In the Name of
The Most Beneficent,
The Most Merciful
DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT
OFOF
PERSONALITYPERSONALITY
Presentation ByPresentation By
SYED NOSHAD HUSSAINSYED NOSHAD HUSSAIN
L...
The Holy Quran SaysThe Holy Quran Says
What is meant byWhat is meant by
Personality?Personality?
The word Personality is taken from a LatinThe word Personality i...
In fact, the development of personality which is theIn fact, the development of personality which is the
outcome of intera...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITYDETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
 ENVIRINMENTAL FACTORSENVIRINMENTAL FACTORS
 CulturalCultural
 R...
TheThe IntrinsicIntrinsic FactorsFactors
 Biological Drives such asBiological Drives such as
HomeostaticHomeostatic
Sexua...
Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality
DevelopmentDevelopment
 There are a number of theories regardingThere are ...
Sigmund Freud’sSigmund Freud’s
TheoryTheory
ofof Psychosexual DevelopmentPsychosexual Development
According to Freud perso...
Psychoanalytic Theory : EricPsychoanalytic Theory : Eric
Erikson and Stack SullivanErikson and Stack Sullivan
 Developed ...
Development Stages and theirDevelopment Stages and their
Major CharacteristicMajor Characteristic
INFANCY STAGEINFANCY STAGE
( O to 1 Year)( O to 1 Year)
 The nurturing persons mustThe nurturing persons must
limitate th...
The Developmental Tasks of InfancyThe Developmental Tasks of Infancy
 Learning To WalkLearning To Walk
 Beginning To Tal...
TODDLERS HOOD STAGETODDLERS HOOD STAGE
( 1 to 3 Year)( 1 to 3 Year)
 During this stage, increased motorDuring this stage,...
The Developmental Tasks of
Toddlers
Tolerating Separation From
the Primary Caregiver
Using Words To Communicate With
oth...
PRESCHOOL STAGEPRESCHOOL STAGE
( 3 to 6 Year)( 3 to 6 Year)
 During this stage, there is tremendousDuring this stage, the...
The Developmental Tasks of
Preschoolers
 increasing the ability toincreasing the ability to
communicate and understandcom...
School Age StageSchool Age Stage
( 6 to 12 Year)( 6 to 12 Year)
 This stage is the time for entering school.This stage is...
 This is the time when transition fromThis is the time when transition from
ascribed to achieved status starts toascribed...
The Developmental Tasks of
School Age
 Developing the social and physical skillsDeveloping the social and physical skills...
ADOLESCENCE STAGEADOLESCENCE STAGE
(12 TO 20 YEARS)(12 TO 20 YEARS)
 Adolescence is a transitional stage betweenAdolescen...
The Developmental Tasks of
Adolescence
 Accepting changes in the body and appearance,Accepting changes in the body and ap...
 Adolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacksAdolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacks
the ability to direct him/her sel...
YOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGEYOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGE
(20 to 40 years)(20 to 40 years)
 Psychological and social developmentsPsychol...
 His/her independence from their parentalHis/her independence from their parental
families motivates them to achievefamil...
Developmental Tasks ofDevelopmental Tasks of
Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood
 Choosing educationChoosing education
 Occup...
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGEMIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGE
(40 TO 65 YEARS)(40 TO 65 YEARS)
 This stage of development isThis stage of ...
The Developmental TasksThe Developmental Tasks
Faced in Middle AdulthoodFaced in Middle Adulthood
 Adjusting to physical ...
OLDER ADULTHOOD STAGEOLDER ADULTHOOD STAGE
(65 YEARS AND ABOVE)(65 YEARS AND ABOVE)
 Many physical, psychological, andMan...
The Developmental Tasks ofThe Developmental Tasks of
the Older Adultthe Older Adult
 The developmental tasks of the older...
Special ThanksSpecial Thanks
Worthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah forWorthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah for
prov...
Development of Personality
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Development of Personality

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This presentation includes various theories of human development. Each stage of development and growth are also mentioned with related pictures and exapmles.

