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Hystory of smoking: how did it start in different countries. Smoking effects on human body. Smoking in Europe: official data. Smoking in Lithuania: official data and numbers. Smoking at school. Prevention. Laws that affect smokers.

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  1. 1. Smoking Marija Butkevičiutė & Vėjūna Guzulaitytė
  2. 2. History
  3. 3. Tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs were smoked all over the Americas as early as 5000 BC in shamanistic rituals.
  4. 4. The Maya employed it in classical times (at least from the 10th century) and the Aztecs included it in their mythology. A carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest using a smoking tube. Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet,Florentine Codex, 16th century.
  5. 5. In North America the most common form of smoking was in pipes, which today are best known as the peace pipes offered both to other tribes and later European settlers as a gesture of goodwill and diplomacy.
  6. 6. By the time Europeans arrived in the Americas in the late 15th century there was widespread use of tobacco smoking as a recreational activity.
  7. 7. After the European exploration and subsequent colonization of the Americas in the 16th century, the smoking, cultivation and trading of tobacco quickly spread to all corners of the globe. 'drinking smoke’.
  8. 8. Europe Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior
  9. 9. A frenchman named Jean Nicot (from whose name the word nicotine is derived) introduced tobacco to France in 1560.
  10. 10. Pipe smoking and snuff had become popular in London during the 17th Century and later smoking cigars became the trend but it wasn't until the mid 1800's that the cigarette as we know it was manufactured.
  11. 11. The Middle East Cannabis smoking was common in the Middle East before the arrival of tobacco, and was early on a common social activity that centered around the type of water pipe called a hookah.
  12. 12. A Persian girl smoking by Muhammad Qasim. Isfahan, 17th century.
  13. 13. South Asia Cannabis smoking in India has been known at least since 2000 BC. In Indonesia, a specific type of cigarette which includes cloves called kretek was invented in the early 1880s as a way of delivering the therapeutic properties of clove oil, or eugenol, to the lungs.
  14. 14. Djarum Blacks, a popular brand of Indonesian clove-flavoured cigarettes called kretek.
  15. 15. East Asia While the southern Europeans began smoking earlier, it was the long-stemmed pipes of the northerners that became popular in East and Southeast Asia. Tobacco smoking arrived through expatriates in the Philippines and was introduced as early as the 1570s. A man smoking a kiseru on the cover
  16. 16. Sub-Saharan Africa Cannabis smoking was introduced to Sub-Saharan Africa through Ethiopia and the east African coast by either Indian or Arab traders in the 13th century or earlier. Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by french merchants.
  17. 17. Tobacco and cannabis were used, much like elsewhere in the world, to confirm social relations, but also created entirely new ones. A Nama woman smoking in the Kalahari Desert in Namibia.
  18. 18. Flavored tobacco is very popular for use with water pipes.
  19. 19. The second most common substance that is smoked is cannabis.
  20. 20. An allegedly healthier alternative to smoking appeared in 2004 with the introduction of electronic cigarettes.
  21. 21. Efects to human body
  22. 22. Starting at the Top A smoker, risks for cancer of the mouth. Tobacco smoke can also cause gum disease, tooth decay and bad breath. Smokers may experience frequent headaches.
  23. 23. Lungs and Bronchi Moving down to chest, smoke passes through the bronchi, or breathing tubes. Because the bronchi are weakened, there are more likely to get bronchial infections. Mucus secretion in lungs is impaired, also leading to chronic coughing.
  24. 24. Smoking and the Heart The effects of smoking on heart are devastating. Nicotine raises blood pressure and makes the blood clot more easily. Carbon monoxide robs the blood of oxygen and leads to the development of cholesterol deposits on the artery walls.
  25. 25. Smoking and the Body's Organs The tars in smoke can trigger cancer of the esophagus and throat. Smoking causes increased stomach acid secretion, leading to heartburn and ulcers.
  26. 26. The Results Forty percent of men who are heavy smokers will die before they reach retirement age, as compared to only 18 percent of nonsmokers. Women who smoke face an increased risk of cervical cancer, and pregnant women who smoke take a chance with the health of their unborn babies.
  27. 27. Smoking is one of the biggest single causes of preventable disease and premature death in a large number of mainly developed countries around the world.
  28. 28. Over 70% of smokers between the ages of 35 and 44 who die of coronary heart disease, die prematurely due to smoking. In teenagers who smoke, early signs of heart disease, such as the building up of fatty deposits in the arteries, can be detected. Smoking also causes strokes and heart attacks. Another major illness and cause of death from smoking is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  29. 29. Smoking reduces a person's life expectancy from anything from 7 years to 30 years.
