• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
S3 SANITARY PIPE WORK ASSIGNMENT
 

S3 SANITARY PIPE WORK ASSIGNMENT

on

  • 1,493 views

SEMESTA 3

SEMESTA 3
CB305 – PLUMBING SERVICES 2
ASSIGNMENT - SANITARY PIPE WORK

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,493
Views on SlideShare
1,493
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    S3 SANITARY PIPE WORK ASSIGNMENT S3 SANITARY PIPE WORK ASSIGNMENT Document Transcript

    • 1 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k CONTENT No. Title Page 1. Appreciation 3 2. Introduction 4 3. Definition terms 5 4. 1. Explain why inspection and testing the soundness and performance of sanitary pipe work under ground. 6 5. 2. State the statutory and recommended soundness and performance requirements for sanitary pipe work, including connected sanitary appliances. 7 - 8 6. 3. Describe the air test n use of smoke to locate leaks in the pipe work in sanitary pipe work systems. 9 – 13 7. 4. Describe the hydraulic test for appliances and sanitary pipe work. 14 – 16 8. 5. Describe methods of simulating peak flow and pipe work. 17 9. 6. State inspection and testing procedures for various systems of sanitary pipe work. 18 - 24 10. Conclusion 25 11. Reference 26
    • 2 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k CONTENT OF FIGURE No. Title Page 1. Figure 1.0 Air Test 7 2. Figure 2.0 Shows the method of carrying out an air test. 10 3. Figure 2.1 Shows the method of carrying out a smoke test. 11 4. Figure 2.2 Show the smoke machine during a test. 11 5. Figure 2.3 The drain is plugged or stopped by either an expanding drain plug 12 6. Figure 2.4 Show the drain an inflatable bag 12 7. Figure 2. 5 Shows the method the carry out the water test using a rubber tube connected to a testing vessel. 15 8. Figure 4.0 Shows a method of testing the water using a rubber tube connected to the former test. 19 9. Figure 4.1 Shows a method of testing the wind. 20 10. Figure 4.2 Smoke tests on the drain 21 11. Figure 4.3 Smoke machine used during the test 22 12. Figure 4.4 Rubber drainage retaining expand 22 13. Figure 4.5 Retaining the drainage bag expands 23 14. Figure 4.6 Tests to determine the straightness and obstruction 24
    • 3 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k APPRECIATION Assalamualaikum… Praise is presented only for ALLAH Almighty Disposer of all things. Peace and blessings be upon beloved Prophet Muhammad leaflets bearing the revelation to illuminate be universe, the companions, his family, all the scholars and lovers of Islam throughout the world. Thank to God that, we can complete the assignment on the sanitary pipe work to be handed over to Mr. Huzaime b. Abdul Hadi very well. By making this assignment we can add my knowledge about of the sanitary pipe work. With this we can add my knowledge and understanding about it. Our assignment was explain a bit about the soundness and performance testing of sanitary pipe work above ground. Finally, we thank the lecturers who taught me, Mr. Huzaime b. Abdul Hadi has been providing guidance and information on how to produce this work. Thank also to friends who also give lessons and share ideas and information.
    • 4 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLES OF DRAINAGE BELOW GROUND An effective drainage system is required to drain the dirty material from a surface water drainage building.If not strong and leak, the water that comes out of it may affect the health of this public.Condition will cause erosion of land under the building site resulting in a building that settles. Drainage must meet the requirements of economic technical.Factor often influence the flow system and the planning of a public sewer system building.If found in the vicinity of, a more economical way to handle waste is by passing the materials into the sewer route public.If public sewer line is within 30m of a construction site, local authorities may determine that the building drainage system must be connected to public sewer. Sanitary pipe work is a system of pipes installed to permit the transfer of waste water and sewage from building to foul drain. Also it provides a means of ventilation for the drain so that there can be no build up unpleasant odors or methane gas within the system which might accidentally permeate into the building. For efficient working of disposal installation pipe work system, a number of design criteria should be fulfilled. In the following section we will look at some of the terms related to sanitary pipe work.
    • 5 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k DEFINITION OF TERMS Soil Waste - This is discharged from water closets, urinals, slop sinks, and similar appliances. Soil Pipe - This pipe conveys the discharge of water closets or fixtures with similar function, with or without the discharges from other fixtures.