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Development of Personality

  1. 1. In the Name of The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful
  2. 2. DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT OFOF PERSONALITYPERSONALITY Presentation ByPresentation By SYED NOSHAD HUSSAINSYED NOSHAD HUSSAIN Lecturer in Pakistan StudiesLecturer in Pakistan Studies DPS D.G.KhanDPS D.G.Khan Syed_noshad@hotmail.comSyed_noshad@hotmail.com
  3. 3. The Holy Quran SaysThe Holy Quran Says
  4. 4. What is meant byWhat is meant by Personality?Personality? The word Personality is taken from a LatinThe word Personality is taken from a Latin wordword PERSONAPERSONA which means mask.which means mask. Personality is defined as the distinguishingPersonality is defined as the distinguishing characteristics of an individual whichcharacteristics of an individual which differentiate him/her from others whendifferentiate him/her from others when displayed in a wide variety of situations anddisplayed in a wide variety of situations and circumstances especially social one’scircumstances especially social one’s. . 
  5. 5. In fact, the development of personality which is theIn fact, the development of personality which is the outcome of interaction between genetic make-up ofoutcome of interaction between genetic make-up of an individual and his environment starts parentallyan individual and his environment starts parentally or even before conception since genetics hasor even before conception since genetics has something to do with it.something to do with it. Positive Personality Negative PersonalityPositive Personality Negative Personality Introversion Personality ExtroversionIntroversion Personality Extroversion PersonalityPersonality
  6. 6. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITYDETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY  ENVIRINMENTAL FACTORSENVIRINMENTAL FACTORS  CulturalCultural  RacialRacial  SocioeconomicSocioeconomic  EducationalEducational  Social guidanceSocial guidance  Health conditionsHealth conditions  Parental educationParental education  Emotional statesEmotional states  Social interactionSocial interaction
  7. 7. TheThe IntrinsicIntrinsic FactorsFactors  Biological Drives such asBiological Drives such as HomeostaticHomeostatic SexualSexual Defensive Defensive  and Assimilatory drivesand Assimilatory drives  Hereditary Temperamental Differences.Hereditary Temperamental Differences.
  8. 8. Theories of PersonalityTheories of Personality DevelopmentDevelopment  There are a number of theories regardingThere are a number of theories regarding development like Learning Theory, Humanisticdevelopment like Learning Theory, Humanistic Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory ,Theory , Cognitive Theory , Biological Theory , Psychoanalytic Theory of personality. But thisPsychoanalytic Theory of personality. But this presentation is mainly based on followingpresentation is mainly based on following theoriestheories.. 1.1. Psychosexual/PsychoanalyticPsychosexual/Psychoanalytic Development : Sigmund FreudDevelopment : Sigmund Freud 2.2. Psychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson andPsychoanalytic Theory :Eric Erikson and Stack SullivanStack Sullivan
  9. 9. Sigmund Freud’sSigmund Freud’s TheoryTheory ofof Psychosexual DevelopmentPsychosexual Development According to Freud personalityAccording to Freud personality development takes place in fivedevelopment takes place in five stages:stages:  The Oral StageThe Oral Stage  The Anal StageThe Anal Stage  The Phallic StageThe Phallic Stage  The Latent PeriodThe Latent Period  Genital StageGenital Stage Libido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra ComplexLibido , Fixation , Oedipus or Electra Complex
  10. 10. Psychoanalytic Theory : EricPsychoanalytic Theory : Eric Erikson and Stack SullivanErikson and Stack Sullivan  Developed form of the Freud theoryDeveloped form of the Freud theory  They have divided development ofThey have divided development of personality into eight stages:personality into eight stages:  Infancy StageInfancy Stage  Toddler HoodToddler Hood  Preschool StagePreschool Stage  School Age StageSchool Age Stage  Adolescence StageAdolescence Stage  Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood  Middle Adulthood StageMiddle Adulthood Stage  Older Adulthood StageOlder Adulthood Stage
  11. 11. Development Stages and theirDevelopment Stages and their Major CharacteristicMajor Characteristic
