Current Practices by GNDU, Amritsar
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Current Practices by GNDU, Amritsar



This presentation was prepared by GNDU, Amritsar for "Anusandhaana" - XV Annual NOSPlan Convention

This presentation was prepared by GNDU, Amritsar for "Anusandhaana" - XV Annual NOSPlan Convention



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Current Practices by GNDU, Amritsar Current Practices by GNDU, Amritsar Presentation Transcript

  • The XV Annual NOSPLAN Convention “Anusandhaana” th 28 Dec – st 31 Dec 2013 Presented By: Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
  • Contents 1. Background 2. Promotion of Disaster Resilient Practices in India: A Case Study on Madhubani District, Bihar 3. Criteria for Selection of the Project 4. Hazard Analysis, Hazard Frequency and Vulnerability Analysis of Madhubani District 5. History of Major Disasters in District 6. Issues Identified in DDMP Madhubani 7. DDMP Development and Mitigation Strategies 8. Preparedness & DRR Plan of DDMA 9. Mitigation Planning Measures 10.Specific Strategies and Projects for Mitigation 11.Plan Implementation: A Review 12.Conclusion
  • Safe Cities: Disaster Resilient and Crime Free “Cities are engines of national growth and dynamic in their governance systems and capacities. Any threat to them is a threat to National Economy and its progress.” -Margareta Wahlstrom What is a Disaster A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. A Disaster Resilient City: A Crime Free City: Is able to respond, implement immediate A city that is free from all forms of crime and recovery strategies and quickly restore basic criminal threats and is able to create a services to resume social, institutional and community that has the quality human capital economic activity after such an event. and admirable society. A Safe City Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 3
  • Current Practices in making the Cities Safer: The Global Strategies Making Cities Resilient – “My City is Getting Ready!“ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction -UN Building Disaster Resilient Societies. - Japan International Cooperation Agency. Safe Cities Promoting propoor urban youth development policies through socio-cultural tools. - UN Habitat Safer Cities Program. -By UN Habitat Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 4
  • Current Practices in making the Cities Safer: The National Strategies A Disaster Resilient City: A Crime Free City: • DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005 • DISTRICT DISASTER MITIGATION PLANS Where are Spatial Planning Strategies • AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 5
  • Promotion of Disaster Resilient Practices in India: A Case Study on Madhubani District, Bihar Madhubani district is located in the northern most part of the state of Bihar bordering Nepal. It was carved out of the old Darbhanga district in the year 1972 as a result of reorganization of the districts in the State. The District of Madhubani has been chosen for the first pilot to demonstrate a TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE Latitude Latitude is 85˚-43' to 86˚-42' N Longitude 25˚-59' to 26˚-39' E Terrain Low Lying Plain Climate Cold Season November-February Summer April-October Season Rainy Season June-September Monsoon July to September Average 1273.2 mm Rainfall systematic, dynamic and practical DDMP due to its multi hazard profile of recurrence ADMINISTRATIVE PROFILE and High Winds and the prevalence of socio-economic vulnerabilities. Agriculture Industry Services TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE  Agrarian Economy  Cropped area : 2183.8 Sq. Km  Major Canals : Western Kosi Canal, Kamla Irrigation Canal, Old Keans Canal.  Important Trade Centre with Nepal.  3000 registered small scale industries  Lack of industrial development due to poor infrastructural facilities  Painting, fisheries, handicrafts and weaving. Number of Sub Divisions 3501 Sq. Km 5 Number of Blocks of floods, Drought, Earth Quake (Zone-V), Fire incidents, Heat waves, Cold waves Geographical Area 21 Gram Panchayats 399 Villages 1111 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE Population 35,75,281 Male 18,40,997 Female 17,34,284 6
