Program: The Role of Parent Engagement in Student Access and Success


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This workshop focused on best practices related to strategies for enhancing parental engagement for middle, high school and college students.

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  • Frequent interaction between school, family and community produces positive results for students Schools make choices. They might conduct only a few communications and interactions with families and communities, keeping the three spheres of influence that directly affect student learning and development relatively separate. Or they might conduct many high-quality communications and interactions designed to bring all three spheres of influence closer together. With frequent interactions between schools, families, and communities, more students are more likely to receive common messages from various people about the importance of school, of working hard, of thinking creatively, of helping one another, and of staying in school. The external model of overlapping spheres of influence recognizes that the three major contexts in which students learn and grow - the family, the school, and the community - may be drawn together or pushed apart. In this model, there are some practices that schools, families, and communities conduct separately and some that they conduct jointly in order to influence children's learning and development. The internal model of the interaction of the three spheres of influence shows where and how complex and essential interpersonal relations and patterns of influence occur between individuals at home, at school, and in the community. These social relationships may be enacted and studied at an institutional level (e.g., when a school invites all families to an event or sends the same communications to all families) and at an individual level (e.g., when a parent and a teacher meet in conference or talk by phone). Connections between schools or parents and community groups, agencies, and services can also be represented and studied within the model.(1) The model of school, family, and community partnerships locates the student at the center. Here, students are the main actors in their education, development, and success in school. School, family, and community partnerships cannot simply produce successful students. Rather, partnership activities must be designed to engage, guide, energize and motivate students to produce their own successes. The assumption here is that if students feel cared for and encouraged to work hard in the role of student, they are more likely to do their best to learn to read, write, calculate, and learn other skills and talents to remain in the school.
  • Program: The Role of Parent Engagement in Student Access and Success

    1. 1. Bernard Oliver, Ed.D.; Director/Professor Diane Archer-Banks, Ph. D.; Program Coordinator Diana Negron-Reyes, Ed. S. Program Coordinator Sophie Maxis, Graduate Assistant University of Florida Alliance 186 Norman Hall Gainesville, FL 32611 (352) 273-4358 The Role of Parental Engagement in Student Access and Success A paper prepared for the National Partnership for Educational Access Conference Baltimore, MD April, 2010
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Why Parental Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Outreach Program Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools and Families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epstein’s Model of Family and Community Influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic, Social, Financial, Cultural Factors Impacting Access and Success </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with College Access </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening the Pre-College Trajectory </li></ul><ul><li>What Matters Most on the Path to College </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    3. 3. <ul><li>What Students Need to Create a College-going Culture </li></ul><ul><li>University of Florida Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission/Core Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What We Do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we get Parents Involved </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance Results/Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Future Research </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    4. 4. WHY PARENTAL ENGAGEMENT 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    5. 5. Outreach Program Services <ul><li>Counseling/awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Academic support </li></ul><ul><li>Personal and social awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Career-based outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Financial assistance </li></ul><ul><li>(McCants, 2004) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    6. 6. Schools and Families <ul><li>Students/schools with engaged parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earn higher grades/test scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enroll in higher level programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be promoted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have regular school attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have better social skills, adaptive behaviors etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend postsecondary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience stronger teacher-parent relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves the overall quality of the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Henderson & Mapp 2002 ) </li></ul></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    7. 7. Theoretical Model OVERLAPPING SPHERES OF INFLUENCE OF FAMILY, SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY ON CHILDREN’S LEARNING 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010 External Structure <ul><li>FORCE B </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul><ul><li>FORCE D </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul><ul><li>FORCE C </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul>FORCE A Time/Age/Grade Level Students
