Interior Lighting Guide - Interior Lighting Bringing Rooms To Life

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Interior Lighting: Bringing Rooms To Life teaches the basics of residential interior lighting. The liveaction video demonstrates how the angle, quality, and intensity of light influence how it is perceived and used.
The program explains ambient lighting, task lighting, and accent lighting. It demonstrates different kinds of lamps and lighting fixtures and shows how each contributes to the overall interior design plan.
The video is aimed at students taking introductory courses in interior design or lighting.

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Interior Lighting Guide - Interior Lighting Bringing Rooms To Life

  1. 1. Interior Lighting Page i of 16 Interior Lighting Bringing Rooms To Life Copyright © 2008 Learning Seed 800.634.4941 info@learningseed.com www.learningseed.com
  2. 2. Interior Lighting Page ii of 16 Interior Lighting Bringing Rooms To Life Legal Niceties The Video Copyright © 2008 Learning Seed. This video program is protected under U.S. copyright law. No part of this video may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the Publisher, except where permitted by law. This Teaching Guide Copyright © 2008 Learning Seed. This teaching guide is copyrighted according to the terms of the Creative Commons non-commercial license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/). It may be reproduced, in its part or its entirety, for classroom use. No part of this guide may be reproduced for sale by any party. You are free: • to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work. • to make derivative works. Under the following conditions: • Attribution. You must attribute the work to Learning Seed. • Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. • For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. • Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Credits The Video This Teaching Guide Writer: Jeff Schrank Compilation: Gabriel Mckee Copy Editor: Jennifer Smith Learning Seed Catalog and ISBN Numbers Our Guarantee VHS LS-1124-08-VHS ISBN 1-55740-515-8 DVD LS-1124-08-DVD ISBN 1-55740-516-6 Please contact us with any questions or concerns at: Closed Captioning Learning Seed This program is closed-captioned. Suite 301 641 W. Lake St Chicago, IL 60661 800.634.4941 info@learningseed.com www.learningseed.com
  3. 3. Interior Lighting Page iii of 16 Bringing Rooms To Life Table of Contents The Program Summary ............................................................................................................................................1 Direction, Quality, And Intensity .........................................................................................................2 Types Of Lamps .................................................................................................................................4 Types Of Fixtures ...............................................................................................................................5 Review................................................................................................................................................6 Interactive Elements Discussion Questions And Activities ..................................................................................................7 Evaluation/Testing Fill-In-The-Blank .................................................................................................................................8 Fill-In-The-Blank Answer Key .............................................................................................................9 Multiple Choice Worksheet...............................................................................................................10 Multiple Choice Worksheet Answer Key...........................................................................................11 Quiz ..................................................................................................................................................12 Quiz Answer Key ..............................................................................................................................13 Additional Information Glossary............................................................................................................................................14 For More Information........................................................................................................................16
  4. 4. Interior Lighting Page 1 of 16 Summary Interior Lighting: Bringing Rooms To Life teaches the basics of residential interior lighting. The live- action video demonstrates how the angle, quality, and intensity of light influence how it is perceived and used. The program explains ambient lighting, task lighting, and accent lighting. It demonstrates different kinds of lamps and lighting fixtures and shows how each contributes to the overall interior design plan. The video is aimed at students taking introductory courses in interior design or lighting. Key points: • What are the most important components of lighting for interiors? • How does lighting affect our experience of a space? • What are the most common kinds of light fixture, and what are the differences between them? • What kind of light bulb uses a third of the electricity of a standard bulb—and lasts 10 times as long? • How do direction, diffusion, and reflecting affect the appearance of a space?