  12. 12. INFANCY STAGEINFANCY STAGE ( O to 1 Year)( O to 1 Year)  The nurturing persons mustThe nurturing persons must limitate their behavi in addition tolimitate their behavi in addition to fulfilling their needs such as foodfulfilling their needs such as food and warmth..and warmth..  Infants need stimulating andInfants need stimulating and socializing experiences forsocializing experiences for developing into a person.developing into a person.  The sense of confidence isThe sense of confidence is established when the infant gainsestablished when the infant gains a feeling that caregivers have fora feeling that caregivers have for them.them.  Erikson has thought about whenErikson has thought about when he considered trust Vs mistrust tohe considered trust Vs mistrust to be the psychosocial crisis duringbe the psychosocial crisis during this period of lifethis period of life
  13. 13. The Developmental Tasks of InfancyThe Developmental Tasks of Infancy  Learning To WalkLearning To Walk  Beginning To TalkBeginning To Talk  Communicate With OthersCommunicate With Others  Beginning To Have EmotionalBeginning To Have Emotional Relationships CaregiversRelationships Caregivers  Learning To Eat Solid FoodsLearning To Eat Solid Foods  Developing Stable SleepDeveloping Stable Sleep  Eating PeriodsEating Periods
  14. 14. TODDLERS HOOD STAGETODDLERS HOOD STAGE ( 1 to 3 Year)( 1 to 3 Year)  During this stage, increased motorDuring this stage, increased motor development permits increased physicaldevelopment permits increased physical autonomy.autonomy.  At this stage, the child's curiosityAt this stage, the child's curiosity increases.They now explore new dimensionsincreases.They now explore new dimensions of relationships with parents.of relationships with parents.  In order to maintain a satisfactory relationshipIn order to maintain a satisfactory relationship with parents, the child has to obey rules.with parents, the child has to obey rules.  The bond between caregiver and childThe bond between caregiver and child becomes intense and the child stronglybecomes intense and the child strongly resists separationresists separation
  15. 15. The Developmental Tasks of Toddlers Tolerating Separation From the Primary Caregiver Using Words To Communicate With others, Becoming Less Dependent On The Primary Caregiver
  16. 16. PRESCHOOL STAGEPRESCHOOL STAGE ( 3 to 6 Year)( 3 to 6 Year)  During this stage, there is tremendousDuring this stage, there is tremendous growth in vocabulary and continuousgrowth in vocabulary and continuous chatter is a characteristic.chatter is a characteristic.  In addition, persistent questioning is theIn addition, persistent questioning is the tool by which the preschooler explores thetool by which the preschooler explores the environment.environment.  During this stage, a child becomes moreDuring this stage, a child becomes more cooperative with his/her family as he/shecooperative with his/her family as he/she becomes eager to parental demands.becomes eager to parental demands.  The child is still emotionally linked andThe child is still emotionally linked and dependent on his/her parents.dependent on his/her parents.  The child becomes socially interacting andThe child becomes socially interacting and cooperative.cooperative.
  17. 17. The Developmental Tasks of Preschoolers  increasing the ability toincreasing the ability to communicate and understandcommunicate and understand others,others,  performing self-care activities, performing self-care activities,   learning the difference betweenlearning the difference between sexes and developing sexualsexes and developing sexual modesty,modesty,  learning right from wrong andlearning right from wrong and good from bad and developinggood from bad and developing family relationshipsfamily relationships
  18. 18. School Age StageSchool Age Stage ( 6 to 12 Year)( 6 to 12 Year)  This stage is the time for entering school.This stage is the time for entering school.  Children move out of their homes into worldsChildren move out of their homes into worlds therefore their self concepts, value systems andtherefore their self concepts, value systems and cognitive capacities change.cognitive capacities change.  In addition, children enter the world of peerIn addition, children enter the world of peer groups and their behavior is influencedgroups and their behavior is influenced  Attending school implies new expectations fromAttending school implies new expectations from a child. They now represent their families whoa child. They now represent their families who want to be proud of their child.want to be proud of their child.  At this stage, the child starts comparing him/herAt this stage, the child starts comparing him/her self with class mates or playmates.self with class mates or playmates.  Such circumstances stimulate the child to be asSuch circumstances stimulate the child to be as better as possible.better as possible.
