Unit 1 classification biodiversity presentation

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  • 1. Authors: Janice HoLung and Sonia Mc Culloch 1Picture credits given. Those without credits are by authors
  • 2. FIVE KINGDOMSAll living organisms are divided into five major groups, called kingdoms.Organisms share many similarities but can be separated into groups based on differences; with each of the kingdoms and their respective sub-groups (phyla) possessing specific distinguishing features.Knowledge of the distinguishing features of various sub-groups (phyla, order, family) allows us to easily identify new organisms and make predictions about them. 2
  • 3. In this presentation, you will1. Learn about the five kingdoms into which are grouped all living things2. Be able to describe the characteristics of selected groups of living things3. Be able to compare (similarities and differences) selected animals and plants 3
  • 4. FIVE KINGDOMSTwo well known kingdoms of living things are theplant and the animal kingdoms, but they are notthe only kingdoms that exist.The five kingdoms of living things are:1.        Bacteria2.        Protists3.        Fungi4.        Plants5.        AnimalsWe will focus on kingdoms 4 and 5 in thispresentation. 4
  • 5. How many kingdoms are shown in this photograph? CHECKHow many are probably there, butyou cannot see them? Plants, animals, fungi, bacteria 5
  • 6. Let’s look at the plant kingdom.It contains a great variety of organisms, from thevery small ones to the extremely large ones. 6
  • 7. PLANT KINGDOM 7
  • 8. Very Small PlantsAn example of a very small and simple plant is the liverwort.It is found only in very damp places, since it requires water to reproduce and growThe following photo shows liverworts growing flat on soil.Did you notice what its structure looks like? Did you notice that smaller, fine leaved plants are growing between the broader liverworts? 8
  • 9. Photograph of LiverwortsPhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 9
  • 10. Photograph of LiverwortsAfter looking at the photo on slide 9 showing the liverworts growing flat on soil:Did you notice what its structure looks like? Did you notice that smaller, fine leaved plants are growing between the broader liverworts? 10
  • 11. MossesMosses, shown in the photograph below, aresomewhat more complex plants than the simpleliverworts.Photograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 11
  • 12. MossesMosses possess simple structures that look likeroots, stems and leaves, but these structures donot contain the same types of tissues that arefound in TRUE roots, stems and leaves.The photo on slide 13 shows mosses growing ona rock surface, with those nearer the camerashowing leaves only, and those farther awayshowing their reproductive structures, sticking upinto the air. 12
  • 13. Mosses farther away from the camera show their reproductive structures, sticking up into the air. MOREThe photo shows mosses growing on a rock surface, with those nearerthe camera showing leaves only. Photograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 13
  • 14. FernsFernsare more complex than mosses, and also grow to much larger sizes. Photograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 14
  • 15. FernsFerns reproduce in two ways, one of which is seen in the photo on the previous slide. On the underside of their leaves (called fronds), are found many groups (aggregates) of their sporangia, that contain their reproductive spores.Notice that ferns may be found not only in wet places, but also can withstand some dry conditions sometimes. 15
  • 16. Photograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 16
  • 17. GymnospermsThese are cone bearing plants with needle like leaves and cones, instead of fruit. Often they are called in Jamaica, fir trees/Christmas trees.These cones contain the reproductive organs, and the female cones will develop seeds once they are fertilized.Their seeds do not occur within a seed case, so they are called naked seeds. 17
  • 18. Photo of a gymnosperm/”fir”treePhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 18
  • 19. Photo of anothergymnosperm/”fir” tree 19
  • 20. Flowering PlantsDICOTYLEDONS MONOCOTYLEDONS These are classified on the  Their seeds do not have two basis that their seeds have cotyledons. two cotyledons or seed  Their leaves have veins in a leaves parallel pattern They also show other special  Their flowers usually have characteristics, e.g., their either 3 or 5 petals, and many leaves have veins in a net-like may not have easily pattern, and the arrangement observable petals, as you may of their transport system notice in the photos of the (vascular bundles) is different coconut and the grass to that of the monocots flowers. Their flowers usually have petals, of numbers 4,5, or 6. 20
  • 21. sepal ovary (pistil) petal stamenThis is an example of a dicotyledon flower. It is Prideof Barbados. Can you see the four main parts of theflower – the petals, sepals, pistil and stamens? Clue 21