  5. 5. Interior Lighting Page 2 of 16 Direction, Quality, And Intensity Direction Of Light Light can transform our feelings. In horror movies, one of the most effective ways of creating a monster is by using lighting. An uplight, a single direct light from below, casts strong shadows. An actor’s face lit by an uplight appears menacing. But direct light doesn’t have to be scary. The same principle can be used to make a dull surface appear more dramatic. Light shining straight on a surface makes it appear flat, but a direct, angled light can cast shadows on a wall or a piece of fabric that highlight its texture. This kind of shadowy texturing can bring a blank wall to life. Angled light can also be used to enhance the shape and dimension of an object. A vase lit by a single, straight light is well-illuminated, but appears flat. Lighting the same vase from an angle makes it stand out from its background. This principle explains why photos taken with a built-in flash often have an unpleasantly harsh appearance. A flashbulb is a direct light from one direction. Professional photographers rarely use a single, straight-on light. In other cases, angled lighting and the shadows it produces aren’t desirable. A single light above or next to a mirror creates facial shadows that won’t exist in a well-lighted room. Professional make-up mirrors provide light from multiple directions to eliminate shadows. When lighting a living space, it’s essential to keep the direction of the light in mind. Rooms that have outside light coming from two directions are generally more pleasing to the eye than those with light from only one direction. For the most comfortable results, interiors should be lit to provide multi-angle light. Quality Of Light: Color Light can have different qualities, from the pale yellow of the morning to the orange of sunset to the deep blue of dusk. Weather can change light’s quality and color, too. A cloudy or foggy day filters the sunlight and changes its mood. Direction also changes light quality. Because of the angle of sunlight, windows on north or east walls admit cool, bluish light, with fewer orange and yellow wavelengths. Southern or western windows bring sunlight later in the day, with warm, orange tones. We often think of light from a light bulb as white, but in fact it has strong yellow and red tones. The standard light bulb, the incandescent bulb, hasn’t changed much since Thomas Edison invented it in 1879. It produces light by sending an electric current through a filament of tungsten. The electricity causes the filament to burn, but it doesn’t burn up because the bulb is filled with inert gases like argon or nitrogen. Some of the tungsten does evaporate due to the temperature, and that’s why some bulbs blacken over time. The light we see is the glow from the burning tungsten. The yellow and red tones in the light are reminiscent of those from a fire, and that may be why we find the light quality so pleasing—fire was our ancestors’ first source of controlled light. Quality Of Light: Diffusion As soothing as those color tones may be, we usually don’t light our rooms with bare incandescent bulbs. The light from a bare bulb is harsh and uncomfortable. We use diffusion and reflecting to soften the light’s quality. Direct light from a single direction can be harsh. Diffusion filters this
  6. 6. Interior Lighting Page 3 of 16 harshness by scattering the light, making it less direct, softening shadows, and reducing glare. Most light bulbs are coated with a layer of silica that softens the light before it leaves the bulb. Photographers often use diffusion filters to make objects less focused. Diffused light is less likely to produce glare and “hot spots” in photographs. Clouds diffuse sunlight in the same way, which is why photos taken on cloudy days often look better than those taken in full sunlight. Though most bulbs offer some diffusion, the light from a bare light bulb is usually still a bit too harsh for most purposes. Most household lighting is passed through some kind of filter, such as a lamp shade, to diffuse it further. Quality Of Light: Reflecting Reflected light is also softer than direct light. All rooms have some indirect “bounced” lighting because light reflects off of ceilings and walls. Light colors and shiny surfaces are the best reflectors, which is why ceilings are often painted white. Rooms with dark walls or ceilings absorb more light, which makes them look darker overall. A room with dark walls will need more artificial lighting than a room with light walls. Some kinds of light fixture use reflected light. Cove lighting covers the light source so that almost all of the visible light is reflected from the wall. Torchieres direct most of their light up so that it bounces off of the ceiling. Light’s quality and color can be changed by reflecting. A colored surface will tint the light that it reflects. An object or person near a blue surface will have a bluish tone. Wood walls and furniture that are lit by warm white light will reflect that light with a warm reddish glow. White and neutral furnishings like marble and chrome look best in neutral white or daylight colors. Intensity Of Light The overall level of light in a room is called ambient light. High levels of ambient light suggest work and activity. Kitchens, offices, schools, and retail stores all have high levels of ambient light. Lower light levels suggest peace and rest. Fast food restaurants have high ambient lighting, but higher-scale eateries have very low light levels. People draw closer together and talk more quietly in dim light. One study found that the noise level in school hallways dropped 10 decibels when two thirds of the overhead fluorescent lights were turned off. The intensity of the light you choose has a big impact on the atmosphere of a space. But how can you tell what intensity of light a bulb will produce? Most people look at the wattage number: a 100-watt bulb will usually give brighter light than a 60-watt one. But wattage isn’t actually a measurement of brightness. The wattage measures how much electricity a lamp draws. That 100- watt bulb will sometimes be a