5 All living things (organisms) have a place where they live. THIS IS CALLED THEIR HABITAT. For example, your habitat could include school, your home and the places you shop for all the items you require to live. What is a habitat? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
Every living thing has particular requirements, and will live only where these requirements can be met. Some of the conditions a habitat needs to provide could include: • a source of food • water • shelter and living space • mating partners for reproduction • gases such as oxygen. 6 Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
What are environmental conditions? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 12 The term environment is used to describe all of the conditions that an organism has to cope with in its habitat. Many factors may shape and change an environment, including: Will you have these animals in your Zoo?
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS the temperature whether it is wet or dry whether it is windy the quality of the air the water quality the type of soil the plants, animals, bacteria and fungi that live there Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 13
LET’S ALL LIVE TOGETHER Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 14 YES!!!!!
A pond Ecosystem Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 15
The biosphere is the place where all life as we know it exists. It consists of the Earth and its atmosphere. The biosphere is made up of many ecosystems. In an ecosystem organisms react with each other and their environment in a balanced way. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 16
Ecology- The study of the interactions between living things and their environment. Ecologists are scientists who study these interactions. www.princeton.edu www.thebignm.net Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 17
3 TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS ORGANISMS IN AN ECOSYSTEM ARE INTERDEPENDENT Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 18 THE ROAD TO KNOWLEDGE - LEARN
THREE TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS 1.COMMENSALISM: This is an interaction between two organisms where only one of them benefits, but the other one is not affected. For example, on the Great Barrier Reef there are small colourful fish called clown fish. They are immune to the stings from sea anemones. The clown fish lives among the tentacles of the sea anemone and is protected from predators as well as getting food from the scraps left by the anemone. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 19
CLOWN FISH IN THE TENTACLES OF A SEA ANEMONE Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 20
MUTUALISM Have you ever heard the saying ‘you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours’? This is what mutualism is all about. Both of the organisms benefit from the relationship and neither is harmed. In many cases neither species can exist without the other. The lichen consists of a fungus and an alga growing together. The fungus gets food from the photosynthesising alga and the alga gets a place to live. It also gets mineral nutrients from the fungus Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 21
A LICHEN growing with some mosses on a rock. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 22
PARASITISM This is an interaction where one species (the parasite) lives on or in the host (another species of plant or animal). The parasite obtains food and shelter from its host, but often harms or may even kill the host in return. Heartworm is a parasite that lives in the hearts of dogs.They breed rapidly and when present in large numbers can clog up the dog’s heart. The worm uses the dog for shelter and food, but in the end the dog often dies. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 23
HEARTWORM IN DOGS WWW.fortheloveofpaws.com WWW.placervillevet.com Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 24
PARTIAL PARASITE Mistletoe is using this tree ( a casuarina) to obtain water and some nutrients, but it still carries out photosynthesis to make its own food. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 25
QUESTIONS 5.1p 130 & 131 Manual Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 26 Good luck!
GUESS WHO’S COMING FOR DINNER? Food is one of the most important needs of all living things. For an organism to live in a particular habitat, that habitat must provide adequate food or nutrients. Plants manufacture their own food. Nutrients= substance that help plants or animals to grow Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 27
GUESS WHO’S COMING FOR DINNER? Animals must consume other animals or plants to get their food. Animals that eat other animals are called PREDATORS of that animal. Example; Dingo will hunt hopping mice as PREY Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 28
PREY – CREATURES THAT AN ANIMAL HUNTS AND EATS Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 29
COMPETITORS If two animals eat the same sort of food and they live in the same habitat, they must compete for their food. Australia Rabbits 1830 www.abc.net.au http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s2551612.htm What do you say & think??? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 30
FOOD CHAINS: The wombat and the Rabbit compete for food, shelter, living space and water. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 31
32 FOOD CHAINS Plants and animals use energy in growing and in day-to-day activity. Plants get most of their energy from the Sun; animals get their energy from the food they eat. For example, grass uses the energy from the Sun to grow. A grasshopper may eat the grass to get the energy it needs, and a kookaburra might eat several grasshoppers to get the energy it needs. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
33 FOOD CHAINS When the kookaburra dies, bacteria and fungi will help to decompose its body, returning the nutrients to the soil and helping more grass to grow. This flow of energy from organism to organism is called a FOOD CHAIN. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
Most food chains start with the SUN, and usually end with bacteria or Fungi Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 34 A food chain is usually shown as a simple flowchart like this: Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> kookaburra -> fungi The direction of the flow of energy is shown by the arrows.