  • 22. Example of a dicotyledon flower –the Bauhinia or Wild Orchid. petal sepal pistil stamenThis time, can you see the different parts? SHOW MEHow many petals does it have? Click here for answer. 22
  • 23. Flowers of Coconut Flower without petalsPhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 23
  • 24. Flowers of grass plants stamen feathery stigmas - part of pistilPhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.comNotice there are no petals, only the actualstamens and pistil. SHOW ME 24
  • 25. Leaf with net veins Notice the main large vein in the centre. See the several side veins that branch out from it. And finally, notice the network of veins coming from these. SHOW ME Midrib/main vein side veins network of veinsPhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 25
  • 26. Grass leaf with parallel veinsPhotograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com . Notice how many veins there are. 26
  • 27. RootsNotice the two patterns of root growth shown in the next two diagrams.Generally, monocotyledon plants show one type (often fibrous type), and generally dicotyledonous plants show the other type (tap root pattern) 27
  • 28. Tap roots and fibrous rootsTap Fibrous Photograph accessed on line and with permission from EDUPIC.com 28
  • 29. ANIMAL KINGDOM 29
  • 30. ANIMAL KINGDOMKey features of animals include the fact that theyare multi-cellular, heterotrophic, (they rely onother organisms as a food source; food is ingestedbefore it is digested) and motile (they moveabout).There are many different groups of animals, butthere are two broad groups: vertebrates (havingbackbones) and invertebrates (no backbones) 30
  • 31. InvertebratesInteresting groups of invertebrate animals are theringed worms, the molluscs, the arthropods. 31
  • 32. Ringed WormsExamples of these are the earthworms,which live in the soil.1.Does the worm have limbs? Why?2.Do they fall into the invertebrates? Or thevertebrates?3.What are the characteristics of theseringed worms? Answers 1. No limbs. Their bodies have muscular CHECK rings used for moving through soil. 2. They are invertebrates, for they have no internal skeleton, or backbone. 3. Ringed worms do not have a head with sense organs, they have ring-like segments and have bristles. 32
  • 33. MolluscsMolluscs have protection, usually in the form of anoutside tough shell.1.Why do they need a shell?2.Do these animals have eyes? Ears? Mouth?3.Many of the molluscs live in the water. Can youthink of a reason? CHECKAnswers1. They need the tough shell for protection against predators. Their bodies are very soft, and they have no defenses.2. They usually have eyes and a mouth, but no ears.3. Because their body is soft and has mucous, they prefer to live in damp places where they will not become dehydrated.Look at the next photo which shows a nativeJamaican mollusc. 33
  • 34. Photo of a Mollusc Notice the features: 1. See the tough outer shell (dark brown) 2. The muscular “foot” – really the body, with the head and its eyes on stalksPhotograph by M.L.Gentles, 2006 34
  • 35. ArthropodsThese are the most numerous animals onearth. Can you think why?They have a tough outside ‘skeleton’ or skinmade of thick chitin, and jointed limbs.There are several different groups ofarthropods, from lobsters and shrimp tobees, wasps and cockroaches.They live on land, in the water and in theair. 35
  • 36. beePhotograph by M. Earle 2008 36
  • 37. Vertebrates 37
  • 38. VERTEBRATESInteresting groups of vertebrate animals are the fish, the birds and the mammals.These all have backbones !Consider their features – what do lizards, birds, humans and elephants have in common? Write it down! CHECK All of them have backbones, they all have four appendages, and all have heads with sense organs. 38
  • 39. Photo of a mammal – an elephant Photograph by M. Earle 2008 39
  • 40. Common FeaturesNow then, what do humans and elephants have in common? Write that down! CHECK Both are vertebrates, have hair on their skin, feed young from mammary glands, have a diaphragm and a four chambered heart. 40
  • 41. Photo of a lizard – a vertebrate & areptile Photograph by M. Earle 2008 41
  • 42. Photo of a duck – a vertebrate &a bird Photograph by J. Earle 2008 42
  • 43. Any more common features?Finally,how can we separate humans from elephants? Which features do we have that elephants do not have? Write that down! CHECK Humans walk on two legs, not four! Humans have five fingers and five toes with joints, elephants don’t. Elephants have a long trunk instead of a small nose.If you have looked carefully, and considered, you will have found out some important features of the major groups of vertebrates. 43
  • 44. Classification & BiodiversityYou have just made a quick survey of the major groups of living things – plants and animals,You have also looked at the different groups of plants, and the different groups of animalsThis survey showed you the great numbers of different living things – that is, the bio-diversity that exists here on earth.This diversity must be cared for and kept, so that the earth will continue to nourish all living things. 44