brighter light, but sometimes it will just mean a higher electric bill. The intensity of light is measured in lumens. Some bulbs have higher lumen ratings than others with the same wattage. The higher the lumen rating, the greater the bulb’s brightness, regardless of its wattage. You can conserve electricity by deciding how many lumens you need and finding the bulb with the lowest wattage that will provide that amount of light. In addition to ambient lighting, a room needs task lighting. Task lighting provides illumination for specific tasks, like cooking or reading. A light over a work bench or a kitchen counter is a task light. The most common task lighting is for reading or conversation, such as the lighting in a living room. Backlighting is a common error in this kind of task lighting. Putting a light behind a chair puts the person sitting in the chair in shadow. If the person across from you is lit from behind, it’s difficult to see his or her face. These shadows will also make reading difficult—the chair blocks the light before it
  7. 7. Interior Lighting Page 4 of 16 reaches the pages of the book. Raising the lamp can eliminate the shadow. A lamp placed behind a chair needs to be higher than one place to the side. A reading lamp at the side of a chair should have its shade placed at eye level. The average eye level is about 38-42 inches from the floor. Some task lighting doubles as ambient lighting. It’s a good idea to use three-way bulbs or dimmer switches to adjust the light level according to the task at hand. Another common kind of lighting is accent lighting, which is used to direct attention to small areas or objects. Downlights on paintings, sculptures, or other objects are a good way to draw attention. Lights built into bookcases or placed above display tables make otherwise unnoticed areas come to life. Well-designed lighting balances ambient, task, and accent lighting. A room with only one level of light intensity appears cold and dull. Providing several layers of light increases the visual interest of a space.
  8. 8. Interior Lighting Page 5 of 16 Types Of Lamps The term “light bulb” is all right for everyday use, but lighting experts prefer the word “lamp” because many sources of light are not bulb-shaped. There are many different types of lamp beyond the standard incandescent bulb. Incandescent lamps aren’t the most efficient light sources. About 88% of the electricity that goes into an incandescent bulb turns into heat. In a way, these lamps are heaters that just happen to produce a little light, too. Fluorescent lamps use about a third as much electricity as incandescent ones, and they can last 10 to 13 times longer. A fluorescent lamp is coated with phosphors and filled with vaporized mercury and argon. Electric current activates the gases and causes them to produce light. Fluorescent lamps are much more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs. Today’s compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) can produce the same number of lumens for a far lower wattage. About half of the U.S.’s energy is produced in coal-fired power plants, and much of the electricity they produce goes into inefficient incandescent lamps. If every U.S. household exchanged a single incandescent lamp for a CFL, it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to taking 800,000 cars off the road. Because of the efficiency of CFLs, Australia and Canada have effectively banned incandescent lamps, and other countries are enacting similar laws. When you think of fluorescent lighting, you probably think of the bluish institutional light that’s used in warehouses or retail stores. That kind of light is acceptable for the garage or basement, but not for the living room. But in fact, today’s CFLs offer a light quality comparable to that of incandescent bulbs. Fluorescent lamps are sold in a variety of light qualities, from daylight to soft white. Some bulbs have a Color Rendering Index (CRI) number. The closer the number is to 100, the better the lamp reveals true colors. Most lamps change color in subtle ways. The average incandescent lamp, which gives off reddish-yellow light, is weak at showing blues. (Some “daylight” bulbs have a bluish coating to counteract this color shift.) A fluorescent lamp with a high CRI number can actually provide a light quality closer to sunlight than that given by an incandescent. A high-CRI fluorescent can make it easier to distinguish colors. It’s important to keep the color-shifting nature of artificial light in mind when designing a space. The colors you see in a furniture showroom may look different in your living room. Some high-CRI lamps are sold as “full spectrum” lights that claim to match natural daylight. They sometimes claim to be healthier than other artificial lights, but there isn’t much evidence to support those claims. Sunlight’s quality changes throughout the day, and we enjoy a wide variety of light qualities. Halogen lamps are small and burn very brightly. They’re made of quartz and can become quite hot. They’re more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs, but not as efficient as fluorescents. Halogen lamps show accurate colors and are closer to the quality of sunlight than cool fluorescents, but whiter than incandescents. LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) waste very little energy as heat, can burn for 10 years nonstop, and are little larger than a pencil eraser. They’re often used in digital clocks, remote controls, traffic lights, and jumbo television screens. They’re slowly finding a place in household lighting, and someday they may be a viable replacement for standard lamps. The Mona Lisa in the Louvre is lit by LEDs. Fiber optics are cables that carry light. At the current level of technology, it’s more decorative than practical, but it may find a place in household lighting in the future. Light emitting capacitors (LECs) are sheets of plastic with an inside layer of phosphors that shine when hit with alternating current. They can be programmed to flash on contact, and are sometimes used on electronic drums. They’re also used in cell phones, pagers, and watches.