  19. 19.  This is the time when transition fromThis is the time when transition from ascribed to achieved status starts toascribed to achieved status starts to take place.take place.  In school, a child is treated as a partIn school, a child is treated as a part of a collectivity rather than asof a collectivity rather than as individual at home.individual at home.  This requires the child to forget manyThis requires the child to forget many desires that may not enable him to fitdesires that may not enable him to fit into the group.into the group.  The school child's evaluation of himThe school child's evaluation of him self starts when adults, school matesself starts when adults, school mates and playmates evaluate him/her.and playmates evaluate him/her.  A new set of values is acquired byA new set of values is acquired by the child and he/she starts to viewthe child and he/she starts to view his/her society from differenthis/her society from different perspectives.perspectives.  At this stage, children have rigidAt this stage, children have rigid standards of what is right and what isstandards of what is right and what is wrong.wrong.  Later part of the school age calledLater part of the school age called preadolescencepreadolescence
  20. 20. The Developmental Tasks of School Age  Developing the social and physical skillsDeveloping the social and physical skills  Needed for playing games,Needed for playing games,  Learning to get along with others,Learning to get along with others,  Learning behavioral attitudes appropriateLearning behavioral attitudes appropriate to one's own sex,to one's own sex,  Learning basic reading, writing, and arithmeticLearning basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skillsskills  Developing a conscience and morals,Developing a conscience and morals,  Developing a good feeling and attitude aboutDeveloping a good feeling and attitude about oneself.oneself.
  21. 21. ADOLESCENCE STAGEADOLESCENCE STAGE (12 TO 20 YEARS)(12 TO 20 YEARS)  Adolescence is a transitional stage betweenAdolescence is a transitional stage between childhood and adult life.childhood and adult life.  It is characterized by rapid physical growthIt is characterized by rapid physical growth and psychological, mental and social maturity.and psychological, mental and social maturity.  This stage of development officially begins atThis stage of development officially begins at puberty and ends with person achieving a levelpuberty and ends with person achieving a level of maturity.of maturity.  The person is able to deal with and manageThe person is able to deal with and manage realities of life and be able to bearrealities of life and be able to bear responsibility his/her actions.responsibility his/her actions.
  22. 22. The Developmental Tasks of Adolescence  Accepting changes in the body and appearance,Accepting changes in the body and appearance,  Developing appropriate relationships with males andDeveloping appropriate relationships with males and females of the same agefemales of the same age  Developing morals, attitudes, and values needed forDeveloping morals, attitudes, and values needed for functioning in societyfunctioning in society  Adolescence is thought to be the period of emotionalAdolescence is thought to be the period of emotional unheard and rebellionunheard and rebellion  Sudden changes of mood, shifting ideologies andSudden changes of mood, shifting ideologies and clashes with authorityclashes with authority  Peer (friend, equals) groups play a critical role in thePeer (friend, equals) groups play a critical role in the process of socialization andprocess of socialization and
  23. 23.  Adolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacksAdolescent still feels uncertain i.e. lacks the ability to direct him/her self and thethe ability to direct him/her self and the confidence to translate his/her thoughtsconfidence to translate his/her thoughts and ideas into a definite course of action.and ideas into a definite course of action.  Persistent arguing and pretended wisdomPersistent arguing and pretended wisdom are characteristic features of adolescents.are characteristic features of adolescents.  Moreover, an adolescent rethinks aboutMoreover, an adolescent rethinks about matters learnt from his/her parents earlymatters learnt from his/her parents early in life. Therefore, the period ofin life. Therefore, the period of Adolescence can be called the periodAdolescence can be called the period of readjustmentof readjustment..
  24. 24. YOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGEYOUNG ADULTHOOD STAGE (20 to 40 years)(20 to 40 years)  Psychological and social developmentsPsychological and social developments continue during this stage.continue during this stage.  Marital and vocational choices represent theMarital and vocational choices represent the determinants of one’s overall personality.determinants of one’s overall personality.  Commitment of oneself to a specific way inCommitment of oneself to a specific way in life takes place through marriage and childrenlife takes place through marriage and children rising.rising.  A person has attained adult status withA person has attained adult status with the completion of physical maturity.the completion of physical maturity.  He/she has become sufficiently wellHe/she has become sufficiently well integrated and emotionally mature to utilizeintegrated and emotionally mature to utilize the opportunities.the opportunities.