  • Selection of the Project Madhubani district falls under earthquake zone V and As per National Disaster Management Act, 2005 comprehensive disaster management plan at is highly vulnerable to multiple hazards like flood, fire, national, state and district level are to be developed. drought and many other small localized hazards. Under this act Madhubani district of Bihar was Administrative selected as a first pilot. Area Madhubani Urbanization (%) 4 Bihar 31.16 India Urbanization 11.30 Geographical Selection Criteria Being an agrarian district, 81% of workforce is engaged in agricultural and its allied activities. DETAILS OF work force in Madhubani district comprises of marginal workers. The agriculture is highly dependent Economic Social YEAR YEAR AFFECTED As per 2001 census, 28.1 % of the YEAR 2002 2007 2011 No. of Affected 15 17 9 Blocks No. of population on the rainfall which makes the affected district highly vulnerable to No. of Causalities droughts. Livestock loss 520148 1874890 458798 94 550 145 450 1245 2477
  • Hazard Analysis of Madhubani District PROBABILTY OF VULNERABIOCCURING LITY HAZARDS CHARACTERISTICS WHAT IS AT RISK Flood  The district has 18 rivers and its tributaries and flood situation arises almost every year.  The houses build in the villages are kaccha which makes its highly vulnerable to flood especially in the GPs which are inside or next to the Embankments. Agriculture crops, Transport, Houses, Constructions, Drinking Water, Cattle, Irrigation Equipment, Educational Institutes, Vulnerable Groups. Frequently High  Fire incidents are more frequent in the rural areas of Madhubani district due to use of traditional cooking methods (chulhas). Human Life, Cattle Life, Houses and  In rural areas people, use fire friendly resources like wood, Property cow-dung cakes, straws etc. and lack fire preventive measures. Frequently Medium  The Gram Panchayats which are away from river/ embankments are prone to drought. Crops, Drinking Water, Livelihood Options. Frequently High Human Life, Cattle Life, Kutcha and Pacca Houses, Community Infrastructure. Occasionally High Rare High Occasionally Low Fire Drought Earthquake CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear)  The Madhubani district falls under Earthquake zone V.  The buildings and houses built in the district are not earthquake resilient therefore the damages will be high in case of an earthquake event.  Though the occurrence of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear disaster is very low in the district but the Human Life, Cattle Life, Environment probability of damages is very high in case of such disasters & Eco System, Economy. as the district is highly populated. Cold Wave/ Heat These are seasonal hazards largely affecting the poor. Wave/ Storm/ The poor and marginal people are highly vulnerable to such seasonal hazards. Hail Storm Human Life, Cattle life, Crops
  • Hazard Timeline HAZARD JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH Flood Earthquake Drought Fire Storm Cold wave Heat wave Hailstorm APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER Vulnerability Analysis ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY  Economic vulnerability is generally defined in terms of poverty therefore Madhubani district being economically poor and backward is highly vulnerable to multi hazards.  Being an agrarian district, the economy of district is primarily dependent on agriculture and its allied sector.  The agriculture in Madhubani is highly dependent on the local rainfall which makes the district highly vulnerable to drought and flood. SOCIAL VULNERABILITY  As per 2001 census, 13.48 percent of the population of Madhubani comprises of Schedule Castes, Dalits and 0.04 percent of Schedule Tribes. Such groups generally get excluded in various programs and become more vulnerable out of their social status.  Understanding of hazard, risk, dos & don'ts, and preparedness & mitigation methods etc. is very limited as a large section of the community is illiterate. ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY  Due to urbanization and limited livelihood opportunities in the rural areas, people are migrating to urban areas creating additional pressure on the limited resources.  These altogether form the key reasons for exploitation of the available resources, deforestation, unplanned development and various other related aftereffects including environmental degradation TECHNOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY  There is lack of proper and effective technology to forecast, monitor and disseminate early warning information of onset of any threatening event in the district. This increases the risk of people living in vulnerable areas. PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY  The low lying areas, Gram Panchayats inside and near the embankments are vulnerable to water logging problems as the soil in the district retains water for longer duration. Many areas of the district face floods due to the heavy river (and tributaries) network.
