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Karl Reid, Senior Vice President of Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives at the United Negro College Fund, gave a keynote presentation at the NPEA conference called All Things Considered: …

Karl Reid, Senior Vice President of Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives at the United Negro College Fund, gave a keynote presentation at the NPEA conference called All Things Considered: Cultivating Healthy Resistance Strategies to Promote Academic Excellence.

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  • 1. All Things Considered:
    Cultivating Healthy Resistance Strategies to Promote Academic Excellence
    Karl W. Reid, Ed.D.
    Senior Vice President
    Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives
    2010 NPEA Conference
  • 2. A National Crisis:
    Water Main Breaks in the K-16 Pipeline
    7.5 million or 68% of White children under 5 years old will drop out of the system before completing college
  • 3. Only ~870K of the 5.3M, or 16% of Latino children under 5 will graduate from college!
  • 4. Only 12% of African American children under 5 will graduate from college!
  • 5. Plugging the Holes
    New England minority and economically disadvantaged students who participate in pre-college programs are twice as likely to attend college and more likely to graduate than non-participants (The Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2001)
  • 6. Best Practices: Creating a College-Going Culture
    Rigorous academic development
    Creating and fostering an achievement culture
    Reducing or eliminating financial barriers while developing financial literacy
    Intentionally developing positive identities
  • 7. Through their “Ethic of Care”, HBCUs have a legacy of developing leaders that make a significant impact
    HBCU graduate accomplishments
    Ruth Simmons
    • First African American President of Ivy League University
    • 8. Dillard University
    Hazel O'Leary
    • U.S. Secretary of Energy; only woman and African American to hold this position
    • 9. Fisk University
    • 10. 50% of African American public school teachers earned degrees from HBCUs
    • 11. 70% of African American dentists and physicians earned degrees from HBCUs
    • 12. 50% of African Americans who graduate from HBCUs go on to graduate or professional schools
    • 13. Five UNCF member institutions were among the top 25 producers of African American medical school applicants: Xavier University, Spelman College, Morehouse College, Oakwood University, and Tuskegee University (2004)
    • 14. More African American science and engineering doctoral recipients began their education at UNCF institutions than at Berkeley, Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, MIT, Brown, Stanford, Princeton, and Yale combined (1997-2001)
    • 15. 40% of the Congressional Black Caucus received at least one degree from an HBCU
    • 16. 12% percent received degrees from UNCF member institutions
    David Satcher
    • Former U.S. Surgeon General
    • 17. Former Assistant Secretary for Health
    • 18. Morehouse College
    Martin Luther King, Jr.
    • American clergyman
    • 19. Prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement
    • 20. Morehouse College
    John Jackson
    • President, CEO of Schott Foundation for Public Education
    • 21. Member of Obama's education transition team
    • 22. Xavier University
    Alexis Herman
    • Former U.S. Secretary of Labor
    • 23. Director of the White House Office of Public Liaison
    • 24. Xavier University
    Oprah Winfrey
    • Entrepreneur, media personality, producer, literary critic
    • 25. Tennessee State University
    Marian Wright Edelman
    • Children's rights activist
    • 26. President and founder of Children's Defense Fund
    • 27. Spelman College
    Rev. Dr. Floyd Flake
    • Former U.S. Representative
    • 28. Former president of Wilberforce University
    • 29. Wilberforce
    Dr. Deborah Hyde
    • Neurosurgeon
    • 30. Founder of Beacon of Hope Scholarship Fund
    • 31. Tougaloo College
    Source: UNCF FY10 Legislative Brief, public data; institution websites
  • 32. Environment
    • Faculty-student interactions
    • 33. Student-student relations
    • 34. Campus climate
    Personal Factors
    • Time mgmt
    • 37. Study groups
    • 38. Effort & resilience
    Social Cognitive Theory
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • 39. Why Race Matters
    For some students, their racial or ethnic makeup somehow influences confidence(self-efficacy) in their abilities in certain contexts.
  • 40. Environment
    • Faculty-student interactions
    • 41. Student-student relations
    • 42. Classroom climate/ rewards
    • Racial Identity
    • 43. Gender Identity
    • 44. Cultural Fluency
    Personal Factors
    • Time mgmt & habits
    • 47. Study groups
    • 48. Effort & resilience
    A Comprehensive Achievement Framework
    Adapted from Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • 49. “Identities are the stories we tell ourselves and the world about who we are, and our attempt to act in accordance with these stories.” (Dorothy Hollard)
  • 50. Minorities of color are typically not able to choose an identity, but rather are pressed to internalize one by societal signals due to experiences with, and perceptions about discrimination and prejudice (Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992).
  • 51. The Bottom Line
    You are not at your intellectual best when you are experiencing emotional or psycho-social stress!
  • 52. Non-cognitive Variables associated with grades, retention, and graduation (Seldlacek 1986)
    Positive self-concept or confidence
    Realistic self-appraisal
    Understands and deals with racism
    “Is realistic based on personal experience of racism. Not submissive to existing wrongs, nor hostile to society, nor a ‘cop-out.’ Able to handle racist system. Asserts school role to fight racism.”
    Demonstrated community service
    Prefers long-range goals to short-term or immediate needs
    Availability of strong support person
    Successful leadership experience
    Knowledge acquired in a field
    Sedlacek, W. E. (2004). Beyond The Big Test. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • 53. Primary Questions for Our Study
    Is there a combination of resistance strategies that explain academic performance of high achieving African American and Chicano/a students?
    If so, what can individuals who work with African American and Chicano/a students do to cultivate healthy resistance strategies?
  • 54. Resistance Strategies
    Oppositional Culture
    Fordham & Ogbu (1986)
    Resistance for Survival,
    Ward (1991)
    Resistance for Liberation,
    Academically Unhealthy
    Academically Healthy
  • 55. In Their Own Words: Stereotypes
    “Being a Mexican American isn't easy. I think that if
    I was white I could have had more academic
    opportunities. There is a stereotype about
    Mexicans, which is that we aren't that academically
    applied in school. I personally think this is unfair
    because each individual is different and capable of
    doing his own thing. But for this very reason I have
    been inspired to do well and attend a university
    where I would have a successful career so I can
    prove to everybody that a Mexican can do just as
    well as any other person.”
  • 56. Results from Our Study
  • 57. In Their Own Words: Reactionary (RfLr)
    “I must work harder and better than the members of the majority in order to achieve my goals and to keep motivated in striving for more. I must show the world that I deserve to be recognized and respected by proving that, even though I am associated with a minority group, I am just as good if not better, than any other person.

