Intro: The cell phone has become the ubiquitous computer of the new millennium, with its ability to record audio and video, play music and sound, take still images and write text.
Lead thinkers for the cell phone MAY be traced way back to 1908 according to Wikipedia, when the first patent on a wireless communication device was conceived of more as a radio. Many others had preceded the technology with various other innovations, and the synthesis of various technologies resulted in the cell phones we have today. Assisting the spread of the cell phone was the first commercial cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979 (Wikipedia, n.d., para. 8).
This slide shows the rate of adoption of cell phones based on subscriptions in the United States from 92 people in 1984 to 202650 in 2005 according to NationMaster.com and suggests cell phone subscriptions will continue to rise (NationMaster.com, n.d.)
In a span of only 20 years, wireless services have reached almost 50 percent of the world’s population. There are now more than 3 billion mobile subscribers globally, a number expected to grow to 4.5 billion by 2012.
Cell Phones are a new media. Lev Manovich describes new media as modular, automated, and variable (Manovich, 2001) coinciding with the multiple features of a cell phone.
Using tools students are familiar with, they can easily access learning, and schools could benefit by utilizing an already available technology of the cell phone. Because students already own cell phones, cost is not an issue. According to the Speak Up Report, students use technology in a number of ways. Many of these could be transferred via the cell phone.
One such approach in exploring ways to utilize the cell phone as a means for active learning comes in the form of digital storytelling, which could be a useful tool in the college classroom.
Early exploration suggested using digital storytelling promotes scholarship. Mobile digital storytelling allows students to utilize their analytical skills, and apply what they have learned in a meaningful way.The Story CenterElectronic Portfolios. OrgStorymapping.orgAnd The National Writing Project
A notable institution currently researching m-learning is the International Society for Technology in Education or ISTE.
Others have acquired and used cell phones for the convenience of having a phone. This was then expanded into additional applications for convenience. Gaining acceptance of cell phone for mobile or m-learning in education would need to be approached from many angles. Faculty would have to be informed of the concept, and shown useful ways to make it meaningful for both themselves and the students. They would also have to be given support and training on how to make the cell phone useful in a learning setting.
Beginning with a core group the technology would have to be diffused through the opinion leaders, passed down through word-of-mouth, and then the process begun again.
The early adopters will report their experiences of utilizing cell phones and in particular m-learning and digital storytelling within the classroom. If positive experiences are reported others will consider the cell phone as a tool for extending learning within their classrooms (Williams, n.d.).It will take some time for critical mass to be reached using the cell phone in education and within specific institutions.
In order to attain critical mass we will invite Program Managers and Department Chairs to workshop (1. Highly Respected Individuals which will help to 2. change perceptions).The Program Managers and Chairs will invite department members who opinion leaders/change agents (3. Intact groups) which will work to move the use of cell phones into the classroom and help to influence individual perception. Finally # 4, a provision for a stipend will be included.
On critical mass I see relative advantage – the innovation being perceived as better than a previous method, compatibility –being consistent with existing values which relate to the university’s goals and outcomes to leverage technology for teaching and learning, complexity –perceived difficulty to understand or use. As a known and near ubiquitous tool, the cell phone is a familiar commodity.Finally, I see observably or visible results through reporting and development highlights via learning communities as having a significant effect on the use or adoption of a technology, whether it is part of an embedded professional development online process or not. Though the state university system has long used content management systems via the internet and a larger portion of faculty and staff are comfortable with computers and the internet and are comfortable utilizing online professional development, other factors help to enhance the experience for the learner such as establishing learning communities, utilizing face to face opportunities, and providing stipends (monetary award incentives) for participation.
According to Wikipedia: “There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2008” (Wikipedia, n.d., para. 44).
Using cell phones to construct digital stories is in line with constructivist learning theory as proposed by Jonanssen, Peck, & Wilson, in which the learner actively problem solves in context (1999). The learning is student-centered, providing the student with a familiar technology in the form of a cell phone (1999).