  • History of Major Disasters in District: Floods LOW DEVELOPMENT POOR HEALTH REDUCED PRODUCTIVITY PSYCHO SOCIAL TRAUMA LOSS OF HUMAN LIFE LOSS OF HUMAN RESOURCE LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD SOCIAL INSECURITY LOSS OF CATTLE LIFE ECONOMIC LOSS PROPERTY LOSS Flood Prone Area in Madhubani District FOOD & NUTRITION AGRICULTU RE LOSS IMPACT FLOODS EMBANKMENT BREACH RECURRENT FLOODS WATER LOGGING WEAK POOR INFRASTRUCTU RE ABSENCE OF WATER MANAGEMENT POOR DRAINAGE STRUCTURES & POOR MAINTAIN DETAILS OF AFFECTED No. of Affected Blocks No. of Affected Panchayat No. of Villages affected No. of population affected Affected agriculture area (Hec) No. of houses damaged No. of Causalities Livestock loss YEAR 1987 19 350 1075 1944731 100899 238472 240 1193 YEAR 1997 14 125 353 510178 30413 4602 16 25 CAUSES YEAR 1998 23 401 1078 2016541 123487 249785 540 4781 YEAR 1999 4 26 90 16574 8189 4392 25 1000 YEAR 2002 15 147 398 520148 41568 5467 94 450 YEAR 2007 17 345 1022 1874890 104124 189745 550 1245 YEAR 2011 9 140 171 458798 30478 8975 145 2477
  • History of Major Disasters in District: Earthquake HIGH MORTALITY LOW DEVELOPMENT The whole district comes DECREASED REDUCED PRODUCTIVITY DEVELOPMENT under EQ zone V and is prone to high intensity EQ. PSYCHO SOCIAL In past, TRAUMA LOSS OF HUMAN RESOURCE LOSS OF LOSS OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC LIVELIHOOD AGRICULTURE INSECURITY LOSS the district has faced a severe EQ in year 1934. Later, in year 1988 (August) LOSS OF CATTLE OF HUMAN and 2004 PROPERTY LIFE & LOSS AGRICULTURE LIFE (January), the district felt IMPACT LOSS severe tremours of EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE earthquake. Loss of life and property. PREPARATION NON ADHERENCE TO NON ADHERENCE TO BUILDING CODES DRILLS RECURRENT FLOODS EARTHQUAKE DATE 15 January, 1934 21 August, 1988 EPICENTRE REGION Lat (˚N) Long (˚E) 26.6 86.8 Bihar/Nepal 26.7 86.6 Bihar/Nepal MAGNITUDE 8.3 6.4 LACK OF AWARENESS CAUSES WEAK STRUCTURES LACK OF SAFETY
  • Multi Hazard Zones in District
  • Issues Identified in DDMP Madhubani • Madhubani district is divided into 399 GPs. Further micro division can be applied in terms of villages, wards or tolas communities) as called in local parlance. Geographically Earthquake, Heat Wave, Cold Wave impacts all micro units in the same manner. • The fire may vary a little in terms of rural and urban causes and impacts, however it is mainly a rural problem especially in summers. 1 GPs located within the embankments: 2 GPs located next to embankments: 3 GPs located away from the 4 GPs located in low lying embankments: areas: These get completely These GPs located next to These GPs are at risk of These GPs or villages located submerged under water embankments are generally at drought situations especially in low lying areas also suffer during monsoon season and risk of getting completely when the monsoon fails or from water logging situations people have to take shelter washed away by water, when rainfall is low. In the absence that can range from few days on embankments or there is breach in the of flood water reaching these to months. The roads and temporary camps for time embankment. The villages due to bridges without sufficient from few days to 5-6 weeks. vulnerabilities could be due to embankments, absence of culverts and scoping for proper weak embankments, poor integrated water water drainage has also maintenance and river flows management system, no impacted and in many places within the embankments. means of filling traditional as water remain stagnant for water ponds etc., these GPs months. periodically suffer crop loses and drought like Situations. Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 13
  • DDMP Development and Mitigation Strategies Comprehensive Essential Service Integration and Coordination Planning: Functions (ESF): of all stakeholders and essential services functions: The plan engages all possible The plan includes for stakeholders at all levels, included considerations of planning, The plan includes institutional mechanism, all possible hazards and all phases reducing disaster risks, continuity tools and good practices for integration and of disaster (Preparedness, and maintenance of essential coordination of all stakeholders and essential Response, Recovery and services functions at different service functions at different levels. Mitigation) levels. Worst case scenario and contingency planning: Follow up actions: The plan suggests the follow up The plan includes the contingency actions for the stakeholder groups, planning for worst case scenarios (past ESFs and local self governments at disasters or assumed situations), each level to develop their own periodic validation and testing as per comprehensive plans. that Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 14