    • 6 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 1. Explain why inspection and testing the soundness and performance of sanitary pipe work under ground. After the drain has been laid and before backfilling,or placing concrete,or granular material round the pipes,it should be tested by either water or air,If any leak occurs,the defective pipe or joint should be rectified and the drain again tested. Wherever possible,testing should be carried out between the manholes and short branch drains tested along with the main drainage system.Long branch drains and monholes should be separately. The test before backfilling should be carried out as soon as is practicable and the pipe should be strutted,to prevent any movement of the drain during the test. A temporary bend and stand pipe should be fitted at the head of the drain and a stopper fitted at the lower end. Alternatively,the test may be applied by means of a rubber tube connected to a vessel and the drain stopper.
    • 7 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 2. State the statutory and recommended soundness and performance requirements for sanitary pipe work, including connected sanitary appliances. Soundness Testing of Discharge System Plug all open ends with Drain Plugs Fill all traps with water Attach water gauge manometer and pump up to 38mm Figure 1.0 Air Test Leave to stand for 3 minute No drop is permitted If there is a drop - check all joints with Leak Detection Spray The Water Test is carried out on sanitary appliances is up to flood level of lowest appliance
    • 8 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Performance Testing of Discharge System Check that trap seals are retained after use Test for self siphonage or induced siphonage Fill all appliances to level of overflow and then remove plugs Test depth of trap seal with dipstick (painted matt black) Trap seal remaining MUST be at least 25mm Effective Trap Seal Depth - from the soffit to the invert of the trap outlet Testing for Tap Siphonage Self Siphonage - discharge pipe is too small Induced Siphonage - suck water out of the second trap Momentum - trap seal as water is carried away by water flowing at high speed
    • 9 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 3. Describe the air test n use of smoke to locate leaks in the pipe work in sanitary pipe work systems. AIR TEST The length of drain to be tested should be plugged and air pumped into the pipe until a pressure of slightly more than 100 mm water gauge is obtained. Where gullies and / or ground - floor appliances are connected the test pressure should be slightly more than 50 mm water gauge. A change in air temperature will affect the test pressure and therefore 5 minutes should be allowed for pressure stabilization. The air pressure should be adjusted to 100 mm water gauge as necessary. Without further pumping, the head of water during a period of 5 minutes should not fall more than 25 mm and 12 mm for a 100 mm and 50 mm water gauge test pressures respectively. Figure 2.0 shows the method of carrying out an air test. The test is carried out by fixing a stopper, sealed with a cap, at one end of the drain and pumping in air at the other end until the U gauge shows the required head of water.
    • 10 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k FIGURE 2.0 Shows the method of carrying out an air test. SMOKE TEST The use of smoke cartridges for this test is not to be recommended, due to the possibility of the build up of high pressure inside the drain. The test by use of a smoke machine is usually applied to existing drains with the purpose of locating a leak. In order to ensure that the drain is filled with smoke, a rubber tube should be passed through the water seal of gully traps, so that air contained inside the drain may escape. Figure2.1 shows the method of carrying out a smoke test. The test is carried out by placing a stopper, sealed with a cap, at one end of the drain and pumping in smoke at the other.
    • 11 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k FIGURE 2.1 Shows the method of carrying out a smoke test. The dome rises with the action of the bellows and if the drain is sound is maintained in this elevated position. Figure 2.2 show the smoke machine during a test. FIGURE 2.2 Show the smoke machine during a test.
    • 12 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Types of Stoppers The drain is plugged or stopped by either an expanding drain plug (Shown in Figure 2.3) or by an inflatable bag ( Shown in Figure. 2.4 ) FIGURE 2.3 The drain is plugged or stopped by either an expanding drain plug FIGURE 2.4 Show the drain an inflatable bag
