Chapter 1 Introduction To Computers
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Chapter 1 Introduction To Computers Chapter 1 Introduction To Computers Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers
  • Chapter 1 Objectives Explain the importance of computer literacy Define the term computer Identify the components of a computer Explain why a computer is a powerful tool Differentiate among the various categories of software Discuss the uses of the Internet and the World Wide Web Describe the categories of computers and their uses Explain the purpose of a network Identify the various types of computer users Understand how a user can be a Web publisher p. 1.2
  • The Digital Revolution
    • Where can you find computers?
    • Computers are everywhere
    p. 1.2 Fig. 1-1 Next
  • The Digital Revolution
    • What is computer literacy?
    • If you are computer literate, you have knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses
    p. 1.4 Next
  • What Is a Computer?
    • What is a computer?
    • An electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory
      • accepts data
      • manipulates the data according to specified rules
      • produces results
      • stores the results for future use
    p. 1.4 Next
  • What is a Computer?
    • What are data and information?
    p. 1.4 Fig. 1-2 Data Collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Next
  • What is a Computer?
    • Who is a user?
    • Someone that communicates with a computer
    • Someone who uses the information it generates
    p. 1.4 Next
  • What is a Computer?
    • What are hardware and software?
    p. 1.4 Software The series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks Hardware The electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer Next
    • What is the information
    • processing cycle?
    What is a Computer? p. 1.5 Input Any data or instructions you enter into a computer Output Data that has been processed into information Storage Area in a computer that can hold data and information for future use Communication The capability of communicating with other computers Process Manipulate the input (data) to produce output (information) Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What are common computer hardware components?
    speaker p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 printer scanner speaker PC camera microphone digital camera system unit keyboard modem monitor mouse Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is an input device?
    • Any hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer
    Click to view Web Link then click Input Devices p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3 scanner microphone keyboard mouse PC camera digital camera Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is an output device?
    • Any hardware component that can convey information to a user
    Click to view Web Link then click Output Devices p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 printer monitor speakers Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is the system unit ?
    • Sometimes called a chassis
    • A box-like case made from metal or plastic that protects the internal electronic components of the computer from damage
    • Circuitry in the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard
    p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3 hard disk drive CD-RW drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive Zip ® disk drive floppy disk drive Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What are two main components on the motherboard?
    Click to view Web Link then click Processors p. 1.6
    • Memory
      • Temporary holding place for data and instructions
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      • Also called a processor
      • Electronic device that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer
    Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is a chip?
    • An electronic device that contains many microscopic pathways that carry electrical currents
    • Usually no bigger than one-half inch square
    • Packaged so it can be attached to a motherboard
    p. 1.6 Fig. 1-4 processor chip packaging memory chip Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What are internal components and external devices?
    p. 1.6 External Device Also called a peripheral Attaches to the system unit Internal Component Resides inside the system unit Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is storage?
    • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
    Click to view Web Link then click Storage Devices p. 1.7
    • Storage Device
    • Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium
    • Devices often function as source of input because they transfer items from storage into memory
    • Storage Medium
    • Physical material on which a computer keeps the data, instructions and information
    Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What are common storage devices or drives?
    p. 1.7 Fig. 1-3 CD-RW drive hard disk drive CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive ZIP ® drive floppy disk drive Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is a floppy disk?
    • A thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in a plastic shell
    • Insert and remove a floppy disk into and from a floppy disk drive
    • A Zip ® disk is a higher capacity disk
    p. 1.7 Fig. 1-5 Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is a hard disk?
    • Consists of several circular platters that store items electronically
    • Disks are enclosed in an airtight, sealed case, which often is housed inside the system unit
    • Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk
    • Some hard disks are removable
    p. 1.7 Fig. 1-6 & 7 removable hard disk self-contained hard disk Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is a compact disc?
    • A flat, round portable medium that stores data using microscopic pits, which are created by a laser light
      • CD-ROM
      • CD-RW
        • rewriteable CD
      • DVD-ROM
        • tremendous storage capacities
    p. 1.8 Fig. 1-8 Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is miniature storage media?
    • Used in devices such as digital cameras
    • One popular type is called a card
    p. 1.8 Fig. 1-9 miniature storage media Next
  • The Components of a Computer
    • What is a communications device?
    • Enables computer users to communicate and to exchange items such as data, instructions, and information with another computer
    • Allows you to establish a connection between two computers and transmit items over transmission media, such as cables, telephone lines, or satellites
    Click to view Web Link then click Communications Devices
    • One type is a modem
    p. 1.8 Fig. 1-3 modem Next
  • Why Is a Computer So Powerful?