    8. 8. Six Types of Parental Engagement <ul><li>Parent obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting School </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>( Catsambis, 1998 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    9. 9. COLLEGE ACCESS AND SUCCESS 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    10. 10. Academic, Social, Financial, Cultural Factors Impacting Access and Success <ul><li>Academic rigor has greater impact on degree completion than any other pre-college indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 33% of HS graduates complete college prep </li></ul><ul><li>Underserved have more limited access to rigorous courses and they lag behind in taking advanced math/science </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers believe that underserved cannot meet expectations </li></ul><ul><li>45% of African American students were enrolled in schools with less than 90% non-White (these schools have less rigorous curricula, fewer resources, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>( Pathways to College, 2004 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    11. 11. Academic, Social, Financial, Cultural Factors Impacting Access and Success <ul><li>Only 25% of low-income students are enrolled in college prep compared to 49%of middle class and 65% high income </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans, Hispanics and Native American students are twice as likely to be in remedial math </li></ul><ul><li>African American students are 3 times more likely to be placed in special education </li></ul><ul><li>White students take AP classes/exams at nearly six times the rate of Latino and 13 times the rate of African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers in high poverty/minority schools are less likely to be certified in subject they teach </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect between home and school </li></ul><ul><li>( Pathways to College, 2004 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    12. 12. Academic, Social, Financial, Cultural Factors Impacting Access and Success <ul><li>Family involvement limited by resources, time, confidence, and language </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use low motivation as a deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Low income/minority students receive less quality instruction </li></ul><ul><li>While 71% of students say they are going to college, only 30% of their teachers thought so </li></ul><ul><li>Families of underserved are unfamiliar with how postsecondary education institutions work </li></ul><ul><li>Low income/minority students are less likely to explore options, take college admissions test, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>( Pathways to College, 2004 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    13. 13. Academic, Social, Financial, Cultural Factors Impacting Access and Success <ul><li>Minority students/families have less access to technology/internet </li></ul><ul><li>Minority students/families are less informed about financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>Underserved students in high poverty districts receive less funding </li></ul><ul><li>Financial aid is not equal to inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Of minority/underserved students who enroll, only 25% graduate with a B.S./B.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities face similar challenges </li></ul><ul><li>( Pathways to College, 2004 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    14. 14. Problems of College Access <ul><li>Financial barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Improving K-12 conditions via P-16 initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors, teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of “quality and quantity” of college information and financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of engagement of families as partners in aspirations, development, connections, etc. to a college going culture </li></ul><ul><li>Inequitable admissions practices </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of early college awareness </li></ul><ul><li>(ACE, 2004) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    15. 15. Problems of College Access <ul><li>Minority students/families have less access to technology/internet </li></ul><ul><li>Minority students/families are less informed about financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>Underserved students in high poverty districts receive less funding </li></ul><ul><li>Financial aid is not equal to inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Of minority/underserved students who enroll, only 25% graduate with a B.S./B.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities face similar challenges </li></ul><ul><li>( Pathways to College, 2004 ) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    16. 16. Principles of Strengthening the Pre-College Trajectory <ul><li>High expectations that minority, poor underrepresented students are capable of postsecondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance/provide high quality college preparatory tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>College prep core curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide honors, AP courses, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide early college awareness and support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clear information about college planning, financial aid, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kuh, Kinzie, Buckley, Bridge, Hayek, 2007) </li></ul></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    17. 17. Principles of Strengthening the Pre-College Trajectory (cont’d) <ul><li>Enhance/provide cultural/socially responsive schooling for underrepresented students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirm student’s social/cultural background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create environments that support diversity and peer group relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involve leaders in transition points </li></ul><ul><li>Provide financial aid and human service support for underrepresented students </li></ul><ul><li>Assess policies, programs, priorities, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kuh, Kinzie, Buckley, Bridge, Hayek, 2007) </li></ul></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    18. 18. What Matters Most on the Path to College (7 th – 12 th Grades) <ul><li>Educational aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>High school resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saliency of high education institution and student ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement, support, etc </li></ul><ul><li>(Cabrera & LaNasa, 2000) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    19. 19. What Matters Most on the Path to College (7 th – 12 th Grades) <ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Early participation in collegiate activities </li></ul><ul><li>Parental expectations, encouragement, support, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental involvement in school activities </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>High school academic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Information about college and early outreach student ability, identity, and self </li></ul><ul><li>(Cabrera & LaNasa, 2000) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    20. 