Km & Cm 2


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Km & Cm 2

  1. 1. Change Management and Knowledge Management Initiatives Nina Platt October 10, 2006
  2. 2. Thoughts on Change Management <ul><li>Change management is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… the process, tools and techniques to manage the people side of business change to achieve the required business outcome and to realize that business change effectively within the social infrastructure of the workplace.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… the engineer’s approach to improving business performance and a psychologist's approach to managing the human-side of change ” </li></ul></ul>Jeff Hiatt and Tim Creasey
  3. 3. Lest we Forget . . . <ul><li>It is the people-side of change that we often ignore as we look to innovate. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Kübler-Ross </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Lewin </li></ul><ul><li>William Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jim Gordon </li></ul>
  4. 4. Innovation Curve
  5. 5. The Grief Cycle Elizabeth Kübler-Ross & David Kessler, On Grief and Grieving: Finding the Meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss
  6. 6. The Positive Change Cycle Kris Magnusson, The Positive Change Cycle (based on work with Dr Jim Gordon
  7. 7. Lewin's freeze phases <ul><li>Kurt Lewin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Psychology of Transition <ul><li>William Bridges, Managing Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saying goodbye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting into neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving Forward </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Psychology of Transition Time Level of Management Ending Losing Letting Go The Neutral Zone The New Beginning
  10. 10. Moses in the Neutral Zone
  11. 11. How to Help People in Transition <ul><li>Learn to describe the change and why it must happen, and do so succinctly </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that the details of the change are planned carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what is ending (and what is not) and for who </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that steps are taken to help people respectfully let go of the past </li></ul>William Bridges and Susan Mitchell Bridges, “Leading Transition: A New Model for Change” Leader to Leader
  12. 12. Change doesn’t happen without Transitions <ul><li>Help people through the neutral zone with communication (rather than simple information) that emphasizes connections with and concern for the followers </li></ul><ul><li>the &quot;4 P's&quot; of transition communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose : Why we have to do this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The picture : What it will look and feel like when we reach our goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan : Step-by-step, how we will get there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The part : What you can (and need to) do to help us move forward </li></ul></ul>Bridges Continued
  13. 13. Change doesn’t happen without Transitions <ul><li>Create temporary solutions to the temporary problems and the high levels of uncertainty found in the neutral zone </li></ul><ul><li>Help people launch the new beginning by articulating the new attitudes and behaviors needed to make the change work </li></ul>Bridges Continued
  14. 14. Communication is Key <ul><li>The Purpose : Why we have to do this </li></ul><ul><li>The Picture : How the attainment of our goal will look and feel </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan : How we get there, step by step </li></ul><ul><li>The Part : What you can and must do to help us move forward </li></ul>
  15. 15. Communicate the Purpose – Expertise Locator Example <ul><li>As a firm grows into a size where the attorneys and staff no longer know everyone and what they can do, a system for sharing knowledge is needed. By enabling lawyers to identify sources of expertise within the firm, the expertise system will: </li></ul><ul><li>Promote integration of practice groups and offices </li></ul><ul><li>Increase interaction among individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance cross-marketing efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the incidence of outside referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Improve teamwork </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communicate the Picture – Expertise Locator Example <ul><li>The system will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be Web-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work by indexing profiles, documents and databases that show where expertise can be found. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attorneys and staff will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be able to search by expertise or the knowledge needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be provided with a list of experts with links to profiles, documents, and other materials. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Communicate the Plan – Expertise Locator Example <ul><li>A team of attorneys and staff will be assembled to determine critical issues, such as the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the architecture of the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the data sets to be included (e.g., human resources, time and billing, client relationship management, and document management) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the information that will be used from the profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Once a design is in place the KM team will work closely with developers. </li></ul><ul><li>Team members will subsequently work to test the system and develop and implement a rollout plan. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Communicate the End-Users Part – Expertise Locator Example <ul><li>“ What do I have to do?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in planning, development, and rollout (if asked), provide content on your expertise, and learn how to use the new system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ What’s in it for me?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When everyone shares what they know, you learn more about your colleagues, keep client work within the firm, reduce the time you spend learning about a new topic, and give yourself more billable time. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Change Models <ul><li>Three Basic Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-Down Models: &quot;It's all about leadership&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity-Building Models: Transformational learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Models: Follow the steps </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Top-Down Model Example <ul><li>Bill Blundell, , the Chairman of the Standards Advisory Board for Modern Comptrollership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine generally where you are going </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the objective or strategies to close the gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the organizational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure how you are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible issue : Takes leadership willing to work </li></ul>
  21. 21. Capacity-Building Model Example <ul><li>Bruce Avolio, Full Leadership Development and Transformational and Charismatic Leadership .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspirational motivation – providing a compelling mission, optimism, enthusiasm, and emotional appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized consideration –responding to individual needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealized influence – walking the talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual stimulation –challenging people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to find new solutions, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to view problems from new perspectives, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enabling the expression of followers' negative emotions and concerns.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible issue – takes time </li></ul>
  22. 22. Strategic Model Example : John Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Major Change Create urgency Anchor new approaches in culture Consolidate gains; produce more change Generate short term wins Empower broad based action Form vision and strategy Communicate the vision Broad-based coalition Source: Leading Change; John Kotter 2 5 4 1 3 6 7 8
  23. 23. Strategic Model Example : John Kotter’s Eight Stage Process of Creating Major Change <ul><li>Possible issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes willingness to communicate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. With all these models … <ul><li>Which one works? It depends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on the initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the culture of your organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kotter’s may work best in legal organizations. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Eight Stages of Creating Change Implementation in a KM Initiative <ul><li>Establish a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create the guiding coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision and strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the change vision </li></ul><ul><li>Empower broad-based action </li></ul><ul><li>Generate short-term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate gains and produce more change </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor new approaches in the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the business problem that the KM initiative will solve to the right audience </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a team with the knowledge to initiate change and the power to make KM happen </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the firm’s vision for KM and the strategies for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Share the vision and how it will affect the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the KM team the authority to initiate the changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with the practice groups that are most likely to accept KM and celebrate their achievements. </li></ul><ul><li>Use success to create more success </li></ul><ul><li>Make the KM initiatives a part of the daily work process of the firm. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Practice Areas Intranet Sites <ul><li>Focus on overview, team members, marketing, best practices, opportunities, success stories, research, current awareness, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Represent teams that are made up of members from one group and teams that have members that cross several groups </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: It is fairly easy to create the sites if you can get attorney time, but, what if the organization doesn’t work through practice areas? This is where change management becomes part of the KM process. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Potential Challenges Requiring Change <ul><li>Becoming entrepreneurial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embrace risk & engage uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think strategically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking turns leading </li></ul><ul><li>Operating as a team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move away from the individual practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on team success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make cross marketing a norm </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The 8 Steps <ul><li>Create a Sense of Urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create Broad-based Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Form Vision & Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Change in Legal Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Client Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Creates better environment for marketing and competitive intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Top down or grassroots? </li></ul><ul><li>Look for and enlist partners who are interested in doing business by practice area </li></ul><ul><li>Work as a team to develop plan </li></ul>
  29. 29. The 8 Steps <ul><li>Communicate the Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Empower Broad-based Action </li></ul><ul><li>Use the “4 P’s” to communicate – the more ways you do it the more successful you will be. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Identify expertise and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Leave visioning and implementation to each practice area </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor </li></ul>
  30. 30. The 8 Steps <ul><li>Generate short-term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate gains; produce more change </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor new approaches in culture </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a small number of practice areas to successfully develop their business </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate success </li></ul><ul><li>Begin process again with additional practice areas </li></ul><ul><li>Define best practices in the forming new practice areas </li></ul>
  31. 31. Changing Culture <ul><li>Culture is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who we are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we believe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How we act </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Three Levels of Culture Edgard Schein, Organization Culture & Leadership
  33. 33. The Chicken or the Egg <ul><li>“… changing the culture of an organization requires a transformation of the organization itself—its purpose, its focus on customers and results … Culture changes when the organization is transformed; the culture reflects the realities of people working together every day.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frances Hesselbein, The Key to Cultural Transformation, Leader to Leader, No. 12 Spring 1999. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Again with the Chicken or the Egg <ul><li>“ it is the performance that changes the culture, not the reverse.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frances Hesselbein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Change Management & Social Networks <ul><li>Change and the transitions it creates is individual </li></ul><ul><li>But, Networks influence how individuals change including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How happily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How productively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How intelligently </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Change Management & Social Networks <ul><li>“… the most effective change agents are those individuals who have placed themselves at the center of intricate webs of relationships.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ How to help employees build and maintain these unique relationships may be the most effective change-management &quot;technique&quot; a leader could learn. “ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Kinsey Goman, “The Importance of Social Networking in Change Management”, The Sideroad. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Change Management & Social Networks <ul><li>Relationships among individuals based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mutual trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared work experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common physical and virtual spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ are in many senses the true structure of today's organizations. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Kinsey Goman continued </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Change Management & Social Networks <ul><li>Change agent = Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks based on knowledge, trust, relationships and community </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes needed by champion to make change happen through social networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motive not self-serving but driven by the desire to find the most effective way of getting things done </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Techniques for Managing Change in Social Networks <ul><li>Create opportunities to develop relationships further within the group – especially if the network is newly formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice area retreats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of Interest built around expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint learning experiences around topics of similar interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual educational opportunities around how to build a network </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Resources <ul><li>Kotter, Leading Change . Harvard Business School Press, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Platt, &quot;Change Strategies are the Key to KM,&quot; 2004, at </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson & Aaron, The Change Management Pocket Guide: Tools for Managing Change . Change Guides LLC, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Kelly, &quot;Masterclass: Change Management, Parts 1 & 2,&quot; I nside Knowledge , April & May 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges & Bridges, &quot;Leading Transition: A New Model for Change,&quot; Leader to Leader Spring 2000, at </li></ul><ul><li>Dreyfuss, &quot;How to Understand and Manage Organizational Change and Its Effect on People,&quot; Gartner Research, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Lientz & Rea, Breakthrough IT Change Management: How to Get Enduring Change Results . Elsevier, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron & Green, Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide .  Kogan Page, 2003. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Parting thoughts … <ul><li>“ Never doubt that a small, group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Margaret Mead </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>