  25. 25.  His/her independence from their parentalHis/her independence from their parental families motivates them to achievefamilies motivates them to achieve interdependence and find their places ininterdependence and find their places in society.society.  Now the life cycle rounds to the point atNow the life cycle rounds to the point at which young adults are again confronted bywhich young adults are again confronted by the start of life, but now as members of thethe start of life, but now as members of the parental generation.parental generation.  They often undergo profound personalityThey often undergo profound personality reorientations as they become involved in thereorientations as they become involved in the unfolding of a child’s life.unfolding of a child’s life.  This stage of life ends when a person hasThis stage of life ends when a person has achieved stable positions in society and theachieved stable positions in society and the time when his/her children no more needtime when his/her children no more need his/her attention.his/her attention.  Intimacy Vs isolation is the representative ofIntimacy Vs isolation is the representative of this stage in the Psychosocial theory.this stage in the Psychosocial theory.
  26. 26. Developmental Tasks ofDevelopmental Tasks of Young AdulthoodYoung Adulthood  Choosing educationChoosing education  OccupationOccupation  Selecting a marriage partnerSelecting a marriage partner  Learning to live with a spouseLearning to live with a spouse or wifeor wife  Developing a happyDeveloping a happy satisfactory marital lifesatisfactory marital life
  27. 27. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGEMIDDLE ADULTHOOD STAGE (40 TO 65 YEARS)(40 TO 65 YEARS)  This stage of development isThis stage of development is more stable and comfortablemore stable and comfortable although some peoplealthough some people develop a "midlife crisis."develop a "midlife crisis."  The "midlife crisis" is a termThe "midlife crisis" is a term that describes the feelingsthat describes the feelings of distress that affect someof distress that affect some people when they realizepeople when they realize that they are no longerthat they are no longer young.young.  Middle crises may resultMiddle crises may result suddenly changing jobs, orsuddenly changing jobs, or adopting youthful fashions.adopting youthful fashions.  It is during this period ofIt is during this period of growth and developmentgrowth and development that life-style changes occurthat life-style changes occur because of other changes.because of other changes.  Several physical changesSeveral physical changes occur during this period.occur during this period. The changes may occur veryThe changes may occur very gradually and go unnoticed.gradually and go unnoticed.
  28. 28. The Developmental TasksThe Developmental Tasks Faced in Middle AdulthoodFaced in Middle Adulthood  Adjusting to physical changeAdjusting to physical change  Having grown childrenHaving grown children  Developing leisure-time activitiesDeveloping leisure-time activities  Relating to aging parentsRelating to aging parents
  29. 29. OLDER ADULTHOOD STAGEOLDER ADULTHOOD STAGE (65 YEARS AND ABOVE)(65 YEARS AND ABOVE)  Many physical, psychological, andMany physical, psychological, and social changes occur during latersocial changes occur during later adulthood.adulthood.  The critical transition comes at the timeThe critical transition comes at the time of retirement for both the husband andof retirement for both the husband and the wife.the wife.  In old age persons are moving towardIn old age persons are moving toward completion of their life cycles.completion of their life cycles.  Old age can be a time when a personOld age can be a time when a person can enjoy his/her time with his/hercan enjoy his/her time with his/her grandchildren and leisure timegrandchildren and leisure time activities.activities.  This stage is characterized byThis stage is characterized by increased wisdom although many otherincreased wisdom although many other things are lost such as health, friends,things are lost such as health, friends, family and independence.family and independence.
  30. 30. The Developmental Tasks ofThe Developmental Tasks of the Older Adultthe Older Adult  The developmental tasks of the older adultThe developmental tasks of the older adult age are:age are:  Adjusting to decreasing physical strength andAdjusting to decreasing physical strength and loss of healthloss of health  Adjusting to retirement and reduced incomeAdjusting to retirement and reduced income  Coping with death of a husband or wife andCoping with death of a husband or wife and preparing for one's own deatheating periods.preparing for one's own deatheating periods.
  31. 31. Special ThanksSpecial Thanks Worthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah forWorthy Principal Syed Shahab ud Din Shah for providing me a chance to speak here.providing me a chance to speak here. Sir Syed Salman AhmadSir Syed Salman Ahmad Sir Mukhtar ShahSir Mukhtar Shah Madam Shehla IlyasMadam Shehla Ilyas for their help .for their help . Thanks to World Wide Web (www)Thanks to World Wide Web (www)
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