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Pharma drugprescription

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ppy by : Ma. Minda Luz M. Manuguid, M.D

ppy by : Ma. Minda Luz M. Manuguid, M.D

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Pharma drugprescription Pharma drugprescription Presentation Transcript

  • The Drug Prescription Ma. Minda Luz M. Manuguid, M.D.
  • The Drug Order / Prescription
    • Contents of a Prescription:
    • name of medication (generic)
    • amount of medication to be given (dose)
    • route of administration
    • frequency of administration
    • other information: prescribing physician’s name, signature, license no., PTR no., S2 no. if applicable; date; patient’s name, age, etc.,
  • John dela Cruz 36y/o M/M 1135 Quezon Drive, Dau 08 Jan 2010 R x Hydroxyzine 25 mg tab #20 (ITERAX) Sig: 2 tabs q d, h.s. mlmanuguid m.d. lic no. 58244 PTR # 0687226
  • q. – quantity s. - sufficient q. s. as much as required b. – bi = twice t. – tri = thrice q. – quad = four times b. i. d. t. i. d. q. i. d. 2x a day 3x a day 4x a day h – hora = hour q. h. q. 2h. q. 3h. etc. every hour every 2 hrs every 3 hrs. etc. o - other q. o. d. every other day q. – Lat. – quisque = every d. – Lat – diem = day q. d. every day explanation abbreviation frequency
  • ad libitum = at one’s pleasure ad lib as desired p. – post = after c. – cibum = meal p. c. after meals a. – ante c. - cibum = meal a. c. before meals h. – hora = hour s. – somni = sleep h. s. at bedtime q. – every a. – ante = before m. – meridiem = noon q. a. m. every morning explanation abbreviation frequency
  • post = after p after ante = before a before cum = with c with statim - immediately stat immediately pro re nata = as occasion requires p. r. n. as needed si opus sit = if it is necessary s. o. s. as necessary explanation abbreviation frequency
  • International units IU microgram mcg milligram mg subcutaneous subQ; sq intramuscular im intravenous iv per orem = by mouth p.o. explanation abbreviation
  • Drug Dosage
    • parenteral meds: units of measurement: units/hr.; mg./hr.; mg./min.; mcg/min.; mcg/kg/min
    • formula : dose = rate x concentration
    • nonparenteral meds –
      • capsules & unscored tablets are rounded to the nearest whole tablet
      • Scored tablets are rounded to the nearest ½ tablet
      • Liquid meds are rounded to one decimal place (tenth)
    • parenteral meds
      • Intradermal inj – 0.1 ml. or less
      • Subcutaneous – 1.0 ml or less
      • Intramuscular – 1.0 ml or less for older infants & young children; 2.0 ml or less for elderly thin adults & children; up to 3.0 ml in large muscles in well-developed adults
  • Dosage calculations
    • Rate – always in ml./hr.
    • Ratio & Proportion – equations containing ratios of equal value separated by colons or written as fractions. e.g. 2 : 6 = 4 : 12 – the two inner numbers, 6 & 4, are the “means”; the two outer numbers, 4 & 12, are the “extremes”. The product of the means must equal the product of the extremes.
  • Calculations
    • Intravenous calculations – drop factor
      • macrodrop – factor of 10, 15, or 20 drops per ml
      • microdrip – 60 gtts/ml
    • Formula for calculating iv flow rate (ugtts):
    • V1/T1 = V2/T2 where
    • V1 – volume to infuse; T1 – time to infuse;
    • V2 – drop factor; T2 - time in minutes
    • e.g. 200ml D5LR to be infused within 4 hrs. 200/4hrs = 12000 ugtts/240 mins = 150ugtts/min
  • Calculations
    • 600 ml to be infused within 3 hrs.
      • 10 gtts/ ml : 600ml = 6000 gtts; 3 hrs = 180 min
        • 6000 gtts / 180 mins = 33 gtts/min
      • 15 gtts/ml : 600 ml = 9000 gtts;
        • 9000 gtts / 180 min = 50 gtts/min
      • 20 gtts/ml : 600 ml = 12000 gtts
        • 12000 gtts/180 min = 67 gtts/min
  • Pediatric Calculations
    • Based on body surface area
      • BSA is determined from a normogram
      • Formula: child’s BSA /1.7 sq. m. x adult dose
    • Based on body weight:
      • Convert child’s weight to kg. (1 kg. = 2.2 lb)
      • Calculate the medication dose, then the daily dose, then divide the daily dose by the number of doses/day
  • Pediatric calculations
    • e.g. Amoxycillin : 30-50 mg./kg. body wt prep: gtts 100mg/ml
    • patient : 6 month old baby boy weighing 11 lbs
    •  convert lbs to kg (11 lbs ÷ 2.2 = 5 kg)
    •  compute total daily dose (5kg x 30-50mg/kg = 150-250 mg)
    •  divide total daily dose into 3 (150 – 250 mg ÷ 3 = 50-80 mg)
    •  compute amount of medicine(0.5-0.8 ml.)
    • = dose TID
  • Thank You !