  9. 9. Interior Lighting Page 6 of 16
  10. 10. Interior Lighting Page 7 of 16 Types Of Fixtures Knowing how to light a space requires familiarity with the different types of lighting fixtures. Table lamps are one of the most common kinds of light fixtures. Lights spend most of their time turned off, so many people want the fixture itself to be attractive. But making a simple table lamp attractive can be difficult. Some designers prefer to do away with bulky light sources like table and floor lamps altogether. They prefer invisible lighting sources. Built-in lighting isn’t distracting or bulky like a floor lamp. It’s best planned when a house is still being constructed, though it can be added later. Older houses have only one or two built-in light sources, while newer houses may have dozens. Here are a few common types of light fixture: • A hanging lamp, or pendant, provides light from above. A dish or globe around the lamp diffuses the light from a pendant. Restaurants often used focused pendants to create pools of light that make each table feel more intimate. • Chandeliers are an elegant kind of hanging lamp. The first chandeliers were candle holders. In fact, the word “chandelier” comes from the French word for candle. Today’s electric chandeliers sometimes use flame-shaped bulbs as a reminder of the fixture’s historical roots. • Wall sconces are another modern take on an ancient type of lighting—a torch on the wall. • Wall washers are a kind of fixture that direct wide spans of light along the side of a wall. This can make rooms with dark walls feel bigger by brightening up their surfaces. • A spotlight creates a single spot of light. It makes a single focal point, so it’s a good fixture for accent lighting. • Track lighting, which puts several separate fixtures on a single track, is a popular fixture in contemporary design. • Recessed lamps are mounted flush with the ceiling. They cast all their light straight down. They’re virtually invisible, but can’t be moved or redirected. • The interior of a recessed fixture, called the baffle, can redirect or reflect the light. White reflects more light down, whereas a black, ridged baffle will cut glare. • Some recessed lamps use eyeball lamps that can be swiveled to direct their light. • Recessed and track lights often use reflector bulbs, which have a silvery coating on the sides to direct light downward rather than wasting it on the sides. The end is coated or textured to diffuse the light. • Flood lamps are often used in outdoor fixtures. They spill light over a wide area, “flooding” it with light. There are a huge array of choices in lighting fixtures and lamps. Consulting a lighting expert is a smart idea when planning interior lighting. Good lighting can bring a room to life, but bad or haphazard lighting can make even the best-designed spaces seem cold or unpleasant.
  11. 11. Interior Lighting Page 8 of 16 Review • The three most important components of lighting for interiors are direction, quality, and intensity. • Angled light creates texture on flat surfaces and makes objects stand out from their backgrounds. • Sunlight has different colors at different times of day—blue in the morning, orange in the evening. • Diffusion filters light by scattering its rays, reducing glare and providing more even illumination. • Light bounced from walls or ceilings affects the overall quality of light in a room. Reflected light takes on the color of the surface it’s reflected from. • The intensity or brightness of the ambient light affects the atmosphere of a room or space. Bright ambient light encourages activity, and dim light is more peaceful and calm. • Task lighting provides illumination for activities like reading or cooking. • Accent lighting draws attention to small areas or objects. • Light is measured in lumens. Wattage is a measurement of electricity. • 88% of the electricity that goes into a standard incandescent bulb turns into heat. • Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are more energy efficient and last longer than incandescent lamps, and they can provide high-quality light. • Though table and floor lamps are some of the most common light fixtures, modern designers prefer less obtrusive fixtures, like recessed and track lights.
  12. 12. Interior Lighting Page 9 of 16 Discussion Questions And Activities 1. What are some common problems in lighting design for homes? Backlighting, lack of balance between ambient, task, and accent lighting, inefficient lamps, and poor use of diffusion and reflecting are all common problems in home lighting. 2. Have students volunteer their living rooms for a lighting re-design. Have the students take “before and after” pictures showing how they changed the lighting scheme to eliminate problems like backlighting, control the level of ambient light, add or adjust task lighting, and add layers of accent lighting. 3. Should light sources be hidden? Are recessed lamps and other concealed lighting sources better than visible table and floor lamps? Discuss the pros and cons of both obtrusive traditional fixtures and inflexible modern designs. 4. Will standard light fixtures ever be replaced? Discuss potential uses of alternative light sources like LEDs, LECs, and fiber optics. 5. Conduct in-class experiments with diffusion, direction, and reflection. Have students team up with a partner and see how using different filters, angles, and reflecting surfaces changes the appearance of a person or space. Be sure to have a wide variety of materials available for your students: lampshades made of different materials, different types of lamps, and reflecting surfaces made of several different materials and colors.
  13. 13. Interior Lighting Page 10 of 16 Interior Lighting Fill-In-The-Blank Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the bank at the bottom of the page. The direction, quality, and intensity of light can have a huge impact on the appearance of a room. Angled lights can bring out the _______________of flat surfaces and create some visual interest on an otherwise boring wall. Putting an angled _______________on a vase or a sculpture can make it jump out from its background and draw attention to it. Understanding the three components of quality—color, diffusion, and _______________—is essential to good lighting design. Sunlight has different color tones at different times of day—_______________ in the morning, orange in the evening. Standard incandescent bulbs have a _______________tint, so it can be hard to distinguish different shades of blue in their light. All rooms have some reflected light from the wall and ceiling, and the light will be tinted in the color of the surface from which it bounces. Rooms with dark walls will often appear small, and adding a _______________ to increase their brightness will make them feel less cramped. _______________can help tone down some of the harsh quality of a bare bulb by scattering the light rays and diminishing _______________. Diffusion helps control the ambient light level—the overall amount of light in a room. _______________ for specific activities can help illuminate cooking in the kitchen or reading in the living room. Accent lighting draws attention to small areas or objects to make a room really appealing to the eye. Good lighting design gives a room several levels of light _______________, creating layers of light to provide visual interest. Word Bank: diffusion intensity red blue texture
  14. 14. Interior Lighting Page 11 of 16 wall washer shadows accent light task lighting reflecting
  15. 15. Interior Lighting Page 12 of 16 Interior Lighting Fill-In-The-Blank Answer Key Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the bank at the bottom of the page. The direction, quality, and intensity of light can have a huge impact on the appearance of a room. Angled lights can bring out the texture of flat surfaces and create some visual interest on an otherwise boring wall. Putting an angled accent light on a vase or a sculpture can make it jump out from its background and draw attention to it. Understanding the three components of quality—color, diffusion, and reflecting—is essential to good lighting design. Sunlight has different color tones at different times of day—blue in the morning, orange in the evening. Standard incandescent bulbs have a red tint, so it can be hard to distinguish different shades of blue in their light. All rooms have some reflected light from the wall and ceiling, and the light will be tinted in the color of the surface from which it bounces. Rooms with dark walls will often appear small, and adding a wall washer to increase their brightness will make them feel less cramped. Diffusion can help tone down some of the harsh quality of a bare bulb by scattering the light rays and diminishing shadows. Diffusion helps control the ambient light level—the overall amount of light in a room. Task lighting for specific activities can help illuminate cooking in the kitchen or reading in the living room. Accent lighting draws attention to small areas or objects to make a room really appealing to the eye. Good lighting design gives a room several layers of light intensity, creating layers of light to provide visual interest.
  16. 16. Interior Lighting Page 13 of 16 Interior Lighting Multiple Choice Worksheet Circle the best available answer for each of the following: 1) A reading lamp placed behind a chair must be _____ than one placed on the side. a) brighter b) higher c) lower d) more energy efficient 6) Putting a direct, angled light on a surface enhances its: a) color b) lumens c) intensity d) texture 2) This type of lighting carries light through cables: a) fiber optics b) LEDs c) LECs d) halogen lamps 7) Light that highlights a small object or area is called: a) task lighting b) ambient lighting c) diffused lighting d) accent lighting 3) Diffused light is _________ than unfiltered light. a) less harsh b) more harsh c) bluer d) brighter 8) The light from an incandescent bulb has a _____ tint. a) diffused b) bluish c) reddish d) reflecting 4) What kind of fixture directs most of its light up to reflect off of the ceiling? a) halogen b) chandelier c) recessed d) torchiere 9) The _______ is the inside wall of a recessed fixture. It affects the quality of the light. a) reflector bulb b) baffle c) phosphor d) wall washer 5) For a reading lamp placed on the side, the bottom edge of the shade should be: a) 60-65 inches from the ground b) at eye level c) higher than a lamp placed behind the chair d) angled 10) Fluorescent lamps last ______ as long as incandescent bulbs. a) half b) 2-3 times c) 10-13 times d) 38-42 times
  17. 17. Interior Lighting Page 14 of 16 Interior Lighting Multiple Choice Worksheet Answer Key Circle the best available answer for each of the following: 1) A reading lamp placed behind a chair must be _____ than one placed on the side. a) brighter b) higher c) lower d) more energy efficient 6) Putting a direct, angled light on a surface enhances its: a) color b) lumens c) intensity d) texture 2) This type of lighting carries light through cables. a) fiber optics b) LEDs c) LECs d) halogen lamps 7) Light that highlights a small object or area is called: a) task lighting b) ambient lighting c) diffused lighting d) accent lighting 3) Diffused light is _________ than unfiltered light. a) less harsh b) more harsh c) bluer d) brighter 8) The light from an incandescent bulb has a _____ tint. a) diffused b) bluish c) reddish d) reflecting 4) What kind of fixture directs most of its light up to reflect off of the ceiling? a) halogen b) chandelier c) recessed d) torchiere 9) The _______ is the inside wall of a recessed fixture. It affects the quality of the light. a) reflector bulb b) baffle c) phosphor d) wall washer 5) For a reading lamp placed on the side, the bottom edge of the shade should be: a) 60-65 inches from the ground b) at eye level c) higher than a lamp placed behind the chair d) angled 10) Fluorescent lamps last ______ as long as incandescent bulbs. a) half b) 2-3 times c) 10-13 times d) 38-42 times
  18. 18. Interior Lighting Page 15 of 16 Interior Lighting Quiz Match the words in the first column to the best available answer in the second column. _____ Incandescent bulbs provide light by passing an electric current through a filament made of this material. 1) 38-42 _____ The overall level of light in a room. 2) tungsten _____ A lampshade for a reading lamp placed to the side should be ______ inches from the ground. 3) ambient lighting _____ Lighting that highlights a small area or object. 4) wall washers _____ Lamps made of quartz that burn very bright and very hot. 5) LEDs _____ _______ percent of the energy that goes into a standard incandescent bulb turns into heat. 6) halogen lamps _____ A type of lamp that spreads light over a surface to make a dark space appear larger. 7) 88 _____ Lamps the size of a pencil eraser that are used in clocks, watches, and jumbo television screens. 8) accent lighting
  19. 19. Interior Lighting Page 16 of 16 Interior Lighting Quiz Answer Key Match the words in the first column to the best available answer in the second column. 2) tungsten Incandescent bulbs provide light by passing an electric current through a filament made of this material. 3) ambient lighting The overall level of light in a room. 1) 38-42 A lampshade for a reading lamp placed to the side should be ______ inches from the ground. 8) accent lighting Lighting that highlights a small area or object. 6) halogen lamps Lamps made of quartz that burn very bright and very hot. 7) 88 _______ percent of the energy that goes into a standard incandescent bulb turns into heat. 4) wall washers A type of lamp that spreads light over a surface to make a dark space appear larger. 5) LEDs Lamps the size of a pencil eraser that are used in clocks, watches, and jumbo television screens.