20. What Students Need To Create A College-going Culture <ul><li>Teachers, parents and schools that maintain high standards and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Academic and social support </li></ul><ul><li>Different levels of intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Access to college preparatory curriculum and instruction that facilitate learning </li></ul><ul><li>Information about college going </li></ul><ul><li>(Stoel, Tognieri & Brown, 1992) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    21. 21. What Students Need To Create A College-going Culture (continued) <ul><li>Assistance with financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>Transition support </li></ul><ul><li>Caring/trusting relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement strategies and support </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural responsive teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Social and personal identity </li></ul><ul><li>(Stoel, Tognieri & Brown, 1992) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    22. 22. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA ALLIANCE 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    23. 23. University of Florida <ul><li>4 th largest university in the US (50,000 students) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the top public research universities in the country (land grant & AAU membership) </li></ul><ul><li>More International Baccalaureate students than any other university in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Retention rates of 94% for entering freshmen </li></ul><ul><li>Freshmen admission test scores are among the highest in the US (SAT – 1300; ACT – 26) with an average GPA of 4.0+ </li></ul><ul><li>One of the top athletic programs in the US </li></ul><ul><li>21 colleges/schools </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100+ undergraduate majors and 200+ graduate/professional programs </li></ul><ul><li>Over $500 million in sponsored research </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    24. 24. UF Alliance Partnership <ul><li>Partnership exists with six urban public high school within three cities in Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miami </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orlando </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jacksonville </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We serve </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First generation college students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underrepresented students of color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Families in poverty/challenged communities </li></ul></ul></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    25. 25. Alliance School / District Characteristics <ul><li>Five of the six schools have D/F rating for the past 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Average free-reduced lunch in approximately 66% </li></ul><ul><li>Average minority enrollment is 97% </li></ul><ul><li>Average district crime rate per 100,000 is 6,346 occurrences vs. 48,553 state occurrences </li></ul><ul><li>Average limited English speaking per district is 16% </li></ul><ul><li>Average district in-school/out-school suspension is 19% / 16% vs. 16% / 12% state average </li></ul><ul><li>Graduation rates of 45% - 59% </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    26. 26. UF Alliance Mission Statement <ul><li>The mission of the University of Florida Alliance is to enhance college access for historically underrepresented urban youth by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing college outreach and awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging parents in the educational process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offering professional leadership development to educators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring and fostering student leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granting scholarship support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>in partnership and collaboration with schools and community agencies </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    27. 27. UF Alliance Core Values <ul><li>We believe that culturally responsive schooling is conducive to student success. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that early college outreach and college awareness enhances college participation. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe in equal access and opportunity to post-secondary education for all students. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that all students deserve a high quality and well-balanced education. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that parents and families are key partners in the educational process. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that mentoring and academic support are necessary for student success. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that all students have the individual talents and abilities to succeed </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    28. 28. Areas of Focus <ul><li>High school reform </li></ul><ul><li>9 th grade transition/middle to high school initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Novice/beginning teacher support </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement gap strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership development </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Academic outreach/social support </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    29. 29. How to get Parents/Families Involved <ul><li>Welcome – many parents do not feel welcome in the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is not about your…don’t take it personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The power of feedback – no one knows it all </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The power of reflection – positive/negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Honor- Recognize, respect and address cultural and class differences </li></ul><ul><li>Connect – Parents need to know that they have something to contribute and that it matters </li></ul><ul><li>(Noeth, R. J. & Wimberly, G. L., 2004) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    30. 