Exploring ecosystems chapter05

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  • 1. EXPLORING ECOSYSTEMS
    Grade 8/2011
    CHAPTER 5
    Compiled by Madre Nortje
    1
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 2. 2
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 3. 3
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 4. 4
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 5. 5
    All living things (organisms) have a place where they live. THIS IS CALLED THEIR HABITAT.
    For example, your habitat could include school, your home and the places you shop for all the items you require to live.
    What is a habitat?
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 6. Every living thing has particular requirements, and will live only where these requirements can be met.
    Some of the conditions a habitat needs to provide could include:
    • a source of food
    • water
    • shelter and living space
    • mating partners for reproduction
    • gases such as oxygen.
    6
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 7. 7
    • These requirements can be placed into one of TWO CATEGORIES:
    • 8. LIVING OR NON-LIVING environment factors.
    • 9. LIVING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
    • 10. (BIOTIC FACTORS) include partners for mating, organisms for food, and organisms they may compete with for food and shelter.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 11.
    • THE NON-LIVING FACTORS
    • 12. (ABIOTIC FACTORS) are those such as wind, light and temperature.
    • 13. A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same habitat is said to be a population.
    • 14. The size of any population will vary over time depending on the availability of food, water, living space and mating partners
    8
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 15. ADAPTATIONS
    • To survive in their habitats, organisms have special characteristics that help them to obtain food and water, protect themselves, build homes and reproduce.
    • 16. These characteristics are called adaptations.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    9
  • 17. ADAPTION
    • The spotted-tail quoll is a marsupial
    that lives in the wet and dry forests of eastern Australia, from Queensland to Tasmania.
    • Its colouring means that it is well camouflaged, and can sleep in hollow trees and rock crevices without being seen by predators.
    • 18. It has sharp claws and teeth so that it can catch rats, birds and reptiles for dinner.
    • 19. It also eats dead remains. Being nocturnal, it hunts at night.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    10
  • 20. ADAPTATIONS ENABLE ANIMALS TO:
    • protect themselves from predators, e.g. camouflage
    • 21. survive hot and cold temperatures, wet and dry seasons
    • 22. move from place to place, e.g. flippers, legs and wings
    • 23. catch and eat food
    • 24. take in oxygen
    • 25. reproduce.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    11
  • 26. What are environmental conditions?
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    12
    The term environment is used to describe all of the conditions that an organism has to cope with in its habitat.
    Many factors may shape and change an environment, including:
    Will you have these animals in your Zoo?
  • 27. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
    the temperature
    whether it is wet or dry
    whether it is windy
    the quality of the air
    the water quality
    the type of soil
    the plants, animals, bacteria and fungi that live there
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 28. LET’S ALL LIVE TOGETHER
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    14
    YES!!!!!
  • 29. A pond Ecosystem
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    15
  • 30. The biosphere is the place where all life as we know it exists.
    It consists of the Earth and its atmosphere.
    The biosphere is made up of many ecosystems.
    In an ecosystem organisms react with each other and their environment in a balanced way.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    16
  • 31. Ecology- The study of the interactions between living things and their environment.
    Ecologists are scientists who study these interactions.
    www.princeton.edu
    www.thebignm.net
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    17
  • 32. 3 TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS
    ORGANISMS IN AN ECOSYSTEM ARE INTERDEPENDENT
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    18
    THE ROAD TO KNOWLEDGE - LEARN
  • 33. THREE TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS
    1.COMMENSALISM:
    This is an interaction between two organisms where only one of them benefits, but the other one is not affected.
    For example, on the Great Barrier Reef there are small colourful fish called clown fish. They are immune to the stings from sea anemones. The clown fish lives among the tentacles of the sea anemone and is protected from predators as well as getting food from the scraps left by the anemone.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    19
  • 34. CLOWN FISH IN THE TENTACLES OF A SEA ANEMONE
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    20
  • 35. MUTUALISM
    Have you ever heard the saying ‘you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours’? This is what mutualism is all about.