Producers, consumers and decomposers The Sun gives out light energy which the plants collect using a chemical called chlorophyll. It is the chlorophyll that gives plants their green colour. Plants then use the energy they have trapped, along with water and carbon dioxide, to make the carbohydrateglucose. Oxygen is also produced in this process, which is called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 35
Photosynthesis is often written as a chemical equation like this: carbon dioxide + water sunlight -> glucose + oxygen chlorophyll Because plants can produce their own food they are called producers. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 36
PLANTS MAKE OWN FOOD Make food from very simple substances. These are carbon dioxide gas from the air and water from the soil. Energy from sunlight is needed to combine these into sugars Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 37
CONSUMERS:HERBIVORES Animals are unable to make their own food and must consume (eat) plants or other animals to obtain food. Cows that eat only plants are known as HERBIVORES.www.wallpapers-diq.com Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 38
CONSUMERS: CARNIVORES Lions that eat only other animals are called CARNIVORES.www.psychology.wikia.com Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 39
WWW.masterfile.com CONSUMERS: OMNIVORES Those like humans that eat both plants and animals are called OMNIVORES. If a plant or animal dies without being eaten, its body is broken down by DECOMPOSERS. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 40
CONSUMERS DECOMPOSERS are living things such as bacteria and fungi that are able to get the energy they need as they break down dead matter. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 41 WWW.sheppardsoftware.com
DECOMPOSERS In the food chain Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> kookaburra -> fungi The grass is the producer, the grasshopper is called a first-order consumer and the kookaburra is a second-order consumer. If we were to add a snake, which eats the grasshopper and in turn is eaten by the kookaburra, our food chain would look like this: Sun -> grass -> grasshopper -> snake -> kookaburra -> fungi The snake has become the second-order consumer, kookaburra is now a third-order consumer. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 42
FOOD WEB IDENTIFIES WHO EATS WHOM IN ECOSYSTEM Joining a number of food chains together produces a food web. Changes in food web occur as the population of different organisms increase, decrease or disappear altogether. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 43
FOOD WEB p135 Interactive Tutorial Chapter 5 Food Web Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 44
QUESTIONS 5.2 p 135 Manual Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 45 THIS IS HOW YOU KNOW..................... YOU KNOW THE CONTENT OF THE WORK..........
Biologists ?(scientists who study living things) Living things • are able to move • need oxygen • need food or nutrients • produce and eliminate wastes • grow • respond to changes • reproduce Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 46
ORGANISMS Euglena (Water Otganism) A CELL IS THE BASIC UNIT OF ORGANISMS, AND ALL ORGANISMS ARE MADE OF ONE OR MORE CELLS.(Multicellular) Some organisms consist of only one cell(Unicellular) like Euglena (you –GLEEN – a) Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 47
CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 48 Taxonomists now classify living things into FIVE KINGDOMS based on their structural and functional similarities or differences. TAXONOMISTS –Scientists who classify living things into groups. To make it easier to talk about the living things in the biosphere, taxonomists (scientists who classify living things) classify them INTO KINGDOMS.
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 49 NAME THE FIVE KINGDOMS OF LIFE?
