Master Plan Review - SPA Delhi

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This presentation was given by School of Planning & Architecture , New Delhi for "Anusandhaana" - XV Annual NOSPlan Convention

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  • Cramped for space, many households have built additional rooms or toilets and even additional floors (in the case of those provided independent sites).
  • Cramped for space, many households have built additional rooms or toilets and even additional floors (in the case of those provided independent sites).
  • Grid iron - 7V’s Prevention of Traffic Jams through fast mobilityHighest per capita car ownershipGreen spaces from North to South not implemented fully
  • Master Plan Review - SPA Delhi

    1. 1. “Safe Cities - Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” URBAN INDIA 2050 Master Plan Review – Draft Chandigarh Master Plan-2031 By: School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Members: Imran Basha, Suneel Kumar, Nanda Kishore, Prakhar, Devesh, Disha XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    2. 2. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031  Terminologies  Relevance of the Theme.  Safe City Concept/Concerns and Parameters.  Factors Contributing to Lack of Safe City.  Justification of the Case Study: Chandigarh  Case Study Profile  Safe City Parameter wise Master Plan Provisions Review  Existing Scenario/Issues  Master Plan provisions  Effectiveness of the provisions  Merits/Demerits in provisions  Recommendations  Proposals & Strategies  Role of Planner and public. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    3. 3. TERMINOLOGIES & THEME RELEVANCE DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Safety: (Oxford) • Relative freedom from danger, risk, or threat of harm, injury, or loss to personnel and/or property, whether caused deliberately or by accident. Security: (UN) • It is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals. • Human security - people can exercise these choices safely and freely, and with confidence. Disaster: (UNISDR) • It is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. • Involves widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, • Exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources . Resilience: (UNISDR) • The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. Safe City: • City that offers safety & security in all respects &aspects in terms of both physical & natural Relevance of the Theme- “Safe Cities Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Rapid Urbanization CITIES Safety & Security Concerns • Planning process to make cities a better place to live with safety & security. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    4. 4. SAFE CITY CONCEPT/CONCERNS & INDICATORS Safe City Objectives: Safe City Indicators: DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 • Enhance overall quality of life & better living. Crime & Violence: Women Safety Crime Police Terrorism/mafia Safe City Concept: To create safe urban areas that provide better social and economic environments by preparing for both natural and man-made disasters. Safe City Concept They improve social and better living conditions in cities & empower women. Road Safety Accidents Pedestrian Safety To ensure road safety & enable free pedestrian flow. Security of Tenure: Forced evictions Land Security Enable security of tenure and sense of ownership. Disaster resilience Lessen the adverse Natural & Manmade impacts of hazards Fire Safety Structural Safety. and the possibility. Public Health Health facilities Diseases. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Improves health & living conditions in cities. XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    5. 5. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LACK OF SAFE CITIES Urbanization Planning Processes Absence of Disaster Risk Reduction Poverty SAFE CITY ISSUES Inadequate Safety Strategies State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Inadequate Access to Infra Attitude & Inequality XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    6. 6. SAFE CITY CONCERNS DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031  Public security fails when the state is: (1) Unable When security forces lack the capacity to protect at-risk civilians (2) Unwilling When security forces choose to avoid entering dangerous areas …. and the rise of Private Security When public security fails, civilians are left to provide their own security  Privatization  Even when they are willing/able, some security forces are seen as being part of the problem – e.g. “social cleansing”  “Elite security” :  Guards  Gated communities  Alarm systems  “Slum security”:  Gangs  Paramilitaries  Vigilante groups Social Segregation State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Community violence XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    7. 