    Both of the organisms benefit from the relationship and neither is harmed.
    In many cases neither species can exist without the other.
    The lichen consists of a fungus and an alga growing together. The fungus gets food from the photosynthesising alga and the alga gets a place to live. It also gets mineral nutrients from the fungus
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    21
  • 36. A LICHEN growing with some mosses on a rock.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    22
  • 37. PARASITISM
    This is an interaction where one species (the parasite) lives on or in the host (another species of plant or animal).
    The parasite obtains food and shelter from its host, but often harms or may even kill the host in return.
    Heartworm is a parasite that lives in the hearts of dogs.They breed rapidly and when present in large numbers can clog up the dog’s heart.
    The worm uses the dog for shelter and food, but in the end the dog often dies.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 38. HEARTWORM IN DOGS
    WWW.fortheloveofpaws.com
    WWW.placervillevet.com
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    24
  • 39. PARTIAL PARASITE
    Mistletoe is using this tree ( a casuarina) to obtain water and some nutrients, but it still carries out photosynthesis to make its own food.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 40. QUESTIONS 5.1p 130 & 131
    Manual
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    26
    Good luck!
  • 41. GUESS WHO’S COMING FOR DINNER?
    Food is one of the most important needs of all living things.
    For an organism to live in a particular habitat, that habitat must provide adequate food or nutrients.
    Plants manufacture their own food.
    Nutrients= substance that help plants or animals to grow
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 42. GUESS WHO’S COMING FOR DINNER?
    Animals must consume other animals or plants to get their food.
    Animals that eat other animals are called PREDATORS of that animal.
    Example; Dingo will hunt hopping mice as PREY
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 43. PREY – CREATURES THAT AN ANIMAL HUNTS AND EATS
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 44. COMPETITORS
    If two animals eat the same sort of food and they live in the same habitat, they must compete for their food.
    Australia Rabbits 1830 www.abc.net.au
    http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s2551612.htm
    What do you say & think???
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 45. FOOD CHAINS: The wombat and the Rabbit compete for food, shelter, living space and water.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 46. 32
    FOOD CHAINS
    Plants and animals use energy in growing and in day-to-day activity.
    Plants get most of their energy from the Sun; animals get their energy from the food they eat.
    For example, grass uses the energy from the Sun to grow.
    A grasshopper may eat the grass to get the energy it needs, and a kookaburra might eat several grasshoppers to get the energy it needs.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 47. 33
    FOOD CHAINS
    When the kookaburra dies, bacteria and fungi will help to decompose its body, returning the nutrients to the soil and helping more grass to grow.
    This flow of energy from organism to organism is called a FOOD CHAIN.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 48. Most food chains start with the SUN, and usually end with bacteria or Fungi
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    34
    A food chain is usually shown as a simple flowchart like this:
    Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> kookaburra -> fungi
    The direction of the flow of energy is shown by the arrows.
  • 49. Producers, consumers and decomposers
    The Sun gives out light energy which the plants collect using a chemical called chlorophyll.
    It is the chlorophyll that gives plants their green colour.
    Plants then use the energy they have trapped, along with water and carbon dioxide, to make the carbohydrateglucose.
    Oxygen is also produced in this process, which is called PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 50. Photosynthesis is often written as a chemical equation like this:
    carbon dioxide + water sunlight -> glucose + oxygen
    chlorophyll
    Because plants can produce their own food they are called producers.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 51. PLANTS MAKE OWN FOOD
    Make food from very simple substances.
    These are carbon dioxide gas from the air and water from the soil.
    Energy from sunlight is needed to combine these into sugars
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 52. CONSUMERS:HERBIVORES
    Animals are unable to make their own food and must consume (eat) plants or other animals to obtain food.
    Cows that eat only plants are known as HERBIVORES.www.wallpapers-diq.com
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 53. CONSUMERS: CARNIVORES
    Lions that eat only other animals are called CARNIVORES.www.psychology.wikia.com
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 54. WWW.masterfile.com
    CONSUMERS: OMNIVORES
    Those like humans that eat both plants and animals are called OMNIVORES.