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE KINGDOMS Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 51
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS – MORE LEVELS THAN JUST THE KINGDOMS Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 52
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMANS- Homo sapiens Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 53 www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk
Homo Sapiens- humans www.yapa.org.au Does everybody in the picture fit in the human CLASSIFICATION? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 54
A system of naming living things was developed by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1750s. In this system the scientific name of every living thing has two parts that together name. For humans the genus name is Homo. Humans share this name with related species such as Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis. The second part of the name indicates the species to which we belong. This is a descriptive name. Homo erectus literally means the human that stood upright. Homo sapiens means the intelligent human. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 55 NAMING LIVING THINGS
Making a key Objects can be grouped, or classified, using a key. In a key there are usually two options for each characteristic. Dichotomous means divided into two parts, so such keys are called dichotomous keys. Sometimes keys are written as a chart and sometimes they are written as words. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 56
Keys - how to use it Watch interactive tutorial Chapter 5 Using Keys Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 57
QUESTIONS 5.3 p 141 Manual Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 58 Learning is the Key to success!
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A TYPICAL ANIMAL AND TYPICAL PLANT 59 Plant Animal Feeds on ready-made organic food Has feeding structures such as mouth and Lacks chlorophyll Lacks leaves Lacks roots Moves around Has nerves and muscles Has receptors such as eyes and nose Makes its own food by photosynthesis Lacks feeding structures Has chlorophyll Has leaves Has roots Does not move around Lacks nerves and muscles Lacks receptor organs Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems
OBTAINING AND USING FOODCELLULAR RESPIRATION Why do animals need to be able to move? Animals cannot make their own food, so they need to be able to move around to find other animals or plants to eat. Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. They do not need to move around to find the raw materials. However, because sunlight is required, plants can only photosynthesise in the daytime. The sugars that are formed during photosynthesis maybe stored in a plant in the form of starch. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 60
Photosynthesis occurs when sunlight isabsorbed by the green chlorophyll in plants. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 61
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Both plants and animals need energy for their everyday lives. The energy contained in food is released in a process called cellular respiration. Plants use the glucose that they make in photosynthesis for this process. In animals the glucose comes from the food they eat, which is first broken down in their digestive systems. We can write a summary of what happens in cellular respiration: glucose + oxygen->energy + carbon dioxide + water As you can see, this process needs oxygen. During daylight plants usually have a ready supply of oxygen. Why is this so? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 62
OXYGEN IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS Animals have to obtain oxygen from their environment, and are adapted in different ways to do this. An earthworm absorbs oxygen through its moist skin. Fish have gills that absorb dissolved oxygen from the water that passes over them. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 63
WWW.landonyorkes.blogspot.com Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 64 Human lungs allow the uptake of oxygen into the body. The oxygen is transported in the blood to body cells where it is used in cellular respiration. Fish have gills to enable them to take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.
All land-living vertebrates, including humans, have lungs. When they inhale (breathe in) their lungs fill with air. Oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide passes from the body into the lungs. When these animals exhale (breathe out) they excrete the carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product for animals, but for plants it is the raw material of photosynthesis. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 65
LET’S LOOK AT PLANTS To classify plants, taxonomists look at their structure and how they reproduce. Using this information they have worked out the following key. A CLASSIFICATION key can be used to sort the plant kingdom into smaller groups with similar characteristics. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 66
PLANT KINGDOM:TWO MAIN GROUPS Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems TRACHEOPHYTES BRYOPYTES Have veins – true roots, stem and leaves. Includes flowering plants, ferns and conifers. Called ANGIOSPERMS Example Fruit trees, cereal crop, & vegetables Produce fruit, flowers, and seeds. Each part of plant has a function No veins - Without true roots, stem or leaves. Example Mosses. Have structure to carry out same functions. Mainly found in damp places. 2 to 3 cm tall. Reproduce by spores. 67
PLANT KINGDOM Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 68
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 1.Cones of Conifer2. Fern3. Mosses 69
Table 5.3 Parts and functions of flowering plants Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 70
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS Animals can be grouped on the basis of whether they are VERTEBRATES OR INVERTEBRATES. VERTEBRATES :Animals that have an endoskeleton or backbone inside their bodies.(VERte-brates). INVERTEBRATES: Animals with no skeletons, such as molluscs or worms, or those with a jointed external skeleton (exoskeleton) such as beetles or flies. 71
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS Another way of grouping animals is by sensitivity to TEMPERATURE. Birds and mammals are able to maintain constant body temperatures even when the temperature of the surroundings changes. They are said to be ENDOTHERMIC. 72
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems A CLOSER LOOK AT ANIMALS Another way of grouping animals is by sensitivity to TEMPERATURE. Fish, reptiles and amphibians have a body temperature that is affected by their surroundings. They are called ECTOTHERMIC. 73
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems ANIMALKINGDOM 75
QUESTIONS 5.4 p 146 Manual Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 76 YOU ARE ALL WINNERS! THANKS FOR HARD WORK.