  30. 30. As well as having long-term negative effects on a person's health, smoking also has immediate effects on the body.
  31. 31. In the long-term, smoking causes other diseases apart from those mentioned above. Here is a list of diseases, illnesses and other effects that are caused by smoking:
  32. 32. Lung cancer Cancer of the mouth Cancer of the throat Cancer of the larynx Cancer of the oesophagus Stomach cancer Kidney cancer Cancer of the bladder Cancer of the pancreas Liver cancer Cancer of the penis Cancer of the anus Cervical cancer Prostate cancer Heart attack Coronary heart disease Cardiovascular disease Congestive heart failure Stroke Atherosclerosis Abdominal aortic aneurysm Peripheral artery disease Ischaemic heart disease Angina Leukaemia Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Pneumonia Asthma Diabetes
  33. 33. Stomach ulcers Cataracts Gum disease High blood pressure Crohn's disease Premature aging of the skin Loss of smell and taste Osteoporosis (women) Gangrene Impotence Reduced fertility
  34. 34. BRAIN Nicotine affects a smoker’s brain chemistry. Nicotine affects a smoker’s mood. Tobacco smoke is a major cause of stroke.
  35. 35. EYES Smokers have a two to three times greater chance of developing cataracts, a leading cause of blindness. A cataract causes the cells around the lens to turn white.
  36. 36. MOUTH AND THROAT Smokers are more likely to get peridontitis (gum disease). Smoking causes mouth cancer. Smoking causes cancer of the larynx. Smoking causes cancer of the esophagus. Smokers are more likely to have upper respiratory tract infections—sore throat and colds.
  37. 37. LUNGS Smokers are at greater risk of lung cancer. Smokers have more respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and colds. Smoking causes emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Smoking is related to asthma among children and teens.
  38. 38. HEART Smoking is a leading cause of coronary heart disease. Smoking causes atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Most cases of stroke, coronary heart disease, and artery disease are caused by atherosclerosis. Smoking causes abdominal aortic aneurism, a bulge in the wall of the aorta near the stomach, the 13 th leading cause of death in the U.S.
  39. 39. STOMACH Smokers are more likely to get peptic ulcers than nonsmokers. Smoking causes stomach cancer.
  40. 40. PANCREAS Smoking causes pancreatic cancer.
  41. 41. KIDNEYS Smoking causes kidney cancer.
  42. 42. BLADDER Smoking causes bladder cancer.
  43. 43. PREGNANCY Secondhand smoke can cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in babies. Smoking can cause babies to be born prematurely, and have lower birth weight, respiratory diseases, and other illnesses. Low birth weight is the leading cause of infant death. Nicotine in the bloodstream can restrict the amount of oxygen the baby receives. Smoking can cause cervical cancer.
  44. 44. Smoking in Lithuania
  45. 45. Trend in male and female smoking prevalence in Lithuania, 1990-2005 (Source: WHO- HFA database, 2007)
  46. 46. Smoking is the most common addictive disease in Lithuania. It is widely spread between both men and women. Interesting that it is more popular with young people than with old ones.
  47. 47. In a poll, which was made, 13,5% of respondents were to 14 years, 15,6% - 15-18 years, 17,7% - 19-21 years. 19,1% of respondents were 22-25 years, 19,9% - 26-35 years. And only 10,6% of all respondents were 36-45 years old.
  48. 48. 54,6% of these respondents claim, that their health is good and 34,8% of them find it right enough.
  49. 49. This poll showed, that most of people start smoking in a early age: 41,1% of the respondents started smoking while they were less than 14 years and 34% of them – while they were between 15 and 18 years.
  50. 50. 67,4% of respondents smoke cigarettes. 29,8% did not want to mention what they smoke.
  51. 51. This poll had a smoker type: 36,2% of respondents claim to be more watchful and vigorous after smoking; 18,4% of them claim that they like to lie down and relax while smoking; 5% of these smokers like to play with a cigarette while smoking; 9,9% are total addicts – they get stressed when cigarettes come to an end.
  52. 52. 6,4% of respondents lighten up their cigarettes without even noticing that; 17,7% of these smokers smoke when they get into a temper or when they are just in a bad mood. Other respondents believe, that smoking helps them communicate with other people.
  53. 53. 30,5% of all respondents complain about insomnia.