    • What characteristics make a computer powerful?
    p. 1.8 Speed Billions of operations can be carried out in a single second Storage Enormous amounts of data can be stored and made available for processing anytime it is needed Reliability Dependable because components have a low failure rate so they produce consistent results Accuracy If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the results are error-free — garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) accuracy of output depends on accuracy of input Communications Two connected computers can share stored data, instructions, and information Next
  • Why Is a Computer So Powerful?
    • What is a network?
    • Two or more computers connected together via communications media and devices
    • The most widely known network is the Internet
    p. 1.10 Fig. 1-10 Next
  • Technology Trailblazer
    • Bill Gates
    • Microsoft’s chairman and chief software architect
    • Co-founded Microsoft in 1975
    • Regarded as the most powerful person in the computer industry
    • Consistently anticipates technological developments and customer needs
    Click to view Web Link then click Bill Gates p. 1.9 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is a computer program?
    • A series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do
    Click to view Web Link then click Computer Programs p. 1.10 Directs computer to perform alternative operations Prints a report Stores information on disk Allows you to input data and stores it in memory Uses data in memory in calculations Displays information on monitor Compares values stored in memory Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is software installation?
    • Some programs can be loaded directly from purchased media, others must be installed
    • Install means part or all of the instructions are copied from the purchased media onto the computer's hard disk before the program can be used
    p. 1.11 Fig. 1-11 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What happens when you run a program from a CD-ROM?
    Step 1: Insert the CD-ROM that contains the program into the CD-ROM drive. Step 2: If necessary, install the program on the hard disk. Then instruct the computer to run the program. Instructions transfer from the CD-ROM or hard disk to memory. Step 3: The program executes and the screen displays graphics that allow you to create a greeting card. p. 1.11 Fig. 1-12 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is system software?
    • Programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices
    p. 1.12 Operating System (OS) Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices Utility program Type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is the user interface?
    • Determines how you interact with software
    • Used to control how you enter data and instructions
    • Used to control how information displays on the screen
    p. 1.12 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
    • Allows you to interact with the software using visual images such as icons
    • An icon is a small image that represents a program, an instruction, or some other object
    p. 1.12 Fig. 1-13 icons icons Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is application software?
    • Programs that perform specific tasks for users
    Click to view Web Link then click Application Software p. 1.13 Word processing software Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Suite Collection of popular individual software applications bundled together as a single unit Spreadsheet software Database software Presentation graphics software Word processing software Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is packaged software?
    • Copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of users
    • Purchase from stores or companies on the Internet
    p. 1.13 Fig. 1-14 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is custom software?
    • Written by a programmer
    • Tailor-made program developed at a user’s request to perform specific functions
    p. 1.14 Next
  • Computer Software
    • What are freeware, public-domain software, and shareware?
    p. 1.14
    • Public-Domain Software
      • Freeware donated for public use
      • No copyright restrictions
    • Freeware
    • Software provided at no cost to a user by an individual or company
    • Copyrighted
    • Cannot resell it on your own
    • Shareware
    • Copyrighted software that is distributed free for a trial period
    • Send a payment to developer on honor system
    Next
  • Computer Software
    • What is an application service provider (ASP)?
    p. 1.14 Third-party company that manages and distributes software and services on the Internet You can run the programs from the Internet Both free and paid ASPs Next
  • Computer Software
    • Who designs and writes software?
    • Computer programmer (or programmer)
      • Writes software programs
    • Systems Analyst
      • Designs a program, working with both the user and the programmer to determine the desired output of the program
    p. 1.14 Next
  • Computer Software
    • How are programs written?
    • Programmers use a programming language to write computer programs
    p. 1.14 Fig. 1-15 Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • What is a network?
    • Collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media
    • When your computer connects to a network you are online
    p. 1.16
    • Communications Device
    • Modem
    • Communications Media
    • Cables
    • Telephone lines
    • Cellular radio
    • Satellites
    Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • What are the reasons to network?
    p. 1.16 Software programs Hardware devices Data Information To save time and money To share resources Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • A network that connects computers in a limited geographic area such as a school computer laboratory, office or group of buildings
    • What is a local area network (LAN)?
    p. 1.16 Fig. 1-16 Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • What is a wide area network (WAN)?
    • A network that covers a large geographical area, such as one that connects offices across the country
    p. 1.16 Fig. 1-17
    • Next
    Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • What is the Internet?