    If a plant or animal dies without being eaten, its body is broken down by DECOMPOSERS.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 55. CONSUMERS
    DECOMPOSERS are living things such as bacteria and fungi that are able to get the energy they need as they break down dead matter.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    WWW.sheppardsoftware.com
  • 56. DECOMPOSERS
    In the food chain
    Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> kookaburra -> fungi
    The grass is the producer, the grasshopper is called a first-order consumer and the kookaburra is a second-order consumer.
    If we were to add a snake, which eats the grasshopper and in turn is eaten by the kookaburra, our food chain would look like this:
    Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> snake -> kookaburra -> fungi
    The snake has become the second-order consumer, kookaburra is now a third-order consumer.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 57. FOOD WEB IDENTIFIES WHO EATS WHOM IN ECOSYSTEM
    Joining a number of food chains together produces a food web.
    Changes in food web occur as the population of different organisms increase, decrease or disappear altogether.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 58. FOOD WEB p135
    Interactive Tutorial Chapter 5 Food Web
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 59. QUESTIONS 5.2 p 135
    Manual
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    45
    THIS IS HOW YOU KNOW..................... YOU KNOW THE CONTENT OF THE WORK..........
  • 60. Biologists ?(scientists who study living things)
    Living things
    • are able to move
    • need oxygen
    • need food or nutrients
    • produce and eliminate wastes
    • grow
    • respond to changes
    • reproduce
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 61. ORGANISMS
    Euglena (Water Otganism)
    A CELL IS THE BASIC UNIT OF ORGANISMS, AND ALL ORGANISMS ARE MADE OF ONE OR MORE CELLS.(Multicellular)
    Some organisms consist of only one cell(Unicellular) like Euglena (you –GLEEN – a)
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 62. CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    Taxonomists now classify living things into FIVE KINGDOMS based on their structural and functional similarities or differences.
    TAXONOMISTS –Scientists who classify living things into groups.
    To make it easier to talk about the living things in the biosphere, taxonomists (scientists who classify living things) classify them INTO KINGDOMS.
  • 63. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    49
    NAME THE FIVE KINGDOMS OF LIFE?
  • 64. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 65. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE KINGDOMS
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 66. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS – MORE LEVELS THAN JUST THE KINGDOMS
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 67. CLASSIFICATION OF HUMANS- Homo sapiens
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk
  • 68. Homo Sapiens- humans
    www.yapa.org.au
    Does everybody in the picture fit in the human
    CLASSIFICATION?
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 69. A system of naming living things was developed by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1750s. In this system the scientific name of every living thing has two parts that together name.
    For humans the genus name is Homo.
    Humans share this name with related species such as Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
    The second part of the name indicates the species to which we belong.
    This is a descriptive name. Homo erectus literally means the human that stood upright.
    Homo sapiens means the intelligent human.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    55
    NAMING LIVING THINGS
  • 70. Making a key
    Objects can be grouped, or classified, using a key. In a key there are usually two options for each characteristic.
    Dichotomous means divided into two parts, so such keys are called dichotomous keys.
    Sometimes keys are written as a chart and sometimes they are written as words.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 71. Keys - how to use it
    Watch interactive tutorial
    Chapter 5 Using Keys
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 72. QUESTIONS 5.3 p 141
    Manual
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    58
    Learning is the Key to success!
  • 73. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A TYPICAL ANIMAL AND TYPICAL PLANT
    59
    Plant
    Animal
    Feeds on ready-made organic food
    Has feeding structures such as mouth and
    Lacks chlorophyll
    Lacks leaves
    Lacks roots
    Moves around
    Has nerves and muscles
    Has receptors such as eyes and nose
    Makes its own food by photosynthesis
    Lacks feeding structures
    Has chlorophyll
    Has leaves
    Has roots
    Does not move around
    Lacks nerves and muscles
    Lacks receptor organs
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
  • 74. OBTAINING AND USING FOODCELLULAR RESPIRATION
    Why do animals need to be able to move?
