Taste and Smell
detect airborne                              chemicals                              detect chemicals                      ...
Some molecules  can have same  structures, but  different “smells”Others can have  different  structures and be  id’d as s...
350 types ofolfactory receptors,each sensitive to aparticular group ofodors.Each olfactoryreceptor neuroncontains only 1ty...
Fatty, soapy  Fatty, cheese,dairy  Orange, rose, waxy  Fatty, cheesy, waxyAlmond
The functional grpasocc. w/ a compound (COOH for acids;OH for alcohols) determines the general area of theolfactory bulb t...
Rats can distinguish betwn the 2 forms of Carvone, butnot Limoene.
Others are more complex due to    downstream processing.
Now add other odors, w/ their 100’s ofmolecules. We will not experience ajumble…here we’ll smell coffee, bacon eggs!!!
Onion smell labeled pizza perceived more positively than one labeled body odor
Activity pattern in olfactory receptors the same. The label changedperception & this was reflected in different activity o...
– All over, no taste            buds          – Tip & sides                                 fungiform          – Folds alo...
• Site of transduction• Each receptor cell  responds to a ltd # of  molecule types.• Receptors synapse w/ 3  cranial nerve...
• Rat studies indicate  some taste perception  is based on  distributed coding.• Chemicals that  produced similar firing  ...
• Involves taste & olfaction• Orbitofrontalctx combines  taste, olfaction, primary  somatosensory &what  pathway• Has neur...
• A.L. Fox (worked for  DuPont) prepped some  PTC., co-worker c/o  bitter taste from  dust….Fox tasted  nothing.• A.F Blah...
Why?  – Different # of receptors  – Some have specialized    neurons
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
Chemo senses
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Chemo senses

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  • Animals are able to detect chemical signals because they have Important evolutionary job – keep genes in gene pool
  • Emotional reaction happen firstSmell has a direct link to the amgdyla
  • Dogs are better at smelling, It’s because they have a lot more olfactory receptors, not because theirs are better
  • Olfactory neuron will only carry one olfactory kind of receptor
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are located in nose, send axons to glomerulus in olfactory bulb (right under the brain)Receptors distributed all over
  • Similar patterns of activity, then we perceive similar odorsDon’t need to memorize the acids
  • Highly organized further organized by the size of the molecules
  • Red means lots of activityCool colors = less activityblack Arrows show that the activity is the sameWhite arrows show differences in activityRats can tell the different kind of carvone depending on the different activity of the neurons
  • Neuron enters the olfactory bulb, goes to the piriform cortex, then gets bounced to the orbitofrontal cortex, then straight to the prefrontal areaThe olfactory senses are the only ones that don’t stop at the thalamus
  • This is why it takes a little longer for us to realize the emotional responseUsually, the olfactory was take the longer route
  • Expectation alters perception of how favorable the smell was
  • Subjects were told that it was either cheddar cheese or sweat, but it was actually both togetherChemical caused the exact same pattern of activity, the pattern of activity downstream was different depending on what they thought they were smelling
  • Umami, sour, bitter, salt, sugar
  • Know filiform, know that there are 4 forms of papillae
  • TASTE budshave receptors that bind together and at the tips, transduce
  • Area in the brain stem, first area information synapses
  • Olfaction and taste are linked downstream such that perception of taste is heavily dependent on olfactory Smell influences taste
  • There is a difference between the two group
  • Chemo senses

    1. 1. Taste and Smell
    2. 2. detect airborne chemicals detect chemicals dissolved in salivaChemosenses provide survival value for animals
    3. 3. Some molecules can have same structures, but different “smells”Others can have different structures and be id’d as same smell
    4. 4. 350 types ofolfactory receptors,each sensitive to aparticular group ofodors.Each olfactoryreceptor neuroncontains only 1type of olfactoryreceptor.
    5. 5. Fatty, soapy Fatty, cheese,dairy Orange, rose, waxy Fatty, cheesy, waxyAlmond
    6. 6. The functional grpasocc. w/ a compound (COOH for acids;OH for alcohols) determines the general area of theolfactory bulb that is activated, and the compounds lengthdetermines the position of the area.
    7. 7. Rats can distinguish betwn the 2 forms of Carvone, butnot Limoene.
    8. 8. Others are more complex due to downstream processing.
    9. 9. Now add other odors, w/ their 100’s ofmolecules. We will not experience ajumble…here we’ll smell coffee, bacon eggs!!!
    10. 10. Onion smell labeled pizza perceived more positively than one labeled body odor
    11. 11. Activity pattern in olfactory receptors the same. The label changedperception & this was reflected in different activity of secondary ctx.
    12. 12. – All over, no taste buds – Tip & sides fungiform – Folds along back & sidesfolaite
    13. 13. • Site of transduction• Each receptor cell responds to a ltd # of molecule types.• Receptors synapse w/ 3 cranial nerves – These also carry non- taste info such as pain &tmp
    14. 14. • Rat studies indicate some taste perception is based on distributed coding.• Chemicals that produced similar firing patterns were perceived as the same (red & green lines)
    15. 15. • Involves taste & olfaction• Orbitofrontalctx combines taste, olfaction, primary somatosensory &what pathway• Has neurons that respond to both taste & smell; others taste & vision• Often respond to similar qualities (smell of sweet & taste of sweet)
    16. 16. • A.L. Fox (worked for DuPont) prepped some PTC., co-worker c/o bitter taste from dust….Fox tasted nothing.• A.F Blaheslee ( a geneticist) dispensed PTC to 2500 Ss at a conference. – 28%: “tasteless” – 66% “bitter”
    17. 17. Why? – Different # of receptors – Some have specialized neurons

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