  54. 54. This poll showed, that family is very important in this situation – most of smokers (in this poll – 46,1%!) come from a family in which smoking is usual. Other important thing, which came up during this poll, is that most of these smokers have tried to break off a smoking habit, but they never succeeded.
  55. 55. Laws
  56. 56. Lithuanian laws reglament that: It is forbidden to smoke in all education, health care buildings, halls, work places with no special smoking rooms. It is forbidden to smoke in all living accommontations if there are any non- smokers. It is forbidden to smoke in all types of public transport.
  57. 57. Hotels, restaurants and cafeterias should have a separate place for non-smokers. Local governments have the right to forbid smoking in public places. Employers have to take care of the signs, which notificate, that it is forbiden to smoke in particular area.
  58. 58. There also some other restrictions: Lithuanian government forbade cigarette advertisements (however there are some exceptions). European Union requested that all tobacco products must be marked as harmful. You can not buy cigarettes in Lithuania unless you are over 18 years old.
  59. 59. Tobacco can not be sold to younger people than 18 years; Tobacco products are eliminated from self-service shelves; It is forbidden to sell sweets and candy in packs that give any association of cigarettes. It is forbidden to sell cigarettes apiece or to sell unfull packs of cigarettes.
  60. 60. Members/Partners in Lithuania MEMBERS Lithuanian National Tobacco and Alcohol Control Coalition Kaunas Drug Abuse Help Centre for Youth
  61. 61. National Drug Prevention Council NGO Nauja Pradzia Parents Against Drugs Public Health Students Society VSSD Slauliai Public Health Centre VSI Sugrizimas VSI Jesuit Gymnasium VSI D & DM WHO Regional Office Country Office Lithuania Youth Health Centre
  62. 62. Europe
  63. 63. Smoking in European countries
  64. 64. The European Union does it‘s best to turn Europe into a smoke-free zone. Health Commissioner launched a public debate in Brussels and raised the prospect of EU-wide legislation to achieve this goal.
  65. 65. Officials say passive smoking kills 79,000 Europeans per year - about one in nine of all tobacco-related deaths.
  66. 66. Some facts: • Ireland was the first EU country to ban smoking in all indoor public spaces • Some other EU countries have introduced partial bans, which allow smoking rooms in bars and restaurants. After one year, there was a polle and more then 80% of respondents across the EU said they favored a ban in all public indoor spaces.
  67. 67. ENSP - European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention  Association of Lithuanian Day Care Centres  Bishop M. Valancius Temperance Movement  Kaunas Public Health Centre  Lithuanian Christian Youth Temperance Union Zingsnis  Lithuanian Medical Students Association LiMSA  Lithuanian National Consumers Federation  Lithuanian Non-Smokers Association  Lithuanian Public Health Association  Lithuanian School Student Union LMS  National Association of Catholic Schools NACS
  68. 68. European smoking bans
  69. 69. Ban in all enclosed public spaces: •Ireland; •UK.
  70. 70. Ban with exception for sealed ventilated smoking rooms: • Italy; • Malta; • Sweden; • Estonia; • France; • Finland.
  71. 71. Ban with other kinds of exception in hospitality sector: • Belgium; • Cyprus; • Latvia; • Lithuania; • Slovenia; • Romania; • Netherlands; • Spain.
  72. 72. Support for smoking bans in European countries
  73. 73. UEFA announced that it will enforce a complete ban on the use, sale or promotion of tobacco in all stadia involved in UEFA EURO 2012. The regulation will apply without exception to all spaces within stadia perimeters, both indoors and outdoors. This tobacco- free policy was developed and will be implemented in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), World Heart Federation, European Healthy Stadia Network, local organising committees in the host countries, Poland and Ukraine, and local health advocacy groups.
  74. 74. Smoking at school
  75. 75. How to solve this problem? • Children should be taught about smoking lesions from very young age. That type of prevention is most gainful when it is used with imagination, because then children will be interested and pay more attention to what is being said. • Young boys should be taught not to follow adults bad example, they should understand that smoking doesn‘t make someone a man. • Social workers should organise a prevential cluster. Children should be encouraged to take part in it. • Schools should cooperate with preventional organisations.
  76. 76. There is a worldwide organisation called Save the Children. It unifies different culture, religion and age people from all over the world. It‘s goal is not only to help children in complicated situations but also to deal with some relevant problems. One of them is smoking.
  77. 77. Sources: valstybes-rupestis.html figures/whats-in-a-cigarette.html ng_health_effects.shtml Smoking-poll-do-you-smoke
  78. 78. Thank you for your attention 