 to 4 years
  4. 4.  you are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?
  5. 5.  Take 1000 and add 40 to it. Now add another 1000. Now add 30. Add another 1000... Now add 20. Now add another 1000 Now add 10. What is the total?  Mary's father has five daughters:  1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono.  What is the name of the fifth daughter?
  6. 6.  Shallow and deep –Minimal Understanding, years of experience  Knowledge as know –how- practical Knowledge  Common sense as knowledge-set personal experience and facts acquired over time  Reasoning and heuristics-one concept to other , reasoning with facts  Procedural Knowledge to episodic Knowledge- how to carry out procedure, experimental information based on long term  Explicit and Tactic Knowledge
  7. 7.  Tactic knowledge is knowledge embedded in the human mind through experience and jobs.  It includes intuitions values, beliefs, real life experience  Explicit Knowledge is codified and digitized in books, documents, reports, white papers, spreadsheets , memos, training courses
  8. 8. Knowledge creation Knowledge acquisition Knowledge organization Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Renewal
  9. 9. Initial knowledge A job is performed by a team New knowledge to reused by the team for next job Knowledge captured and coded usable by others Outcome is realized Outcome is compared to action New experience and /or obtained
  10. 10.  An applied ‗brain drain‘  Transfer of problem solving expertise from some knowledge source to a repository  Capturing is crucial for the building as well as effectively using organizational information
  11. 11.  On site observation  Brain storming  Electronic brainstorming  Protocol analysis  Repertory Grid  Delphi method  Nominal group techniques  Concept mapping  Node  Black board
  12. 12.  Refers to design and development of knowledge repositories  Ensures easier retrieval , creation and sharing of knowledge  It includes  Indexing:- keywords  Abstracting :- concrete/conceptual  Cataloguing :- sorting /classification  Records management  Bibliography
  13. 13. Vocational reinforcers Attitude Work Norms Company polices and strategies Knowledg e sharingOrganizati onal culture Personali ty
  14. 14.  The process used to create, communicate and apply Knowledge results in the generation of new Knowledge and resultant expansion of the organization Knowledge base  This cycle transform data into information which is enhanced and converted into knowledge whose application creates new data and information thereby repeating the cycle
  15. 15. •Email report•Learn from reports •Dialog within team •Answer questions •Team meeting and discussion Tacit to tacit (socializati on) Tactic to Explicit (externaliz ation Explicit to Explicit (communic ation Explicit to Tactic internalizat ion
  16. 16. People TechnologyContent
  17. 17.  In this age of information, knowledge is the most important factor in the long-term success of both an individual and an organization. In fact,
  18. 18.  It is believed that the only source of competitive advantage in the future will be the knowledge that an organization contains and an organization‘s ability to learn faster than the competition.
  19. 19.  With knowledge taking on increased importance, it makes sense that there is an opportunity to create competitive advantage by effectively managing its storage and use.
  20. 20.  An effective knowledge management architecture creates competitive advantage by bringing appropriate knowledge to the point of action during the moment of need.
  21. 21.  Employee turnover is also reduced because a large portion of the knowledge and expertise acquired by the employee is captured in the knowledge base
  22. 22.  A successful knowledge management architecture must be:  • Available (if knowledge exists, it is available for retrieval)  • Accurate in retrieval (if available, knowledge is retrieved)  • Effective (knowledge retrieved is useful and correct)  • Accessible (knowledge is available during the time of need)
  23. 23.  This is an area that falls under the purview of traditional library services.  Successful knowledge management architecture must leverage these services and their lessons learned.  Outside knowledge resources must be evaluated and tapped.
  24. 24.  At the source of where most knowledge is created — the corporate word processing application — replace the standard Save command with an applet that automatically prompts the user to see if he/she would like to add the document to the knowledge base.
  25. 25.  If the employee agrees, the document is saved to both the file location of his/her choice and the knowledge base with the click of a button
  26. 26.  Accurate retrieval of documents is critical to the success of any knowledge architecture.  If a search for knowledge comes up consistently empty or not relevant, the user will usually look for another method to find information
  27. 27.  Making the knowledge internal to an organization available is a more difficult task because the knowledge available is not already in the form of a finished product.
  28. 28.  Advanced technology can make a large, positive impact in this area.  The challenge of making knowledge that exists in the heads of individual knowledge workers available to an organization is tackled by creating a pervasive sharing infrastructure and culture
  29. 29.  The knowledge available in a knowledge base must be of a high quality for the knowledge base to be successful. If the quality of the knowledge in the knowledge base degrades, employees will stop using it as a source of knowledge
  30. 30.  The knowledge in an effective knowledge management architecture should be available during the time of need. By basing the client side of the architecture on open Web technologies, the architecture will be able to leverage the mobile capabilities of IP-based Web technology
  31. 31.  The use of an effective knowledge architecture enables an organization to start on the path to becoming a learning organization. Effective knowledge propagates rapidly throughout the organization.
  32. 32.  Tell me about yourself.  * What are your strengths?  * What are your weaknesses?  * What kind of personality do you work best with and why?  * Why do you want this job?  * Where would you like to be in your career five years from now?  * Tell me about your proudest achievement.  * If I were to give you this salary you requested but let you write your job description for the next year, what would it say?