    • A worldwide collection of networks that links together millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
    Click to view Web Link then click Internet p. 1.17 Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • Why do users access the Internet?
    p. 1.17 Fig. 1-18
    • E-mail
    • Information
    • Shopping
    • Meeting people
    • Entertainment
    • E-mail
    • Information
    • Shopping
    • Meeting people
    • Entertainment
    Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • How do users connect to the Internet?
    p. 1.18 Online Service Provider (OSP) Provides access to the Internet, as well as a variety of other specialized content and services Internet Service Provider (ISP) Company that supplies connections to the Internet, usually for a monthly fee Next
  • Networks and the Internet
    • What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
    • Billions of documents, called Web pages, that are linked together on computers throughout the world
    p. 1.18 Web page Contains text, graphics, sound, or video and has connections to other Web pages Web site Collection of related Web pages Web browser Program used to access and view Web pages Next
    • How do you connect to the Internet and display a Web page?
    Networks and the Internet Step 4 : The Web browser locates the Web site for the entered address and displays a Web page on your screen Step 3 : Enter the address of the Web site you wish to visit Step 2 : A Web browser such as Internet Explorer displays a Web page on your screen Step 1 : Use your computer to make a local telephone call to an online service p. 1.18 Fig. 1-19 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Next
  • Categories of Computers
    • What are the categories of computers?
    p. 1.19 Fig. 1-20 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What is a personal computer?
    • A computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
    p. 1.19
    • Two major categories
    • Desktop
    • Notebook
    Microprocessor The single chip that performs all the processing functions on a personal computer
    • Contains at least
    • One Input device
    • One output device
    • One storage device
    • Memory
    • A processor
    Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What are the two most popular series of personal computers?
    p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 The PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system The Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) Next
  • Company on the Cutting Edge
    • Gateway
    • One of the world’s leading technology manufacturers
    • Manufactures built-to-order PCs
    • Consumers from around the world order more than 11,000 custom systems daily
    Click to view Web Link then click Gateway p. 1.21 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What is a desktop computer?
    • Designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table
    Click to view Web Link then click Personal Computers p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Tower model
      • Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically
    p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • All-in-one computer
      • Less expensive desktop that combines the monitor and system unit into a single device
    p. 1.21 Fig. 1-24 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Workstation
      • More expensive and powerful desktop designed for work that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities
    • Stand-alone
      • Can perform the information processing cycle operations without being connected to a network
    p. 1.21 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What are some desktop computer variations?
    • Server
      • Powerful desktop that manages the resources on a network
    • Clients or workstations
      • Other computers on network that access the contents of the storage area on the servers
    p. 1.22 Fig. 1-25 Next
  • Personal Computers
    • What is a notebook computer?
    • Also called a laptop
    • Portable, personal computer small enough to fit on your lap
    • Generally more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities
    Click to view video p. 1.22 Fig. 1-26 Next
  • Handheld Computers
    • What is a handheld computer?
    • Also called a palmtop computer
    • Small computer that fits in your hand
    Click to view Web Link then click Handheld Computers p. 1.23 Fig. 1-27 Next
  • Handheld Computers
    • How do you input data with a handheld computer?
    • Some support voice input
    p. 1.23
    • Others use a stylus
      • A stylus looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure, instead of ink to write
    • Some have small keyboards
    Next
  • Handheld Computers
    • What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
    • One of the most popular handheld computers in use today
    • Provides personal organizer functions
      • Calendar
      • Appointment book
      • Address book
      • Calculator
      • Notepad
    p. 1.23 Fig. 1-28 Next
  • Handheld Computers
    • What are Web-enabled handheld computers?
    • Allow you to access the Internet wirelessly
    p. 1.24 Fig. 1-29 Web-enabled two-way pager Web-enabled cellular telephone Web-enabled handheld computer Next
  • Internet Appliances
    • What is an Internet appliance or information appliance?
    • Computer with limited functionality whose main purpose is to connect to the Internet from home
    p. 1.24 Fig. 1-30 Next
  • Internet Appliances
    • What is WebTV?
    • An Internet appliance in the form of a set-top box
    • Sits on top of or next to a television set and allows you to access the Internet on the TV
    p. 1.25 Fig. 1-31 Next
  • Mid-Range Servers
    • What is a mid-range server?
    • More powerful and larger than a workstation computer
    • Supports up to 4,000 users
    • Often connected via a personal computer or terminal
    • Once known as a minicomputer
    p. 1.25 Fig. 1-32 Next
  • Mid-Range Servers
    • What is a terminal?
    p. 1.25
    • Sometimes called dumb terminals
      • No processing power
      • Cannot stand alone
      • Must be connected to a server to operate
    Device with a monitor and keyboard used to access a server Next
  • Mainframes
    • What is a mainframe?