    Animals cannot make their own food, so they need to be able to move around to find other animals or plants to eat.
    Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. They do not need to move around to find the raw materials.
    However, because sunlight is required, plants can only photosynthesise in the daytime.
    The sugars that are formed during photosynthesis maybe stored in a plant in the form of starch.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 75. Photosynthesis occurs when sunlight isabsorbed by the green chlorophyll in plants.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 76. CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    Both plants and animals need energy for their everyday lives.
    The energy contained in food is released in a process called
    cellular respiration.
    Plants use the glucose that they make in photosynthesis for this process.
    In animals the glucose comes from the food they eat, which is first broken down in their digestive systems.
    We can write a summary of what happens in cellular respiration:
    glucose + oxygen->energy + carbon dioxide + water
    As you can see, this process needs oxygen.
    During daylight plants usually have a ready supply of oxygen.
    Why is this so?
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 77. OXYGEN IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS
    Animals have to obtain oxygen from their environment, and are adapted in different ways to do this.
    An earthworm absorbs oxygen through its moist skin.
    Fish have gills that absorb dissolved oxygen from the water that passes over them.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 78. WWW.landonyorkes.blogspot.com
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    Human lungs allow the uptake of oxygen into the body.
    The oxygen is transported in the blood to body cells
    where it is used in cellular respiration.
    Fish have gills to enable them to take
    in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.
  • 79. All land-living vertebrates, including humans, have lungs.
    When they inhale (breathe in) their lungs fill with air.
    Oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide passes from the body into the lungs.
    When these animals exhale (breathe out) they excrete the carbon dioxide.
    Carbon dioxide is a waste product for animals, but for plants it is the raw material of photosynthesis.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 80. LET’S LOOK AT PLANTS
    To classify plants, taxonomists look at their structure and how they reproduce.
    Using this information they have worked out the following key.
    A CLASSIFICATION key can be used to sort the plant kingdom into smaller groups with similar characteristics.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 81. PLANT KINGDOM:TWO MAIN GROUPS
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    TRACHEOPHYTES
    BRYOPYTES
    Have veins – true roots, stem and leaves.
    Includes flowering plants, ferns and conifers.
    Called ANGIOSPERMS
    Example Fruit trees, cereal crop, & vegetables
    Produce fruit, flowers, and seeds.
    Each part of plant has a function
    No veins - Without true roots, stem or leaves.
    Example Mosses.
    Have structure to carry out same functions.
    Mainly found in damp places.
    2 to 3 cm tall.
    Reproduce by spores.
    67
  • 82. PLANT KINGDOM
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 83. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    1.Cones of Conifer2. Fern3. Mosses
    69
  • 84. Table 5.3 Parts and functions of flowering plants
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 85. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS
    Animals can be grouped on the basis of whether they are VERTEBRATES OR INVERTEBRATES.
    VERTEBRATES :Animals that have an endoskeleton or backbone inside their bodies.(VERte-brates).
    INVERTEBRATES: Animals with no skeletons, such as molluscs or worms, or those with a jointed external skeleton (exoskeleton) such as beetles or flies.
    71
  • 86. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS
    Another way of grouping animals is by sensitivity to TEMPERATURE.
    Birds and mammals are able to maintain constant body temperatures even when the temperature of the surroundings changes.
    They are said to be ENDOTHERMIC.
    72
  • 87. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS
    Another way of grouping animals is by sensitivity to TEMPERATURE.
    Fish, reptiles and amphibians have a body temperature that is affected by their surroundings.
    They are called ECTOTHERMIC.
    73
  • 88. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 89. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    ANIMALKINGDOM
    75
  • 90. QUESTIONS 5.4 p 146
    Manual
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    YOU ARE ALL WINNERS! THANKS FOR HARD WORK.
