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Vaccines can protect males and females against some of the most common types of HPV.
These vaccines are given in three shots. It is important to get all three doses to get the best protection.
The vaccines are most effective when given before a person's first sexual contact, when he or she could be exposed to HPV.
Girls and women: Two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) are available to protect females against the types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. One of these vaccines (Gardasil) also protects against most genital warts. Both vaccines are recommended for 11 and 12 year-old girls, and for females 13 through 26 years of age, who did not get any or all of the shots when they were younger. These vaccines can also be given to girls as young as 9 years of age. It is recommended that females get the same vaccine brand for all three doses, whenever possible.
Boys and men: One available vaccine (Gardasil) protects males against most genital warts. This vaccine is available for boys and men, 9 through 26 years of age.
The HPV vaccine (Gardasil) works by preventing four common HPV types, two that cause genital warts and two that cause some cancers. It protects against new HPV infections; it does not cure existing HPV infections or disease (like genital warts). It is most effective when given before first sexual contact (i.e., before he may be exposed to HPV).
The HPV vaccine is very safe and effective, with no serious side effects. The most common side effect is soreness in the arm.
Obtain a sample (swab) for testing from the parts of the body likely to be infected (cervix, urethra, rectum, or throat) and send the sample to a laboratory for analysis.
Gonorrhea that is present in the cervix or urethra can be diagnosed by testing a urine sample (if you haven’t voided in the past 2 hours).
A quick laboratory test for gonorrhea that can be done in some clinics or doctor’s offices is a Gram stain. A Gram stain of a sample from a urethra or a cervix allows the doctor to see the gonorrhea bacterium under a microscope. This test works better for men than for women.
Often called "the great imitator" because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases.
Many people infected with syphilis do not have any symptoms for years, thus transmission may occur from persons who are unaware of their infection.
The time between infection with syphilis and the start (primary) of the first symptom can range from 10 to 90 days (average 21 days). The sores (called a chancre) last 3-6 weeks then clear (as if gone but it’s not). Later stages have more complex lesions and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. This damage may be serious enough to cause death.
Blood is the most accurate testing method
Treatment in the early stage is easy with antibiotics
Currently available drugs do not cure HIV infection but they do prevent the development of AIDS.
They can stop the virus being made in the body and this stops the virus from damaging the immune system.
CD4 (T Cell) Count and “viral load” are key indicators to determine with your patient population
CD4 cells help to organize your body's defenses against disease. Doctors can take a sample of your blood and count the number of CD4 cells. Healthy adults and teenagers usually have a CD4 count of at least 800 cells per CUBIC MILLIMETER of blood (a cubic millimeter is a very small amount, roughly one small drop).
Adults; Genital, under arms, testicles and breasts, oral (more common with increased age).
Adults also can have yeast infections around dentures, under the breast and lower abdomen, nailbeds, and beneath other skin folds. Most of these candidal infections are superficial and clear up easily with treatment.
Rarely, the yeast infection may spread throughout the body. In systemic candidal disease, up to 75% of people may die.
Even common mouth and vaginal yeast infections can cause critical illness and can be more resistant to normal treatment.
For chronically ill people and newborn babies, the viral infection can be serious, but rarely fatal.
There are two types of HSV - Type 1 and Type 2.
Most people get Type 2 infections, which cause genital sores, following sexual contact with an infected person. The virus affects anywhere between five and twenty million people, up to 20% of all sexually active adults in the United States.
The lesions of both types of herpes simplex, can be spread by touching an unaffected part of the body immediately after touching a herpes lesion
Oral anti-viral medications such as acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir have been developed to effectively treat herpes infections. These medications can be used to treat an outbreak or can be used constantly to suppress herpes recurrences, reduce outbreaks, and spreading by viral shedding.
Between 200,000 and 500,000 people "catch" genital herpes each year. The number of Type 1 infections is many times higher. There is no vaccine that prevents this contagious disease, but other methods of prevention before and during an outbreak are important.
If tingling, burning, itching, or tenderness occurs in an area of the body where there is a herpes infection, the area should be kept away from other people. With mouth herpes, one should avoid kissing, sharing cups, or lip balms. For persons with genital herpes, this means avoiding sexual relations, including oral/genital contact during the period of symptoms or active lesions. Condoms can help prevent transmission of genital herpes between sexual partners and should always be used. However, they will not protect against the virus that may be living on nearby genital skin that is not covered by the condom.
Patients have been aware for many years that if they kissed someone while having a fever blister, or had sex with their partner with an outbreak of genital herpes, they were likely to transmit the virus. However, most herpes is transmitted in the absence of lesions! It is now estimated that over 80% of all genital herpes is transmitted when there are no lesions and no symptoms. This phenomenon is known as asymptomatic viral shedding. People who never recall having had an outbreak of genital herpes can have positive blood tests for antibodies to herpes and can shed the virus. Taking antiviral medications daily reduces both viral shedding and disease transmission.