  • 58. In Their Own Words: Separation(RfLr)
    “When people find out that I am of Mexican descent, they
    often have a surprised expression on their face. As if they
    think "only gardeners are Mexicans, how can you be in AP
    Calculus?" Though I'm not embarrassed of my culture and
    where I come from, I don't want people to think just
    because of my ethnicity that I'm just like the woman who cleans their house for a living.I am the lone Mexican in Advanced Placement Calculus and AP Physics; I have so much more at stake than my peers.”
  • 59. In Their Own Words: Internal (RfLi)
    “If anything, as an African American I am
    encouraged. I have a great sense of my
    history and I know that it is the story of a
    people who reached mountaintop after
    mountaintop in the face of seemingly
    insurmountable odds. It is the knowledge of
    this history that keeps me encouraged in
    the predominately white school that I
  • 60. In Their Own Words: Internal (RfLi)
    “They faced many obstacles and, through
    the story of the hurdles they have faced, I
    have learned to have the desire to soar. It is
    this desire that is evident in my diligence in
    school and all the activities of which I am
  • 61. In Their Own Words: Role Models
    “Periodically, I have had the opportunity to
    pick up one of San Antonio's monthly
    Hispanic magazines and have read about
    motivated people who have broken free of
    this mold. They aspired to be something
    great; and in the same way, I aspire to be a
    Hispanic who did not let other people's view
    of my ethnicity block out the light of my
    dreams.” -Francisco
  • 62. An estimated 7,200,000 Black and Latino children will not be able to thrive in the increasingly global, technologically inspired marketplace!
  • 63. Yes We Can!
    Attend to racial, ethnic and gender identity development
    Increase meaningful cross-cultural interactions while supporting their need to retreat to a place of “identity safety”
    Leverage mentoring relationships and role modeling
    “Engineer their Posse”
    Increase diversity of your staff
    Increase faculty and counseling staff awareness about racial identity schema
    Continue to push for policies that fix the water mains
  • 64. Thank You!
    Karl W. Reid, Ed.D.
    Senior Vice President
    Academic Programs and Strategic Initiatives
    Steppingstone Foundation Board Member