7. NATURE & IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISASTERS DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Disaster Degree of Uncertainty Extent Impact Flooding Tides are predictable, Precipitation not so predictable City / Region wide, Predictable, vulnerable areas could be mapped •Impact on power supply and communication, •Disturbance to transport •Loss of property and life Landslides Linked with precipitation Local, vulnerability could be assessed Serious impact on life and property of slum dwellers Earthquake Highly uncertain City / Region wide Unpredictable Similar to above State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    8. 8. NATURE & IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISASTERS DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Disaster Degree of Uncertainty Extent Impact Building collapse & Vulnerable areas are known, but Fire occurrence in unexpected. Local. Through surveys and warnings loss of life sought to be prevented Impact essentially local but could affect traffic Riots, bandhs, communal tension. Can sometimes be anticipated Initially local but could spread over a larger area Law and order problem. Terrorism General threat persists but occurrence is sudden Attempts are to cause wide spread disturbance Depends upon target, explosives used. Nuclear power Threats are unknown Unknown Could be large. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    9. 9. SAFE CITY CONCERNS DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Justification: • First planned city of India. The planning of Chandigarh was purely physical, in fact the city was designed rather then planned. • The concept of the city is based on four major functions: living, working, care of the body and spirit and circulation. • Latest Draft Master Plan for the year 2031, Approved 2013. Chandigarh Profile: Chandigarh Interstate Metropolitan Regional Plan-2056 Site Selection: • Selected in 1948 taking into account various attributes: • • • • Central location in the state, Proximity to the national capital Availability of sufficient water supply, fertile of soil, Gradient of land for natural drainage, beautiful site with the panorama of blue hills as backdrop & moderate climate. Location: • Chandigarh is a city in Northern India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. • About 240km from Delhi. Area: 114 sq.km Connectivity: • NH-21 and NH-22 run through the city connecting it to the major cities • Connected by rail to many cities • Domestic airport is 8 km away from city center. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    10. 10. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 SAFE CITY CONCERNS Physical Settings: Seismic Characteristics : • It lies in Zone-IV of the Seismic Zonation Map (2002) of India.(High Vulnerable) • It is located on Indo-Gangetic near to the active tectonic zone Demographic Profile: Sex Ratio Existing Land Perspective Use -2011 Plan-2031 Source: Draft Master Plan of Chandigarh-2031 Density: Rural-Urban Composition: Census 2011, Urban (97.25%) & rural (2.75%) 82.80% urban and 17.20% rural in the year 1961 Source: Draft Master Plan of Chandigarh-2031 State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    11. 11. MASTER PLAN EVOLUTION DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Site for New Capital • In March 1948, the then Government of Punjab in consultation with the Government of India approved the site for new capital for the state. ALBERT MAYER ‘S PLAN FOR CHANDIGARH • The team prepared the Master Plan and detailed out the super block which constituted the basic module of city planning Le Corbusier’s Plan (PhaseI) With Green Lungs • Reflecting concepts of ‘modernism’ movement and based on nature (the head/ lungs / heart / limbs) and incorporated the essentials of site / climate/culture/tradition. • The original plan was divided into a grid of 30 sectors with the Capitol Complex as well as the Civic Centre its focal points.(pop150,000) Le Corbusier’s Plan (Phase II) • Phase Two from sector 31 to 47 targeted 350,000 was with 4storeyed apartments for government employees with an increase in the ratio of smaller plots/lesser open areas / nearly 4 times increase in density. • Concept included re densification of Phase I. Draft Chandigarh Master Plan -2031 • The first comprehensive plan for developing the city and its periphery within the UT boundary after a spate of adhoc developments impacting its periphery and improve healthy living. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Albert Mayer’s Plan Le Corbusier’s Plan Draft Chandigarh Master Plan XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    12. 12. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN CONCEPT & MAJOR HIGHLIGHTS Challenges for future development etc. Capital City poised to protect City Shall become a Tourism Hub Public transport shall be encouraged as preferred mode Chronological account of external factors Conservation of architectural & planning idiom Chandigarh Vision Pedestrian Friendly development Become a Central Educational Hub To reduce spatial socioeconomic disparities Maintaining low to medium density profile DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN – 2031 CONCEPT DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Vision & Components of Draft CMP-2031 Phased Development & Periphery Control Interstate Regional Plan Guiding Principles for Future Plan Population Dispersion Strategy Concept of Sustainable Development Public Participation Mechanism Assessment Criteria State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    13. 