Other kingdoms: FUNGI, PROTISTA AND MONERA KINGDOM FUNGI Fungi range in form from the mould that grows on bread to the mushrooms we eat. Fungi have no chlorophyll, so they cannot use light from the Sun to make their own food. Fungi reproduce by means of spores. Some fungi live on dead organic matter. They are decomposer organisms. Some fungi are parasites living on plants and animals and gaining their nourishment from them. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 77
TOADSTOOLS, PUFFBALLS, TRUFFLES, YEAST, BREAD MOULD AND SKIN INFECTIONS LIKE TINEA ARE ALL TYPE S OF FUNGI. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 78
Kingdom MONERA (1) Members of this kingdom are called monerans, and you need a powerful microscope to see them. They are single-celled and have a simple cell structure without a distinct nucleus. Bacteria and cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) fall into this group. Bacteria live in many different places, many of which are wet and warm. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 79
Kingdom MONERA / BACTERIA Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 80
Kingdom MONERA (2) Some, like sulphur bacteria and cyanobacteria, can make their own food, but most rely on other organisms for food. Decomposers break down the bodies of dead organisms. Some monerans live inside living organisms, causing diseases such as tetanus, food poisoning and cholera; others are essential for health. Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 81
Kingdom PROTISTA Have you seen seaweed at the beach? Seaweeds are examples of ALGAE. They can make their own food. Do they have stems, roots and leaves? Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 82
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 83 Some protists have structures that enable them to move through water. Other protists do not contain chlorophyll. They catch and eat food from the water around them. They are more animal-like and are called protozoa. Some protists have hair-like structures that help them move through the water. Most protists are not harmful to humans, but some cause disease. These diseases tend to be more common in tropical climates.
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 84 For example, amoebic dysentery, which causes severe pain and diarrhoea, is caused by drinking water contaminated with protists. This is why it is important to drink only boiled or bottled water in some countries where there is not a guaranteed clean water supply. Diseases caused by these organisms are relatively few in Australia because of good sanitation.
QUESTIONS 5.5 p 151Chapter Review p 152 &153 Manual Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 85 DO YOUR BEST, TEST ING SHORTLY!
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 87 KEY TERMS key kingdom moneran mutualism nutrients omnivore organism parasitism photosynthesis population predator prey producer protist symbiosis taxonomist vertebrates
Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems Copy and complete the following sentences using words from the list of key terms. The of an organism is where it lives. There will be both and components. web is made up of many interconnected . The energy that moves through a food chain comes first from the . trap this energy in a process called photosynthesis. The are consumed by consumer organisms. Consumer organisms may be grouped as , or depending on whether they eat plant material only, animal material only, or some of both. Scientists classify all living things into five kingdoms called , , , and . The interdependence of organisms is called . benefits one of the organisms without affecting the other. benefits both organisms in the relationship. In one organism benefits and the other is harmed. An is a vertebrate whose body temperature is influenced by the temperature of its surroundings. An maintains a constant internal temperature. key ideas 88
BIBLIOGRAPHY Madre Nortje Year 8 Ecosystems 89 Coffey,R.Spence, R& Spenceley, M. 2009 Heinemann Queensland Science Project – Science 8 A Contextual Approach. Harcourt Education. Port Melbourne Victoria