  • Preparedness & DRR Plan of DDMA These are the specific actions recommended in the plan which are meant to be taken during non-disaster time for preparedness and mitigation measures as well as disaster resilient development planning in the district. To ensure DRR is mainstreamed in the developmental actions of all DRR Mainstreaming Actions stakeholders working on various themes in the district. To build sufficient capacities in the departments, communities and other stakeholders to make them able to better perform Capacity Building Actions the roles and responsibilities for disaster risk reduction and emergency response and achieving desired objectives. Functional To ensure that the DDMA is able to quickly recover from the impact of any disaster and Continuity Actions remains functional during disaster time Emergency Preparedness Actions To identify potential emergency situations and be Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar prepared for Unified Response 15
  • Mitigation Planning Measures Structural Mitigation Measures:  All public buildings like schools, hospitals, health centers should be multi hazard resilient being built on raised grounds and Multi Hazard Mitigation Actions: platforms with retrofitting and having adequate exit gates and fire extinguishers in place.  Construct multipurpose community shelters in all vulnerable areas  Houses built in the area should have multi hazard resilient features keeping in tune with cultural housing practices  Watershed management Non-structural Mitigation Measures:  Risk transfer mechanisms: Establishment and strengthening of insurance schemes and policies which would transfer losses the risk due to hazard to a third party.  Insurance schemes for crop, cattle, small businesses and life should be strengthened and promoted to minimize economic losses  Alternate safe housing technology along with rainwater harvesting structures is constantly encouraged & main streamed for long-term vulnerability reduction. Policies and bye laws could be developed for the same.  Continuous Awareness campaign & encouragement for Disaster proof Habitat planning at community level including shifting/relocating from low lying areas and villages within embankments to safe raised grounds  Disaster management may include first-aid &rescue & evacuation as a part of school, college, educational institutions (both techno-tech) curriculum starting from primary level. Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 16
  • Specific Strategies and Projects for Mitigation 1 Villages within embankment: • Any Govt. or other stakeholder project on housing in these villages must have houses on stilts as a pre-requisite design • Public buildings should be designed keeping in mind that the level of mud/land is going to increase each year resulting in submerging parts of building. • Safe Shelters with tube wells and toilets should be constructed on the embankments to house the population when the river spreads within the width of embankments. • Crops that can be harvested before the onset of monsoon/flood season may be grown in the region to avoid loss due to seasonal flood. 2 Villages next to the embankment: • Embankment should be monitored, maintained and strengthened compulsorily. • Maintenance of sluice gates and latest technologies that minimize accumulation of sand and silt in the passage must be incorporated which comes with the river water. • Existing ponds should be cleared and new ponds dug to store the water coming through sluice gates which could be used for agricultural or fisheries purposes. Crop insurance should be promoted as the region is vulnerable to damages to crops due to drought and seasonal flooding. 17
  • Specific Strategies and Projects for Mitigation 3 Villages in low lying areas • Flood friendly crops that grow well even in presence of inches of water should be grown in the region • Sanitation schemes should be especially strengthened by PHED and Health organization as per the standard operating procedures in the region and special measures should be taken to prevent water borne diseases due to presence of stagnant water. • Households living in huts in the drainage or within the water logged area should be identified and land should be allocated to them in different part of village. 4 Villages far from the rivers: • Promote Rainwater harvesting • Tube wells should be placed in villages. • Irrigation channels and tube wells use should be promoted amongst farmers. • Awareness on the government subsidy on the same should be generated. • Short term crops so that it can be harvested before the monsoon season and the seasonal crops can be harvested before the onset of winter.
  • Plan Implementation: A Review a. Multi Hazard Mitigation Approach b. Multi-stakeholder Plan. c. Comprehensive Coverage a. Rehabilitation Strategies out of focus b. Plan Review and Monitoring Strategies not mentioned c. Financial Resource Database not discussed d. No Integration with Disaster Resilient Detailed Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar Engineered Structures 19
  • Conclusion  The plan is initiative towards the disaster mitigation and has multi hazard management.  The grass root development plan has been the first pilot project towards bottom up development.  The project has taken in consideration comprehensive approach including disaster mitigation plan, disaster response strategies, risk management and vulnerability development. Thus overall plan is a cutting edge approach which hopefully will provide an appropriate platform for the DDMP’s to be developed on multi hazard mitigation concept in India.