    • 13 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Test for Straightness and Obstruction This can be carried out by placing an electric torch at one end of the drain and looking through a mirror at the other end of the drain. Any fault in alignment or obstruction will be seen through the mirror. Testing Manholes A bag stopper should be fitted in the outlet of manhole and bag stoppers or expanding plugs fitted at all other connections. The manhole should be filled with clean water and allowed to stand for 8 hours for a absorption, topping up the water level as necessary. The criterion for acceptance should be , that no appreciable flow of water should pass through the manhole during a further 30 minutes.
    • 14 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 4. Describe the hydraulic test for appliances and sanitary pipe work. Building Regulation and Code of Practice Tests. The Building Regulations 1992 ang the Code of Practice B.S 8301, Building Drainage 1985 give the following procedures for carrying out test on gravity drains and private sewers up to 300 mm in diameter. WATER TEST 1. The drain should be filled with water to give a test pressure equal to 1.5 m head of water above the soffit of the drain at the high end but not more than 4 m head of water above the soffit for the drain at the low end. Steeply graded drains should be tested in stages so that the head of water at the lower end does not exceed 4 m. This is to prevent damage to the drain and if may be necessary to test a drain in several sections. 2. The pipeline should be allowed to stand for 2 hours for absorption and topped up with water as necessary. After 2 hours the loss of water from the pipeline should be measured by noting the quantity of water needed to maintain the test head for 30 minutes. The rate of water loss should not exceed 1 litre/hour per metre diameter, per metre run of pipe. For various pipe diameters the rate of loss per metre run during the 30 minute period is 0.05 litre for 100 mm pipe; 0.8 litre for 150 mm pipe; 0.12 litre for 225 mm pipe and 0.15 litre for 300 mm pipe. Figure 3.0 shows the method the carry out the water test using a rubber tube connected to a testing vessel.
    • 15 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Figure 3.0 Shows the method the carry out the water test using a rubber tube connected to a testing vessel. Alternatively, the test may be carry out by means of a temporary bend and stand- pipe connected to the head of the drain. The fall of water in the vessel or stand-pipe may be due to one or more of the following causes: a) Absorption by Pipe or Joints The initial absorption may be of the order of 5 per cent of the total weight of the pipeline. b) Trapped Air This usually occurs at the joints and the amount will vary with the type of joint, diameter of pipes and joints and the gradient. Eventually the air is absorbed by the water, but this can take some time.
    • 16 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k c) Sweating of Pipe and Joints Occasionally pipes and joints under water pressure may sweat slightly, but this should not be considered a cause for rejection of the pipeline. d) Leakage from Defective Pipes or Joints The defective pipe or joint should be taken out and replaced and the pipeline re- tested. e) Leakage from Stoppers These should be tightened, but if the leakage continues a new plug should be inserted. Sometimes a leakage can occur on the threaded portion of the plug. All equipment used for testing should be thoroughly checked before being used and the rubber surfaces of plugs should be free from grit. FINAL WATER TEST There is a risk that the drain of private sewer can be damage during backfilling or surrounding the pipeline with concrete. The final test therefore should be carried out after the backfilling or concreting has been completed.
    • 17 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 5. Describe methods of simulating peak flow and pipe work. Flow in the pipe nowadays is very important as a medium to move a fluid from one destination to another. Generally it used at indushial plant, to supply a water at homea nde tc. Visualizationa nd Simulationo f Fluid Flows in a Piping Systemi s an application system developed to solve and also overcome problems in fluid motion field. The problem that existedi s the diffrculties to determinea n appearanceo f fluid motion. Analytical and mathematical approach alone does not solve the problems thosee xist. Therefore,t he new approachess ucha s visualizationa nd simulationa s a support for the solution has helped to solve the problem. This study only focus on laminar flow and specific on liquid which are water and used only single straighten piping system made of from PI/C.
