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S3 SEWAGE STORAGE, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Assignment

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Semesta 3 …

Semesta 3
CB305 – PLUMBING SERVICES 2
Assignment 3 : SEWAGE STORAGE, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

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  • 1. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 1 APPRECIATION Assalamualaikum… Praise is presented only for ALLAH Almighty Disposer of all things. Peace and blessings be upon beloved Prophet Muhammad leaflets bearing the revelation to illuminate be universe, the companions, his family, all the scholars and lovers of Islam throughout the world. Thank God, that we can complete this assignment work to be handed over to Mr. Huzaime b. Abdul Hadi very well. From making this assignment, we can add our knowledge about the sewage storage, treatment and disposal. Lastly, we would like to thank Mr. Huzaime b. Abdul Hadi. He has been providing guidance and information on how to produce this work. Thank you also to friends who also give lessons and share ideas and information.
  • 2. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 2 INTRODUCTION All sewage should be drained and treated with proper disposal.For the planned development, sewage treatment plant will discharge into a centralized to the treatment works prior to disposal.While for the area or areas otherwise limited, would waste treated on site or collected while and then transported to the treatment plant.
  • 3. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 3 1. Distinguish between the role of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in the breakdown of domestic sewage. Anaerobic are caused by anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria do not grow on solid media in room air (10% carbon dioxide and 18% oxygen); facultative anaerobic bacteria can grow in the presence as well as in the absence of air. Microaerophilic bacteria do not grow at all aerobically or grow poorly, but grow better under 10% carbon dioxide or anaerobically. Anaerobic bacteria can be divided into strict anaerobes that can not grow in the presence of more than 0.5% oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 to 8% oxygen.[1] Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen. An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. Faculitative anaerobes grow and survive in an oxygenated environment and so do aero tolerant anaerobes. One area of sewage treatment that is not well understood is the bacterial decomposition process. Bacteria may be aerobic, anaerobic or facultative. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen for life support whereas anaerobes can sustain life without oxygen. Facultative bacteria have the capability of living either in the presence or in the absent of oxygen. In the typical sewage treatment plant, oxygen is added to improve the functioning of aerobic bacteria and to assist them in maintaining superiority over the anaerobes. Agitation, settling, pH and other controllable are carefully considered and employed as a means of maximizing the potential of bacterial reduction of organic in the wastewater. Single-celled organisms grow and when they have attained a certain size, divide, becoming two. Assuming an adequate food supply, they then grow and divide again like the original cell. Every time a cell splits, approximately every 20 to 30 minutes, a new generation occurs. This is known as the exponential or logarithmic growth phase. At the
  • 4. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 4 exponential growth rate, the largest number of cells are produced in the shortest period of time. In nature and in the laboratory, this growth cannot be maintained indefinitely, simply because the optimum environment of growth cannot be maintained. The amount of growth is the function of two variables: - environment and food. The pattern which actually results is known as the bacterial growth rate curve. Initially dehydrated products (dry) must first re-hydrate and acclimate in a linear growth phase before the exponential rate is reached. Microorganisms and their enzyme systems are responsible for many different chemical reactions produced in the degradation of organic matter. As the bacteria metabolize, grow and divide they produce enzymes. These enzymes are high molecular weight proteins. It is important to recognize the fact that colonies of bacteria are literally factories for the production of enzymes. The enzymes which are manufactured by the bacteria will be appropriate to the substrate in which the enzyme will be working and so you have automatic production of the right enzyme for the biological reduction of any waste material, provided you have the right bacteria to start with. Enzymes do not reproduce whereas as bacteria do. Enzymes in biochemical reactions act as organic catalysts. The enzymes actually become a part of the action, but after having caused it, split off from it and are themselves unchanged. After the biochemical reactions are complete and products formed, the enzyme is released to catalyze another reaction. The rate of reaction may be increase by increasing the quantity of the substrate or temperature up to a certain point , but beyond this, the rate of reaction ceases to increase because the enzyme concentration limits it. All treatment plants should be designed to take advantage of the decomposition of organic materials by bacterial activity. This is something you can equate to lower costs, increased capacity, and an improved quality of effluent; even freedom from bad
  • 5. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 5 odors which may typically result when anaerobe bacteria become dominant and in their decomposition process, produce hydrogen sulfide gas and similar by-products. Consider the fact that the total organic load of wastewater or sewage is composed of constantly changing constituent, it would be quite difficult to degrade all of these organics by the addition of one enzyme, or even several enzymes. Enzymes are specific catalysts and do not reproduce. What is needed is the addition of an enzyme manufacturing system right in the sewage that can be pre - determined as to its activity and performance and which has the initial or continuing capacity to reduce waste. At the present time, the addition of specifically cultured bacteria seems to be the least expensive and most generally reliable way to accomplish desirable results. When you add the right bacteria in proper proportions to the environment, you have established entirely new parameters of potential for the treatment situation.
