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Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
Ppt 21 ge
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Ppt 21 ge

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  • 1. Chapter 21 AIS Development Strategies Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-1
  • 2. Learning Objectives  Describe how organizations purchase application software, vendor services, and hardware.  Explain how information system departments develop custom software.  Explain how end users develop, use, and control computer- based information systems.  Explain why organizations outsource their information systems, and evaluate the benefits and risks of this strategy.  Explain the principles and challenges of business process management.  Describe how prototypes are used to develop an AIS, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of doing so.  Explain what computer-aided software engineering is and how it is used in systems development. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-2
  • 3. Ways to Obtain an AIS  Purchase the software  Develop software in-house  Hire and external company to develop and maintain new software Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-3
  • 4. Purchasing Software  Off the Shelf (OTS) Canned  System capabilities for users with similar requirements  Turnkey System  Hardware and software sold as a package  Application Service Provider (ASP)  Software is provided to user via the Internet Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-4
  • 5. In-House System Development  Main criteria for in-house development  Provides a significant competitive advantage  Risks of in-house development  Significant amounts of time required  Complexity of the system  Poor requirements defined  Insufficient planning  Inadequate communication and cooperation  Lack of qualified staff  Poor top management support Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-5
  • 6. End-User Computing (EUC)  Hands-on development, use, and control of computer- based information systems by users  Advantages of EUC  User creation, control, and implementation  Users decide whether a system should be developed and what information is important.  Systems that meet user needs  Users discover flaws that IS people do not catch.  Many of the user-analyst-programmer communication problems in traditional program development are avoided.  Timeliness  Time-consuming cost-benefit analyses, detailed requirements definitions, and the delays and red tape of the approval process can be avoided. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-6
  • 7. End-User Computing (EUC) (cont’d)  Advantages of EUC (cont’d)  Freeing up of systems resources  The more information needs users meet, the more time the IS department can spend on other development and maintenance activities.  Versatility and ease of use  Users can change the information they produce or modify their application any time their requirements change.  Disadvantages to EUC:  Logic and development errors  Inadequately tested applications  Inefficient systems  Poorly controlled systems  Poorly documented systems  Incompatible systems  Redundant data  Wasted resources  Increased costs Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education
  • 8. Outsourcing the System  Hiring an outside company to handle all or part of an organization’s data processing activities  Advantages:  Strategic and economic business solution that allows companies to concentrate on core competencies  Organizations improve their cash position and reduce expenses by selling assets to an outsourcer  Access to greater expertise and better technology  Lower costs by standardizing user applications, buying hardware at bulk prices, splitting development and maintenance costs between projects, and operating at higher volumes  Less development time.  Elimination of peaks-and-valleys  Facilitates downsizing Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education  Disadvantages:  Inflexibility  Reduced competitive advantage  Unfulfilled goals  Poor service  Increased risk 21-8
  • 9. Methods to Develop an AIS  Business Process Redesign  Prototyping  Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-9
  • 10. Business Process Redesign  Drastic, one-time-event approach to improving and automating business processes  Low success rate  Evolved into:  Business Process Management (BPM)  Systematic approach to continuously improving and optimizing an organization’s business processes Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-10
  • 11. Prototyping Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-11
  • 12. Prototyping Advantages  Better definition of user needs  Higher user involvement and satisfaction  Faster development time  Fewer errors  More opportunity for changes Disadvantages  Less efficient use of system resources  Inadequate testing and documentation  Negative behavioral reactions  Never-ending development  Less costly Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-12
  • 13. Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)  Software to help plan, analyze, design, program, and maintain an information system  Strategic planning  Project and system management  Database design  Screen and report layout  Automatic code generation Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-13
  • 14. CASE Advantages vs. Disadvantages  Improved productivity  Incompatibility  Improved program quality  Cost  Cost savings  Unmet expectations  Improved control procedures  Simplified documentation Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education 21-14

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