13. CRIME & VIOLENCE: SAFE CITY PARAMETER WISE REVIEW Map showing Existing Police stations DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Existing Scenario: • Though the city has been planned considering safety but not able to deliver its result. • Deficit of 5 Police Stations for 2031 Contributing Factors: Issues: • Growth of Informal sector • Stress and Societal behavior • Unemployment • Weak public security system • Lack of awareness S.N Master Plan Provisions 1 • Strict enforcement of the Paying Guest Scheme 2 • Women Safety Programmes 3 • Housing for women 4 Effectiveness of Provisions • Concept of fully use of facilities Absence of clear provisions and detailing out measures to ensure will impact poor implication State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Recommendations Special provisions in master plans & other development plans. Women Safety Cell & commission Participation of women in policy and programmes framing. Eye-on Street Concept to be introduced. XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    14. 14. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 DISASTER ANALYSIS : SAFE CITY PARAMETER WISE REVIEW Hazard & Vulnerability Mapping Existing Scenario: Disaster • High Vulnerability to Earth quake • Lies in Seismic Zone-IV • State Disaster Management Authority for Chandigarh has been formed Contributing Factors: • Industries & Chemical Plants • Sewerage Disposal • Seismic zone S.N 1 2 3 Issues: • Industries effluents impact living conditions. • Ground Water quality degradation • Increases vulnerable areas &risk for the residents Master Plan Provisions Disaster Management Strategy a)Pre Disaster Phase b)Impact phase c)Post Disaster Phase Disaster Management Planning a)Enforcing Existing codes & Laws b)Structural Mitigating measures c)Retrofitting & Earthquake resistance Effectiveness Recommendations Will enable better coping capacities Better strategies for mitigation of the risks related to disasters in future. Long Term Response Plan State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” • Disaster Risk Reduction Plan • Risk & Vulnerability mapping • Using GIS technology to manage disaster & disaster simulation. • Info dissemination & Public Participation XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    15. 15. DISASTER RESILLIENCE: FIRE SAFETY AND STRUCTURAL SAFETY Fire Safety Provisions as per Draft CMP-2031 DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Existing Scenario: • 7 fire stations existing in the area. • 1 fire station available for every 2,00,000 persons in the city. • RCC bands required for structural safety during quakes not provided. Contributing Factors: Issues: • Disaster in industries due to fire. • Earthquake-prone area • Congested residential areas in the inner city. • 2 additional fire stations required as per holding capacity of the area. • Strategy for structural safety not present S.No 1. 2. 3. Master Plan Provisions Design of buildings as per Fire Safety Act and National Building Code. Area for fire station - 2.5 acres. Existing- 7 Effectiveness of Provisions Will improve and minimize fire risk. Coverage demarcation will enable for better service delivery Examination of structural safety in rehabilitation colonies guided by redevelopment/retrofitting/ur ban renewal State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Recommendations Sites to be allocated for development of additional fire stations. Enforce building bye laws effectively. Vulnerability Mapping XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    16. 16. DISASTER RESILLIENCE: FIRE SAFETY AND STRUCTURAL SAFETY Fire Safety Provisions as per Draft CMP-2031 DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Existing Scenario: • 7 fire stations existing in the area. • 1 fire station available for every 2,00,000 persons in the city. • RCC bands required for structural safety during quakes not provided. Contributing Factors: Issues: • Disaster in industries due to fire. • Earthquake-prone area • Congested residential areas in the inner city. • 2 additional fire stations required as per holding capacity of the area. • Strategy for structural safety not present S.No 1. 2. 3. Master Plan Provisions Design of buildings as per Fire Safety Act and National Building Code. Area for fire station - 2.5 acres. Existing- 7 Effectiveness of Provisions Will improve and minimize fire risk. Coverage demarcation will enable for better service delivery Examination of structural safety in rehabilitation colonies guided by redevelopment/retrofitting/ur ban renewal State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Recommendations Sites to be allocated for development of additional fire stations. Enforce building bye laws effectively. Vulnerability Mapping XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    17. 17. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 ROAD SAFETY: SAFE CITY PARAMETER WISE REVIEW Existing Scenario: • The original plan of the city was based on the gridiron defined by a system of seven types of roads, which was called the 7Vs. • V/C Ratio around 0.8, where at Madhya Marg it’s as high as 1.1, while it can be as low as 0.3 in outskirts. • No. of road accidents increased from 798 in 2006-07 to 1094 in 2008-09 Issues: Priority of High Contributing Factors: Speed corridor compromise High per capita income Inter- the road safety city traffic Incomplete facilities for non Through Traffic motorised vehicles S.No Master Plan Provisions 1. Widening of Road 2. 3. Provide green buffer Construction of Metro (37KM) Cycle tracks 4. 5. Effectiveness of Provisions Almost reached max. road widening Under threat Will only help during peak hours Problems at existing places which have provisions Will avoid through traffic PLA:ORIGINAL CIRCULATION O Traffic & Road as per Draft CMP-2031 Map N P1 NETWORK AND TRANSPORTATION N TO MULLA NPUR B SEC S TOR 1 7 RAILWAY STATION AMBALA T O AIRP ORT ISBT, SECTOR 43 Recommendations Improving design component at roundabouts will reduce accidents. Priority between non-motorised and motorized has to be set & pedestrian safety measures Promote Public Transport By-Pass State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” DE S XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    18. 18. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 SAFE CITY INITIATIVES- PROPOSALS & STRATEGIES Features/ Components of Safe City Initiative http://www.scopussecurity.com/areasofoperation.php?id State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    19. 19. DISASTERS RESILENCE MANAGEMENT – PROPOSALS & STRATEGIES Disaster Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery • Emergency warning •Communication • Training in disaster management •Stocks of supplies and equipment Rescue and Relief – Police, Fire fighters ambulance crew Search and rescue, relief Rehabilitation of infrastructure, buildings and property DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Flooding Improved storm drainage, data on precipitation Maintenance of drainage system Earthquake Survey & Similar to above identification of vulnerable buildings. Compliance with building code Similar to above Similar to above Building Collapse/ Fires Periodic surveys, Similar to above repairs reconstruction Local government staff, Repair Board Similar to above State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    20. 20. DISASTERS RESILENCE MANAGEMENT – PROPOSALS & STRATEGIES DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness Terrorism • Emergency Surveillance and Intelligence warning •Communication • Training • Stocks of supplies and equipment Hazardous material Regulating manufacturing storage and transport. Similar to above State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” Response Recovery Police, Commando firefighters, ambulance crew. Overpower Terrorists, Search, rescue, relief Reinstatement of infrastructure and property. Police,fire fighters XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    21. 21. POLICY RECOMMENDATION & TOOLS, TECHNIQUES Applied Tools & Techniques DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 Policy Level Recommendations Mechanism •Participatory Risk Mapping • Open ended interview with key Issue Identification / Knowledge Generation Agenda Setting informants • Group discussion • Town watching & identification POLICY CYCLE Policy Design of micro hotspots on map. • Observation & mapping of Impact Assessment activity conflicts. • Photography & visual Monitoring Implementation communication. • Secondary data collection techniques/ methods State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    22. 22. DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 SAFE CITIES BOTTOM-UP-APPROACH- STRATEGIES & AUDIO VISUAL State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore
    23. 23. ROLE OF PLANNER IN ENSURING SAFE CITIES Planner has the following roles that need to perform : DRAFT CHANDIGARH MASTER PLAN - 2031 • Ensure development must be planned based on safer cities strategies & disaster resilience assessments, • Empower community participation build local capacities and strengthen participation in planning and land use. • Planner needs to understand the risk completely and facilitate: - Risk assessment; Risk communication and information; Risk reduction - Risk mapping: As aid to planning; Risk governance: Policies, programmes and projects. The vulnerabilities also need to be assessed and mapped just like risk. • • He needs to facilitate Integrated Disaster Management Plans (DMP) including 4RsRescue; Relief; Reconstruction; Rehabilitation & SAFE CITY PLAN. • Include safer cities & disaster Preparedness as part of Development Plans and master plans and prepare Pre-Disaster Mitigation programme. • Make mandatory provision for including Certified planner as part of Drafting committee of DMPs, SOP( Standard Operating Procedure) and other plans for disaster risk management & safer cities strategies. State of Cities and Master Plan Provisions. “Safe Cities- Disaster Resilient & Crime Free Cities” XV NOSPlan Convention- Mysore

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