30. UF Alliance Model for Parental Participation <ul><li>Specific for high school </li></ul><ul><li>Targets first-generation college students and their families </li></ul><ul><li>A component of the college readiness program </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and counselors in each school identify 40-80 students to participate in an overnight college visit to UF. </li></ul><ul><li>A UF Alliance representative meets with parents and students prior to visit </li></ul><ul><li>Parent workshops targeting college access, financial aid and learning supports. </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    31. 31. The Phone Call – the process <ul><li>Information regarding college visit </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations </li></ul><ul><li>Invitation to meet UF Alliance representative at school </li></ul><ul><li>Parents get the opportunity to ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Average time – 4 minutes </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    32. 32. Meeting with Parents /Students 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    33. 33. Alliance Outcomes <ul><li>30-42 four-year scholarships to attend the University of Florida for the past 7-8 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development for novice teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership and professional development for principals, counselors, teachers, each year (300-500 teachers-principals yearly). </li></ul><ul><li>Career explorations in teaching = 100-150 students yearly. </li></ul><ul><li>STEM camps for teachers and students (15 teachers, 30 students each year). </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    34. 34. Alliance Outcomes <ul><li>Study Abroad Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>9th grade transition strategies for approximately 800-900 students </li></ul><ul><li>High school transition and early college awareness for about 600-1000 students </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring/social support networks for all UF Alliance students (15) </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement/information workshops (approximately 300 parents yearly) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    35. 35. Recommendations for Future Research <ul><li>Examine how family and community culture affects students’ perceptions and discussions about college, as well as their impact on academic ability and attainment once students are engaged in postsecondary education </li></ul><ul><li>Study peer group relationships, mentor relationships, and community entities within and outside of high schools and how they impact college preparation and expectations. Concurrently, examine peer group relationships and mentor relationships for college students and how they interface with postsecondary success. </li></ul><ul><li>(Transitions to College, 2007) </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    36. 36. Recommendations for Future Research continued <ul><li>Create more demonstration that projects that link schools, families, and peers that target cohorts of students in subgroups of class and race/ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how the transition to college is affected by student and family culture. For example, how early in the process do children/parents make the decision to go to college (or not)? </li></ul><ul><li>Study the impact of families, parents, and peers on financing and college retention disaggregated by class, race/ethnicity, and other key subgroups </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    37. 37. QUESTIONS 04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    38. 38. References <ul><li>(2006). Questions that matter: Setting the research agenda on access and success in postsecondary education. Social Washington DC: Science Research Council Project: </li></ul><ul><li>Bowen, N. & Bowen, G. (1998). The mediating role of educational meaning in the relationship between home academic culture and academic performance. Family Relations, 47, 45-51. </li></ul><ul><li>Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. M. (2000). Understanding the college choice of disadvantaged students. New Directions for Institutional Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Catsambis, S. (1998). Expanding knowledge of parental involvement in secondary education effects on high school academic success. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR). </li></ul><ul><li>Cunningham, A. Christina Redmond, C., & Merisotis, J. (2003). Investing early: Intervention programs in selected U.S. state. Montreal, Canada: Gates Millennium Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Education Policy Institute,(2008). Access persistence, and barriers in postsecondary education: A literature review and outline of future research. Toronto, Canada: Higher Education Quality Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Epstein, J. L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C., Sanders, M. G., & Simon, B. S. (1997). School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gullatt, Y. & Jan, W. W. (2003). How do pre-collegiate academic outreach programs impact college going among underrepresented students? University of California Office of the President: Early and Outreach Program. </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010
    39. 39. References <ul><li>Hanes, M., Tucker, T. & Willis, R. (2008). College going culture in urban schools . Denton, Texas: University of North Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Hango, D, (2007). Parental involvement in childhood and educational qualifications: Can greater parental involvement mediate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantages? Social Science Research, 36, 1371-1390. </li></ul><ul><li>Haskins, R., Holzer, H. & Lerman, R. (2009). Promoting economic mobility by increasing postsecondary education. Washington, D.C.: Economic Mobility Project. </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, A., & Mapp, K. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Leiber, C. M. (2009). Increasing college access through school-based models of postsecondary preparation, planning, and support . Cambridge, MA: Educators for Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Martinez, M. & Klopoff, S. (2003). Improving college access for minority, low-income and first generation students. Boston, MA: Pathways to College Network. </li></ul><ul><li>Nagaoka, J., Roderick, M., Coca, V. (2009). Barriers to college attainment . Chicago, Illinois: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>Stoel, C., Togneri, W., and Brown, P. (1992). What works: School/college partnerships to improve poor and minority student achievement. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education . </li></ul>04/12/10 NPEA Conference 2010