Notes on Introduction to Linguistics I These are the main materials for the mid-term test.1. Chapter 1 What is Language? Language is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. Linguistic Knowledge includes: Knowledge of the Sound System: Knowing what sounds are in that language and what sounds are not. Knowledge of Words: Knowing the sound units that are related to specific meanings. Arbitrary relationship between form (sounds) and meaning (concept) of a word. Onomatopoeic: Words whose pronunciations suggest their meanings. Knowledge of Sentences: Knowing how to form sentences. Linguistic Competence: What you know about a language. Linguistic Performance: How you use this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension. Prescriptive Grammar: 1762; Bishop Robert Lowth; A Short Introduction to English Grammar with Critical Notes. I don’t have none I don’t have any You was wrong You were wrong Mathilda is fatter than me Mathilda is fatter than I Many of those rules were based on Latin grammar. Latin was assumed as the respected scientific language in the 15th – 17th Centuries. Descriptive Grammar: 1985; Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik; A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Based on a corpus of actual spoken and written English.2. Chapter 3 Morphology: The Word of Language The development of monolingual dictionaries: 1604; Robert Cawdrey; A Table Alphabetical; 2,500 entries. 1755; Dr. Samuel Johnson; Dictionary of the English Language; two volumes. 1828; Noah Webster; An American Dictionary of the English Language; two volumes; 70,000 entries. Webster’s Third International Dictionary of English Language has over 450,000 entries.
Content words: Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs. Function words: Conjunctions, Prepositions, Articles, Pronouns, Morpheme: The minimal unit of meaning. Free morpheme: a single morpheme that constitutes a word and can stand alone. Bound morpheme: a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme. Prefix: An affix that occurs before a morpheme. Some examples of negative prefixes: Prefix Added to Example UN- adjectives unfair NON- various classes non-smoker, nonsense, non-drip DIS- adjectives, verbs, nouns disloyal, dislike, disfavour A- adjectives, nouns amoral, asymmetry Degree and size prefixes: Prefix Meaning Added to Example Arch- highest, worst nouns archduke, arch-enemy Super- above, better nouns, adjectives superman, supernatural Over- too much verbs, adjectives overeat, overconfident Hyper- extremely adjectives hyperactive Sub- lower than adjectives substandard Mini- little nouns minibus Suffix: An affix that occurs after a morpheme. Class preserving suffixation: Suffix Meaning Example -er occupation engineer -ian occupation musician -ist occupation violinist -let small piglet Class changing suffixation: Verbs Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adjectives Nouns Adjectives Verbs Nouns Verbs Nouns Adjectives
Derivational morpheme: deriving (creating) a new word with a new meaning. Inflectional morpheme: changing the form of a word because of the rules of syntax. English inflectional morphemes: Nouns –s plural –’s possessive Verbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressive Adjectives –er comparative –est superlative Word Coinage: Compounds, Acronyms, Back-formations, Abbreviations, Eponyms, and Blends. Compounds: Two or more words joined together to a form a new word. Home + work homework Pick + pocket pickpocket Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. Coconut oil oil made from coconuts. Olive oil oil made from olives. Baby oil ......... cathouse ......... blue-movies ......... blue-chip ......... Acronyms: Words derived from the initials of several words. National Aeronautics and Space Agency ......... Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus ......... ......... FYI ......... TGIF ......... a.k.a Back-formations: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis. Editor (1649) edit (1791) Television (1907) televise (1927)
Abbreviations (Clipping): A word which is clipped. Facsimile fax Hamburger burger Gasoline ......... Advertisement ......... Omnibus ......... Words from Names (Eponyms): Words derived from proper names or things. Sandwich Celsius Blends: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Motor + hotel Motel Breakfast + lunch ......... modulator, demodulator .........Deny Arnos KwaryLecturer of LinguisticsAirlangga Universityhttp://www.kwary.net