    • 18 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 6. State inspection and testing procedures for various systems of sanitary pipe work. Water Test 1. Drainage should be connected to the water supply to be equal to the test pressure of 1.5 m column of water above the soffit of the drainage at the highest end, but not more than 4 m column of water above the soffit of the drainage at the lowest end. 2. Very steep drainage should be tested in stages so that the water column at the lowest end will not be covers many 4 m. aims to prevent damage to drainage and tests should be done for a number of sections. 3. Pipe line must be left for 2 hours to allow the absorption and addition of water. 4. After 2 hours, loss of water from the pipeline must be measured by observing the volume of water to be added to keep the test columns for 30 minutes. 5. Water loss rate must not exceed 1 liter / hr per meter diameter, per meter length of pipe. 6. For pipes of variable diameter, the loss per meter length of pipe for 30 minutes is 0.05 liters to 100 mm diameter pipe, 12:08 liters to 150 mm diameter pipe, 12:12 liters to 225 mm diameter pipe and 0.15 liters for 300 diameter pipe mm. 7. Alternatively, the test can be done using a temporary bend and vertical pipe connected to the column drainage.
    • 19 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k 8. In addition, the drainage must be supported to prevent movement of the drain when it rains. decrease in water level in the container or vertical pipe during the test due to the diffusion of pipes and connections, leaking pipes or connections for damage, leakage at the conclusion of the test and the trapped air. 9. Some pipes absorbs more water or air traps more content than the rest of the jacks. therefore, water should be added to maintain the test head test within 30 minutes. Figure 4.0 Shows a method of testing the water using a rubber tube connected to the former test.
    • 20 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Wind Test 1. Long drainage to be tested must be plugged and air pumped into the pipe until the pressure is slightly higher than the 100 mm water gauge. 2. When gegeluk and ground equipment is connected, the test pressure must be slightly higher than the 50 mm water gauge. 3. Changes in air temperature can affect the test pressure. Therefore, the pressure must be kept stable in the last 5 minutes. 4. Air pressure should be adjusted to 100 mm or 50 mm water gauge, according as may be required. 5. Without further pumping, the water column within 5 minutes should not be dropped more than 25 mm for the test pressure of 100 mm and 12 mm water gauge to test pressure of 50 mm water gauge. 6. Test was done by fitting a retainer, sealed with a lid, at one end of the drain and the air is pumped in through the other end until the gauge-U indicates the desired value of the water column. Figure 4.1 Shows a method of testing the wind.
    • 21 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Smoke Test 1. Drainage should be plugged and connected to the smoke machine on the bottom retainer. 2. Test was conducted by pumping smoke into the drain with a smoke machine to vault up to the required height. 3. During the test was performed, the dome should be at steady state and drainage to be examined to detect any leakage of smoke. Figure 4.2 Smoke tests on the drain
    • 22 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Figure 4.3 Smoke machine used during the test Figure 4.4 Rubber drainage retaining expand
    • 23 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Figure 4.5 Retaining the drainage bag expands
    • 24 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k Straightness and resistance test 1. This test is maintained by placing a mirror at one end of the drainage and lighting and the other end. 2. Light is seen through a mirror can show whether the drainage is straight or pu, respectively. Figure 4.6 Tests to determine the straightness and obstruction
    • 25 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k CONCLUSION Drainage must meet the requirements of economic technical.Factor often influence the flow system and the planning of a public sewer system building.If found in the vicinity of, a more economical way to handle waste is by passing the materials into the sewer route public. Wherever possible,testing should be carried out between the manholes and short branch drains tested along with the main drainage system.Long branch drains and monholes should be separately. A temporary bend and stand pipe should be fitted at the head of the drain and a stopper fitted at the lower end. The air test use of smoke to located leaks in the pipe work in sanitary pipe work systems air test The length of drain to be tested should be plugged and air pumped into the pipe until a pressure of slightly more than 100 mm water gauge is obtained. Test for Straightness and Obstruction This can be carried out by placing an electric torch at one end of the drain and looking through a mirror at the other end of the drain.
    • 26 | s a n i t a r y p i p e w o r k REFERENCES  BUILDING SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT THIRD EDITION FREDERICK HALL  F.HALL EDISI KEDUA KERJA PAIP : PEMBEKALAN AIR SEJUK,SALIRAN DAN PEMBERSIHAN,Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Darul Takzim 1999