  • 91. Other kingdoms: FUNGI, PROTISTA AND MONERA
    KINGDOM FUNGI
    Fungi range in form from the mould that grows on bread to the mushrooms we eat.
    Fungi have no chlorophyll, so they cannot use light from the Sun to make their own food.
    Fungi reproduce by means of spores.
    Some fungi live on dead organic matter. They are decomposer organisms.
    Some fungi are parasites living on plants and animals and gaining their nourishment from them.
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  • 92. TOADSTOOLS, PUFFBALLS, TRUFFLES, YEAST, BREAD MOULD AND SKIN INFECTIONS LIKE TINEA ARE ALL TYPE S OF FUNGI.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 93. Kingdom MONERA (1)
    Members of this kingdom are called monerans, and you need a powerful microscope to see them.
    They are single-celled and have a simple cell structure without a distinct nucleus.
    Bacteria and cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) fall into this group.
    Bacteria live in many different places, many of which are wet and warm.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 94. Kingdom MONERA / BACTERIA
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 95. Kingdom MONERA (2)
    Some, like sulphur bacteria and cyanobacteria, can make their own food, but most rely on other organisms for food.
    Decomposers break down the bodies of dead organisms. Some monerans live inside living organisms, causing diseases such as tetanus, food poisoning and cholera; others are essential for health.
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 96. Kingdom PROTISTA
    Have you seen seaweed at the beach? Seaweeds are examples of ALGAE.
    They can make their own food. Do they have stems, roots and leaves?
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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  • 97. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    83
    Some protists have structures that enable them to move through water.
    Other protists do not contain chlorophyll.
    They catch and eat food from the water around them.
    They are more animal-like and are called protozoa.
    Some protists have hair-like structures that help them move through the water.
    Most protists are not harmful to humans, but some cause disease. These diseases tend to be more common in tropical climates.
  • 98. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    84
    For example, amoebic dysentery, which causes severe pain and diarrhoea, is caused by drinking water contaminated with protists.
    This is why it is important to drink only boiled or bottled water in some countries where there is not a guaranteed clean water supply.
    Diseases caused by these organisms are relatively few in Australia because of good sanitation.
  • 99. QUESTIONS 5.5 p 151Chapter Review p 152 &153
    Manual
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    DO YOUR BEST, TEST ING SHORTLY!
  • 100. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    KEY TERMS
    angiosperm
    abiotic
    adaptation
    antibiotics
    biotic
    carnivore
    chlorophyll
    classification
    commensalism
    competitor
    conifers
    consumer
    dichotomous
    ectothermic
    endoskeleton
    endothermic
    exoskeleton
    food chain
    food web
    fungi
    habitat
    herbivore
    interdependent
    invertebrates
    86
  • 101. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    87
    KEY TERMS
    key
    kingdom
    moneran
    mutualism
    nutrients
    omnivore
    organism
    parasitism
    photosynthesis
    population
    predator
    prey
    producer
    protist
    symbiosis
    taxonomist
    vertebrates
  • 102. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
    Copy and complete the following sentences using words from the list of key terms.
    The of an organism is where it lives. There will be both and components.
    web is made up of many interconnected .
    The energy that moves through a food chain comes first from the .
    trap this energy in a process called photosynthesis.
    The are consumed by consumer organisms. Consumer organisms may be
    grouped as , or depending on whether they eat
    plant material only, animal material only, or some of both.
    Scientists classify all living things into five kingdoms called ,
    , , and .
    The interdependence of organisms is called . benefits one of
    the organisms without affecting the other. benefits both organisms in
    the relationship. In one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
    An is a vertebrate whose body temperature is influenced by the
    temperature of its surroundings. An maintains a constant internal
    temperature.
    key ideas
    88
  • 103. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
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    Coffey,R.Spence, R& Spenceley, M. 2009 Heinemann Queensland Science Project – Science 8 A Contextual Approach. Harcourt Education. Port Melbourne Victoria