  • 6. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 6 2. Describe the construction of : a. A Septic Tank Is a tool for collection and disposal of waste in site sewage permit process anaerobik.it decomposed to from solid sludge,scum and liquid.Period form of treatment among 16-48 hours from the tank emptied between 12-36 months. Figure 1 A Septic Tank Characteristics of the Design and Development Capacity total kapasity, c = 180P + 2000 => liter if the food chopper is used: c = 250P + 2000 => liter depth = 1.5-1.8 m =
  • 7. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 7 Measurement if one part: length x width if two parts: (for users of> 100 persons) part 1: length = 2 x width (C = 2/3 C.total) Part 2: length = width (C = 1/3 C total) Construction engineering brick (200mm) concrete cast there (150mm) unit pre-cast septic b. A Biological Filter A sewage treatment prior to dispose of waste water in drains or other. Figure 2 A Biological Filter
  • 8. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 8 Characteristics of the Design and Development Capacity 1 m ^ 3 / head ...... for users 1-10 people 0.8m ^ 3 / head ...... for users 1-50 people 0.6m ^ 3 head .... for users 1-100 people Construction Square with an open stream if the user up to 50 people. Are round with a drop of the flow distribution if the number of users exceeds 50 people The inside is filled with coarse gravel. The depth Minimum = 1.8 m
  • 9. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 9 3. Compare the various combination and shapes of septic tank There are many different septic tank designs and although they may look different or be different shapes and sizes they all work basically the same way. Below you will see a picture of the basic internal design of a septic tank. Figure 3 Septik tank Compartment Septic Tank The effluent comes in through the pipe on the left and is deposited into the main chamber of the septic tank. If the solids are denser than water they will fall straight to the bottom of the tank and the less dense solids and the greases will float at the surface. The solids that sink to the bottom right away are digested by bacteria and the same goes for the solids that float on top. Bacteria can digest most of the organic matter in human effluent but they cannot digest all of it. The materials that they cannot digest settle to the bottom of the septic tank and we call this material sludge. It is the sludge that is pumped during routine septic tank maintenance. Grease and other insoluble materials will stay afloat on the surface of the tank. The water in the tank is
  • 10. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 10 not pure water, it is called gray water because it still contains organic materials that need to be filtered out. As more water enters the effluent pipe coming from your house the water level inside the septic tank rises and gray water will exit through the sewage pipe on the right and head towards the drainage field. There are generally three access ports at the top of the septic tank. The access port in the middle is what a septicpumping service would open when they are going to pump out the septic tank. The other two ports are located directly above the incoming pipe and the outgoing pipe. They provide easy access in case one of the pipes is blocked or clogged. Your septic tank may also have two different compartments. It is designed this way so that the sludge remains predominantly on one side of the tank so that it does not make its way into the sewage pipe that goes the drainage field. If the sludge builds up high enough so that it does enter the drainage tube and goes the drainage field, you are going to have some major septic tank problems in the near future. Below you will see a schematic of a septic tank and a drainage field. Figure 4 Septic System & Drain Field
  • 11. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 11 As you can see in the diagram, the tube that leaves the septic tank goes to a pipe system which is called the drainage field. The pipe system is perforated to allow the gray water to exit and it exits into a specifically created soil bed of crushed rock and other ingredients. If the sludge from the septic tank makes its way into the drainage field it can clog these perforated tubes and end up causing major damage. This can lead to septic system failure which is something that you definitely want to avoid. In the diagram below you will see what happens to the water when it leaves the drainage field. Figure 5 Septic Tank Greywater Filter The gray water that leaves the perforated tubing in the drainage field either goes up to the surface in small amounts and is evaporated or filters its way through the ground. As the water makes its way through the ground it becomes more and more clean and by the time it reaches the groundwater it is once again drinkable. You will notice in the diagram that there is a well and that is where the filtered water will end