Exploring ways to utilize the cell phone as a means for active learning in the form of digital storytelling could be a useful first step in utilizing the tool in the college classroom. Student’s need to connect learning using tools they are familiar with, and schools could benefit by utilizing an already available technology, foregoing the cost of purchase because students already own cell phones. Utilizing this technology also fits with the mission of the university as stated earlier.Applying m-learning and digital storytelling will assist in this connectedness and extend learning beyond the class room. It is not only enough to use the technology, but it is important to apply it in ways meaningful to the student (Wikipedia, n.d.).
Jonassen, D. H., Peck, K. L., & Wilson, B. G. (1999). Learning with Technology: A Constructivist Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Manovich, L. (2001). The Language of New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Mlearning. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikepedia Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLearningMobile phone. (n.d.) Retrieved from Wikepedia Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phoneNationMaster.com, (n.d.). Media statistics>Mobile phone subscribers. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_mob_pho_sub-media-mobile-phone-subscribers&date=1984Speak Up National Findings. (2009). Retrieved from www.tomorrow.org/speakup/pdfs/SUNationalFindings2009.pdfTrainingIndustry, Inc. (2010). Retrieved from https://www1.gotomeeting.com/en_US/island/webinar/registrationPost.tmpl?Action=rgoto&_sf=4Williams, D. (n.d.). Using Technology to Extend LearningBeyond the Classroom. Retrieved from http://music.utsa.edu/tdml/conf-VI/VI-Williams.htmlRogers, E.M.(2003) Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.
I phones cell_phones_for_m-learning_jm_haefnerfinal
Cell Phones & m-learning<br />
Research: Phone<br />Analog Motorola DynaTAC 8000X Advanced Mobile Phone System mobile phone as of 1983<br />The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979 (Wikipedia, n.d., para. 8). <br />
(NationMaster.com, n.d.) <br />Matching Innovation to Need<br />
Critical Mass: of Cell Phone<br /><ul><li>wireless services have reached almost 50 percent of the world’s population.
3 billion mobile subscribers globally</li></li></ul><li>Technology<br />NEW MEDIA(um)<br />
Need: Technology Uses <br /><ul><li>for social networks 26%;
finding an online tutor 7% </li></ul>(Speak Up Report, 2009)<br />
Others are using digital storytelling and have begun to explore the cell phone as a development media: <br />http://www.storycenter.org/<br />http://electronicportfolios.org/digistory/<br />http://www.storymapping.org/<br />http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/2392<br />Research: Digital Storytelling<br />
A number of institutions are utilizing cell phones in a variety of ways to enhance learning. <br />Notable: International Society for Technology in Education , or ISTE<br />Research: m-learning<br />
not necessarily uncomfortable with cell phones</li></ul>(Rogers, 2003)<br />
Strategies for Adoption<br />Diffusion: decentralized through peers<br />Among the faculty <br />Opinion Leaders and Change Agents will provide feedback on their experiences.<br />(Rogers, 2003)<br />
Why iPhones & Cell Phones?<br />Over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide<br />Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, <br />Over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2008 <br />(Wikipedia, n.d., para. 44)<br />
References<br />Jonassen, D. H., Peck, K. L., & Wilson, B. G. (1999). Learning with Technology: A Constructivist Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.<br />Manovich, L. (2001). The Language of New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.<br />Mlearning. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikepedia Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLearning<br />Mobile phone. (n.d.) Retrieved from Wikepedia Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone<br />NationMaster.com, (n.d.). Media statistics>Mobile phone subscribers. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_mob_pho_sub-media-mobile-phone-subscribers&date=1984<br />Speak Up National Findings. (2009). Retrieved from www.tomorrow.org/speakup/pdfs/SUNationalFindings2009.pdf<br />TrainingIndustry, Inc. (2010). Retrieved from https://www1.gotomeeting.com/en_US/island/webinar/registrationPost.tmpl?Action=rgoto&_sf=4<br />Williams, D. (n.d.). Using Technology to Extend LearningBeyond the Classroom. Retrieved from http://music.utsa.edu/tdml/conf-VI/VI-Williams.html<br />Rogers, E.M.(2003) Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.<br />