  33. 33.  How would you feel about working for someone who knows less than you?  * Was there a person in your career who really made a difference?  * What‘s your ideal company?  * What attracted you to this company?  * What are you most proud of?  * What are you looking for in terms of career development?  * What do you look for in terms of culture — structured or entrepreneurial?
  34. 34.  1. Entomology is the science that studies  A. Behavior of human beings  B. Insects  C. The origin and history of technical and scientific terms  D. The formation of rocks
  35. 35.  2. For which of the following disciplines is Nobel Prize awarded?  A. Physics and Chemistry  B. Physiology or Medicine  C. Literature, Peace and Economics  D. All of the above
  36. 36.  Exposure to sunlight helps a person improve his health because  A. the infrared light kills bacteria in the body  B. resistance power increases  C. the pigment cells in the skin get stimulated and produce a healthy tan  D. the ultraviolet rays convert skin oil into Vitamin D
  37. 37.  Chlorophyll is a naturally occurring chelate compound in which central metal is  A. copper  B. magnesium  C. iron  D. calcium
  38. 38.  Which of the following is used in pencils?  A. Graphite  B. Silicon  C. Charcoal  D. Phosphorous
  39. 39.  Galvanised iron sheets have a coating of  A. lead  B. chromium  C. zinc  D. tin
  40. 40.  Change is the single most thing happening in the world of commerce  Those organizations and people who do not see it coming or, are not prepared for managing it when it happens, get left behind
  41. 41.  Anticipating change and leveraging your leadership skills and that of the organizational resources is a fine art that can be ably aided by KM.  The major input for KM has come from the accelerating rate of change in the business world.
  42. 42.  When change occurs, whether external or internal to an organization, people need new knowledge to do their work.  What they knew before becomes obsolete.  When change comes rapidly, the organization cannot rely on its old informal ways of gaining and trans-ferring knowledge.
  43. 43.  KM has enabled many organizations of worldwide repute to comprehensively change their approach and service delivery capability, both towards their internal employee community and towards external stakeholders  Knowledge is being built about vital processes and practices
  44. 44.  Some of the companies that have undergone changes and leveraged these changes to build stronger companies are: (1) HP; (2) IBM; (3) Intel; (4) AT&T; (5) Ports of Singapore and Seattle; (6) Warner Brothers studios
  45. 45.  The techniques requisite to achieve the core knowledge management processes, the associated methodologies for implementation as well as the tools are presented here.  Tools mentioned here are most commonly used one in most of the organization.  Today World wide Web is a distributed hypermedia system available internationally through the internet.  It provides general purpose client server technology which supports interaction through documents with embedded graphic user interface
  46. 46.  Knowledge Creation  Organizational Knowledge Mapping techniques  Organizational Knowledge acquisition techniques  Organizational Knowledge Indexing  Organizational Knowledge Processing  Knowledge Processing  Organizational Knowledge Dissemination
  47. 47.  There are three creation techniques employed by organizations:  Knowledge Networks  Organizational Knowledge ecosystem: a knowledge ecosystem can be constructed as a tri-layered network comprising of the following:  People network  Knowledge network  Technology network
  48. 48.  Organizational network analysis: It is an Object-Oriented model of an organization With objects such as  people,  teams, and technologies interlinked,  sending messages to each other  and invoking their respective methods to accomplish the organization goal.
  49. 49.  An escalating rate in the growth and diversity of Knowledge and information  The fragmentation of discipline  An increase in professional mobility  The lack of any formal framework which explicitly represents the collective K base.
  50. 50.  K mapping represents the ongoing question within an organization.  to help discover the location, ownership, value and use of K artifacts,  to learn the roles & expertise of people  to identify constraints  to the flow of K and  to highlight opportunities to leverage existing k.
  51. 51.  K mapping is an important Practice consisting of surveys, audit, and syntheses.  It aims to track the acquisition and loss of information and Knowledge  It maps how K flows throughout an organization.
  52. 52.  It is a navigational aid to explicit (codified) information and tacit knowledge, highlighting the importance and relationship between knowledge stores and dynamic.  It highlights:  Location, ownership, validity, access rights etc.  Organizational documents  Boundary objects  Explicit and tacit Knowledge
  53. 53.  Encourage reuse of organizational knowledge and prevent re-invention  Highlights islands of expertise  Discover effective and emergent communities of practice  Provide a baseline for measuring progress  Reduce the burden on experts by helping staff to find critical information quickly  Improve customer response  Highlights opportunities for learning  Research for designing a Knowledge architecture.  Provide an inventory and evaluation of intellectual capital.
  54. 54.  K mapping technique is dependent on the understanding of the organizational knowledge structures and the mediums of representations appropriate to these structures.  It also depends on the need for a shared network of developers and users that would interact in advancing the techniques.
  55. 55.  A general organizational map is constructed of four interconnected representational spaces as mentioned below:  Dialogue space: An area for free exploration, notation and diagramming that helps Organization knowledge mapper to question or clarify intents, identify justification, categories the key construct and explore the possible relationship between constructs. Brain storming etc can be used.  2. Construct- Relation space: Here each of the construct developed in the dialogue space is formally defined and described  .e.g infn about the author of construct etc.
  56. 56.  3. Operational space: Here the constructs defined above are represented, located, combined, classified. It shows the evolving map of the overall orgn.  4. Interpretive space: The additional K that may required by the user to understand the map created in the operational space is introduced or additional references are provided through the interpretive space.
  57. 57.  1.Visual Concept is a ―visual thinking software‖; providing a medium for all kinds of creative and systems thinking.  Advantages of this software:  It enhances the structuring of thoughts to write essays  It serves as a medium for involving others in sharing infn and for thinking together  It helps to access the full power of an individual‘s mind.  It can be used to access Knowledge repositories and to enhance organizational thinking.
  58. 58.  2. Concept mapping: are tools for organizing and representing Knowledge. They include concepts – usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type – and relationship between concepts or proposition, indicated by a connecting line b/w two concepts.  Key concepts a regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label.  Propositions are statements about some object or events in the event considered. They contains two or more concept connected with other words to form a meaningful statements.
  59. 59.  Implementation methodology:  Organizational Knowledge Acquisition methods assists in the standardization of the requirements of an organization and make this process as cyclic.  Methods ranges from informal techniques like user observation
  60. 60.  Methods ranges from informal techniques like user observation through common methods such as interviews, questionnaires, and workshops to more formal techniques and deployment of collaborative tools within the orgn.  Hold short duration seminars on key organizational processes and procedures, technology advancements etc.  It is work-process-oriented
  61. 61.  Organization culture is as important as tool to aid effective KA & capture within an orgn.  The rise of internet & related technologies has contributed to the requirement of a new level KA tools.  Programs from Alta Vista to Yahoo and Google Search have designed.  Grapevine, an KA tool uses a chart and other components to add value to information to individual basis, promoting KA and K transfer.
  62. 62.  The software tools used to generate indexes come in many flavors and varieties. The techniques depends on variables such as budget, reusability, time constraint, media used to publish the material, File size and transfer issues, and individual preferences.
  63. 63.  Standalone tools  Embedding tools  Tagging tools  Key wording  Weighted-text search tools  Automated indexing software
  64. 64.  Innovation is the key to competitive advantage. Innovation begins by empowering an org‘s employee through learning, sharing K, and collaborations.  OK whether created, acquired, captured needs to be stored, structured or organized and processed or analyzed before it can passes on to the OK base for dissemination through organization.
  65. 65.  Document Management System  Database Management System- this consist of four components:  Data  Hardware  Software  Users  Data Warehouse- is a collection of data in support of management‘s decision-making process that is subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile.
  66. 66.  DBMS provide access to the data stored but this was only a small part of what could be gained from the data.  Traditional on line transaction processing systems(OLTP) are good for inserting data into databases quickly, safely, and efficiently but are not good at delivering meaningful analysis in return.  Analysis of data can provide further knowledge about a business  Data mining or Knowledge Discovery in Databases(KDD) provides an orgn with more benefits in data analysis.
  67. 67.  Data mining  Online analytical Processing  Data mining- Is the search for relationships and global patterns that exists in large databases but are hidden among the vast amount of data, such as a relationship temperature of a room and the productivity of the employee.
  68. 68.  The mining process begins with the raw data and terminates with the extracted knowledge acquired as a result of the foll. Stages:  Selection  Preprocessing  Transformation  Data mining  Interpretation and evaluation
  69. 69.  It is an increasingly popular technology, that can dramatically improve business analysis, but characterized by expensive tools, difficult implementation, inflexible deployment.  Microsoft has developed a solution.  Microsoft SQL Server OLAP Service is a fully featured OLAP capability that is components of Microsoft SQL Server version 7.0 as well as SQL Server version 2000.  OLAP services includes:  a middle-tier server that allows users to perform sophisticated analysis on large volumes of data with exceptional performance.  PivotTable service allows user to conduct analysis while disconnecting from the corporate network.
  70. 70.  There are three main barriers to sharing Knowledge: Temporal, spatial, and Social distance.  Tools can be used to overcome these barriers  Time can also be a barrier – historical and current
  71. 71.  Groupware and similar Internet-based tools allow individuals to create virtual spaces to carry on conversation regardless of time and distance, work on documents, create virtual libraries and knowledge bases, and coordinate activities from remote locations.  Conferencing
  72. 72.  If a peanut falls from a tree when the wind is blowing north, where will it land?  North for sure!  On the ground?  Peanuts don`t grow on trees!
  73. 73.  If a red house is made of red bricks, a blue house is made of blue bricks, and a yellow house is made of yellow bricks.... What is a green house made of?  Green bricks  Glass  Not enough information to answer
  74. 74.  Silverville has a red house, blue house, purple house, and a green house. But where is the white house?  D.C.  Silverville!  Not enough information
  75. 75.  A farmer has 33 cows. But a lightning bolt kills 10 of them. How many does the farmer have?  23  43  33