  • 12. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 12 up. Anyone who lives on a well should have their water tested regularly for bacteria because if there is bacteria in the water that means your septic system is failing. If you discover that your septic system is failing you need to address the problem immediately. There are other septic tank designs, most notably an aerator septic tank. The design of the aerator septic tank is basically the same as a traditional septic tank. The major difference is that there is a mechanism that introduces air into the gray water inside the septic tank. This allows for aerobic bacteria to digest the human effluent rather than anaerobic bacteria that are found in traditional septic tanks. The reason this is important is because aerobic bacteriawork a lot faster than anaerobic bacteria. See the diagram below for an example of a basic aerobic septic systemdesign. Figure 6 Aerobic Septic System Essentially the septic tank is just a holding area for human affluence while it is being degraded. So it could even be in the shape of an airplane, as long as it does what it is supposed to do; the shape and actual design of the septic tank does not really matter. The design of the standard septic tank is usually a concrete box because that is the easiest to build and cheapest to manufacture and it works. Considering the job it is supposed to do and the fact that it is buried in the ground the actual look of the septic tank is of no consequence.
  • 13. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 13 4. Compare the various methods of distributing septic tanks There are many different types of septic systems. Some of them include pressure distribution, sand filter, mound, and gravity. This article will discuss some of the different types of septic systems. Gravity  One of the first types of septic systems use gravity to drain wastewater from the tank into a series of trenches. Because this system works using gravity, the drainage field must be below the level of the septic tank. Also, the bottom of the trenches must be three or four feet above the water table. This soil above the water table is used to treat the wastewater before it returns to the environment. Pressure Distribution  One of the next types of septic systems uses pressure distribution. This system has a pump that distributes wastewater evenly throughout the drainage field. The pump tank holds wastewater until a certain point before it releases it into the drainage field. Pressure distribution systems are normally used when there is not enough soil depth to accommodate gravity-based systems. Sand Filter  Sand filter systems are also one of the most common types of septic systems. This system uses sand between the pump tank and the drainage field. The sand is used to treat the wastewater before it enters the field. These types of septic systems are used when there is very shallow soil. Treating the wastewater with sand makes up for the lack of soil that would normally be used to treat the waste.
  • 14. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 14 Mound  One of the next types of septic systems is the mound design. This system is also used when the soil isn't deep enough for a traditional system. These types of septic systems have a sand-filled mound raised over the natural soil above a drainage field. The wastewater is treated as it travels through the sand and into the natural soil. Aerobic  One of the more unconventional types of septic systems is the aerobic design. The system is equipped with a watertight tank that has an aeration chamber. Waste is broken down by bacteria in the aeration chamber. These systems are capable of producing cleaner wastewater, so they are commonly used in sensitive environments. These are some of the different types of septic systems. One of the most common types uses gravity to drain wastewater from the tank into a series of trenches. There are also aerobic systems that use bacteria to break down the sewage. These types of septic systems are commonly used in sensitive environments.