    • Large, expensive, very powerful computer
    • Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously
    • Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information
    p. 1.26 Fig. 1-33 Next
  • Company on the Cutting Edge
    • International Business Machines (IBM)
    • Incorporated in 1911
    • The first family of computers with interchangeable software and peripherals
    • World’s largest information technology company
    Click to view Web Link then click IBM p. 1.26 Next
  • Supercomputers
    • What is a supercomputer?
    • Fastest, most powerful computer
    • Able to process more than 12 trillion instructions per second
    p. 1.26 Fig. 1-34 Next
  • Elements of an Information System
    • What is an information system?
    • For an information system to provide accurate, timely, and useful information, each element must be present and all of the elements must work together
    Click to view Web Link then click Minorities in Technology Click to view Web Link then click Women in Technology p. 1.27 Fig. 1-35 1. Hardware 2. Software 1. Hardware 3. Data 1. Hardware 2. Software 4a. People (IT personnel) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4b. People (users) 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 5. Procedures 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Data 4a. People (IT personnel) 4b. People (users) Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are five categories of computer users?
    p. 1.28 Fig. 1-36 Large Business Home Mobile Small Office/Home Office Power Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What software is available for a home user?
    p. 1.29 Fig. 1-37 research finance and business management Web access entertainment Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • How do computer companies accommodate children?
    • Many manufacturers design special hardware for children
    p. 1.30 Fig. 1-38 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is the digital divide?
    • Idea that you can separate people of the world into two distinct groups
      • Those who have access to technology with the ability to use it
      • Those who do not have access to technology or are without the ability to use it
    Click to view video p. 1.30 Next
  • Technology Trailblazer
    • Shawn Fanning
    • As a 19-year-old freshman computer science major, he developed the Napster software and company
    • Pioneering file-sharing concept has implications for all copyrighted digital information
    Click to view Web Link then click Shawn Fanning p. 1.30 Next
    • What hardware and software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?
    Examples of Computer Usage Web access spreadsheet
    • Desktop usage
    • Local Area Network (Lan)
    • Productivity software
    • Specialty software
    • Web usage
    p. 1.31 Fig. 1-39 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What new computer trends concern a small office/home office (SOHO) user?
    • E-mail
      • Communicate with others
    • E-commerce
      • Conduct financial business on the Web
    • Web cam
      • Allows a SOHO user to show the world a live view of some aspect of their business
    p. 1.31 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is a mobile user?
    • Travel to and from a main office to conduct business
    • Hardware
      • Notebook computers
      • Handheld computers
      • Web-enabled cellular telephones
    • Software
      • Productivity
      • Presentation
    p. 1.32 Fig. 1-40 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are the needs of the large business user?
    • Network
      • Local area network (LAN)
      • Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • Large business Web site
    • Sales management
    • Accounting
    • Desktop publishing
    • Information systems department
    • Productivity software
    • Scheduling
    • Web access
    p. 1.33 Fig. 1-41 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is a kiosk?
    • A freestanding computer
    • Usually has multimedia capability and a touch screen
    • Used by a large business to provide information to the public
    Click to view video p. 1.34 Fig. 1-43 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What is telecommuting?
    • A work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace
    • Often communicate with the office using some communications technology
    p. 1.34 Fig. 1-44 Next
  • Examples of Computer Usage
    • What are the needs of a power user?
    • Requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer
    • Types of power users
      • Engineers
      • Architects
      • Desktop publishers
      • Graphic artists
    • Typically work with multimedia
      • Combines text, graphics, sound, video, and other media elements into one application
    p. 1.35 Fig. 1-45 Next
  • Computer User as a Web Publisher
    • What is Web publishing?
    • Making a Web page available on the Internet
      • Provide family information
      • Provide information about business
      • Provide a resume online
      • Provide online courses called distance-learning courses
    • A few reasons to publish Web pages
    p. 1.36 Fig. 1-46 Next
  • Computer User as a Web Publisher
    • What are other ways to use the Web?
    • Photo communities
      • Allow you to create an online photo album
    • Electronic storefronts
      • Allow a small business to advertise and take orders directly at a Web site
    • Communicate with others
      • E-mail
      • Chat rooms
      • Instant messaging
    Click to view animation p. 1.37 Fig. 1-47 Next
  • Summary of Introduction to Computers
    • The digital revolution
    • What is a computer?
    • The components of a computer
    • Why is a computer so powerful?
    • Computer software
    • Networks and the Internet
    • Categories of computers
    • Personal computers
    Next
  • Summary of Introduction to Computers (cont.)
    • Handheld computers
    • Internet appliances
    • Mid-range servers
    • Mainframes
    • Supercomputers
    • Elements of an information system
    • Examples of computer usage
    • Computer user as a Web publisher
    Next
  • Chapter 1 Complete