  20. 20. Interior Lighting Page 17 of 16 Glossary Accent Lighting Lighting that directs attention to small areas or objects. Ambient Lighting The general level of light in a space. High levels of ambient lighting suggest activity, while lower levels make a space feel peaceful and calm. Backlighting Lighting that comes from behind a subject, placing it in silhouette. Backlighting is a common error in lighting design for living rooms. Baffle The interior edge of a recessed lighting fixture. The design of the baffle can redirect or reflect light. A white baffle reflects more light down. A black, ridged baffle cuts glare. Diffusion The scattering of light rays to soften shadows and reduce glare. Downlighting Direct light from above. Commonly used in accent lighting on paintings or sculptures. Eyeball Lamp Lamps with a swiveling socket that allow the light from a recessed fixture to be directed. Fiber Optics Cables that carry light. At the current level of technology, fiber optics are more decorative than practical. Flood Lamp A lamp that spills light over a wide area, “flooding” it with light. Fluorescent Lamp A lamp coated with phosphors and filled with vaporized mercury and argon. Electric current causes the gases to fluoresce and produce light. Fluorescent lamps use much less energy than standard incandescent bulbs. Halogen Lamp A small lamp made of quartz that burns very bright and very hot. They’re more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs, but not as efficient as fluorescent lamps. Incandescent Bulb A standard light bulb. It produces light by sending an electric current through a filament of tungsten. The electricity causes the filament to burn, but it doesn’t burn up because the bulb is filled with inert gases like argon or nitrogen Lamp Many sources of light are not bulb-shaped, so lighting experts prefer to use the word “lamp.” LECs (Light Emitting Capacitors) Sheets of plastic with an inside layer of phosphors that shine when hit with alternating current.
  21. 21. Interior Lighting Page 18 of 16 LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) A light source that is very small, wastes little electricity as heat, and can burn for 10 years nonstop. They’re often used in digital clocks, traffic lights, and jumbo television screens. Lumens The standard measurement of a light source’s brightness. Phosphors A substance that glows when hit with electrons. The interiors of fluorescent lights, television screens, and LECs are all coated with phosphors. Recessed Lamps A type of light fixture that is flush with the ceiling, rendering it virtually invisible. Reflected Light Light that is bounced off of a surface. All rooms include some reflected light from the walls and ceiling. Reflector Bulb A lamp with a silvery coating on the sides to direct light downward rather than wasting it on the sides. Spotlight A light that creates a single, bright spot of light. It’s good for highlighting a specific area, so it’s commonly used in accent lighting. Track Lighting A type of fixture that puts several lights on an electrified track. Track lights are popular in contemporary designs. Uplighting A single, direct light from below. Uplights cast strong shadows. Wall Washer A light that directs a wide span of light along the side of a wall. This can make rooms with dark walls feel bigger by brightening up their surfaces.
  22. 22. Interior Lighting Page 19 of 16 For More Information… Internet Resources About.com: Lighting Design http://interiordec.about.com/od/lighting/Interior_Lighting.htm A great collection of links and articles on home lighting design, including how-to guides and shopping tips. FOLD1: Fast Online Lighting Design www.fold1.com This website is an excellent tool for lighting design. Enter your room dimensions, task and usage information, and other lighting requirements, and FOLD1 will tell you the best lighting options for your space. It also gives electricity prices (in Euros). Green Consumer Guide www.greenconsumerguide.com This online guide to energy-efficient living includes an extensive section on how to decrease the environmental impact of your home lighting. InfoAboutLighting.com www.infoaboutlighting.com This website contains extensive background information on different types of lighting fixtures, from chandeliers to Christmas lights. Print Resources Gordon, Gary. Interior Lighting for Designers. New York: Wiley, 2003. This step-by-step guide to interior lighting design is a great starting point for professional designers. Karlen, Mark and James Benya. Lighting Design Basics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004. This book contains a basic introduction to lighting both residential and commercial spaces. Whitehead, Randall. Residential Lighting: A Practical Guide. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004. This heavily-illustrated book gives dozens of examples of design strategies, solutions to common mistakes, and more.

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