  • 15. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 15 5. Use formula and information given in the current Code of Practise, to determine the size of a septic tank and biological filter. Example 1 Calculate the size of the septic tank and biological filter for an on-site sewage treatment system that provides services to 100 people. Solution A) Septic tank Total capacity = 180 p + 2000 P = Number of population = 180 (100) + 2000 = 20 000 liter 20 000/1 000 C = 20m3 From the table, assuming the septic tank is divided into two parts and it is rectangular in shape. Capacity part of A A = 2/3 total capacity (C) (From table) V = 2/3 X 20 V = 13.33M3 (Volume) From the table = consider the Wide (A) Length (2L) X Width (L) and the High (H) = 1.5 meter
  • 16. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 16 V = AH V = 2L X L X 1.5 V = 3L2 13.33 = 3L2 L2 = 13.33 3 L = 4.44 L = 2.108 meter (width) Because of the length = 2 X Width = 2 X 2.108 Length = 4.216 meter Capacity part of B B = 1/3 total capacity (C) V = 1/3 X 20 V = 6.67m3 (Volume) From the table, consider the Wide (A) Length = Width and High (H) = 1.5 meter V = AH V = L X LX 1.5 V = L2 X 1.5 6.67 = L2 X 1.5 L2 = 6.67 1.5
  • 17. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 17 L = 6.67 1.5 L = 2.108 meter (Width) As P = L Length = 2.108 meter B) Biological filter From the table, consider biological filter with depth round = 1.8 meter (H) Capacity = 0.6 m3 X number of population = 0.6 X 100 V = 60 m3 (Volume) V = AH V = j2 X 1.8 60 = j2 X 1.8 60 = 3.14j2 X 1.8 3.14j2 = 60 1.8 3.14j2 = 33.33 j2 = 33.33 3.14 j2 = 10.61
  • 18. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 18 j = 10.61 j = 3.25 meter 2 X J = 2 (3.5) D = 6.5 meter j = ½ D Area of circle = j2 X Height = d2 X Height 4 V = AH V = d2 X 1.8 4 60 = 3.14 D2 X 1.8 4 240 = 3.14 D2 X 1.8 3.14 D2 = 240 1.8
  • 19. Sewage storage, treatment and disposal | 19 3.14 D2 = 133.3 D2 = 133.3 3.14 D2 =42.45 D = 42.45 D = 6.515 meter
  • 20. Page | 20 CONCLUSION The conclusion from completing this assignment, we can identify clearly about sewage storage, treatment and disposal. All sewage should be drained and treated with proper disposal. For the planned development, sewage treatment plant will discharge into a centralized to the treatment works prior to disposal. Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen. An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. Faculitative anaerobes grow and survive in an oxygenated environment and so do aerotolerant anaerobes. There are many different septic tank designs and although they may look different or be different shapes and sizes they all work basically the same way. Compare the various methods of distributing septic tanks. There are many different types of septic systems. Some of them include pressure distribution, sand filter, mound, and gravity. This article will discuss some of the different types of septic systems. And the last is formula for size of a septic tank, biological filter.
  • 21. Page | 21 REFERENCES 1. Jousimies-Somer HR, Summanen P, Baron EJ, Citron DM, Wexler HM, Finegold SM. Wadsworth-KTL anaerobic bacteriology manual. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Star Publishing, 2002. 2. ^ Brook, I.: “Anaerobic Infections Diagnosis and Management”. A Textbook. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York. 2007. 3. ^ Nagy E. Anaerobic infections: update on treatment considerations. Drugs. 2010;70:841-58 4. ^ Hentges DJ. The anaerobic microflora of the human body . Clin Infect Dis 1993;164:S175–80. 5. ^ Brook, I.: “Anaerobic Infections Diagnosis and Management”. A Textbook. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York. 2007. 6. ^ Jousimies-Somer HR, Summanen P, Baron EJ, Citron DM, Wexler HM, Finegold SM. Wadsworth-KTL anaerobic bacteriology manual. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Star Publishing, 2002. 7. "aerobe" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary