A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACHTO CITIZEN RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENTIN E-GOVERNMENT CONTEXTNorshidah Mohamed (Presenter)International Business School Universiti Teknologi Malaysiahttp://www.ibs.utm.myNor Shahriza Abdul KarimPrince Sultan University, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaMohamed Jalaldeen Mohamed RaziDepartment Information Systems, International Islamic University MalaysiaInternational Conference on Ebusiness and EgovernmentIzmir, Turkey 27-28 April 2013
2OUTLINE• Introduction• Literature review & related theories• Propositions & conceptual framework• Conclusion
3INTRODUCTION• Customer Relationship Management (CRM) isthe practice of creating and maintainingrelationships with customers that result inincreasing companies’ market share andreducing costs in private organizations.• The concept of CRM applied in governmentorganization – Citizen RelationshipManagement (CzRM).
4DRIVERS OF CzRM• Globalization• Internet• Single view of citizens• Demands from citizens – less bureaucracy,more agility, networked, interconnected, lessfocused on structure, no silos, one-stop,quality.
6CzRM DEFINITION & FEATURES• “a cluster of management practices, channeland technological solutions that apply privatesector Customer Relationship Management(CRM) in the public sector” (Schellong, 2006)• a one-stop channel that is capable ofproviding all government services via theirpreferred channel.
7APPLYING BSC IN CzRM• Balanced Scorecard (BSC) (Kaplan and Norton,1996) is a solution for monitoring actualperformance against set targets.• 4 perspectives when used in privateorganizations – financial, customer, internalbusiness processes, and learning and growth.• 4 perspectives when used in governmentorganizations – financial, citizen, internalbusiness processes, and learning and growth.
8MEASURES• Financial perspective – concerns with how thegovernment should look to citizens and otherstakeholders e.g. return-on-investment andeconomic-value-added of CzRM projects.• Citizen perspective – addresses issues regardinghow citizens view the government e.g. citizens’satisfaction with government services includingat governments’ Websites
9MEASURES .. cont’• Internal business process perspective –concerns with the processes the governmentmust institute to excel in its service deliverye.g. turnaround time for conceptualizingimprovements in service delivery and actualdelivery of services to citizens and citizens’problems solved.
10MEASURES .. cont’• Learning and growth perspective – addressesissues concerning with how the governmentcontinues to improve and create value forcitizens. Measures concern with government’shuman capital development programs for itsemployees e.g. employees’ satisfaction,training and skills.
11KNOWLEDGE & KM• Knowledge is an asset• Need to manage it like any other asset• Knowledge Management (KM) –“development, storage, retrieval, anddissemination of information and expertisewithin an organization to support its businessperformance” (Gupta et al., 2000).
12KNOWLEDGECHARACTERISTICS• Explicit knowledge– knowledge that can be codified in a tangibleform (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).– transmittable in formal and systematiclanguage
13KNOWLEDGECHARACTERISTICS .. cont’• Knowledge – explicit & tacit (Polyani, 1962) .• Explicit and tacit knowledge – essential for thesuccess of any organization (Nonaka, 1991;Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).• Tacit knowledge–people possess–hard to formalize and communicate(Nonaka, 1994).
14KM STRATEGY• Overall approach an organization intends totake to align its knowledge resources andcapabilities to the intellectual requirements ofits business strategy (Meron˜o-Cerdan etal., 2007)
15KM STRATEGY .. cont’• Two types : personalization (human) (for tacit) &codification (system) (for explicit)Person-to-person approach, e.g. brainstorming, where knowledge is shared not onlyface-to-face, but also by electroniccommunications, thus building networks ofpeople (Meron˜o-Cerdan et al., 2007).Knowledge is stored in documents, manuals,databases and electronic repositories.Personalization Codification
16KM CULTURE• Should support people to create & shareknowledge.CollaborationInterpersonal trustLearning corporatecultureOrganizational strategyaligned with KMManagement support
17KM PROCESS• Alavi and Leindner (2001) defined four basicKM processes : creating, storing/retrieving,transferring, and applying knowledge.• Lee and Choi (2003) defined KM processes :knowledge creation and knowledge sharing.
18KM PROCESS .. cont’• Menguc et al. (2013) defined knowledgecreation as the collective ability of teammembers to gather, analyze, interpret, andreconfigure customer-related knowledge.• Ipe (2003) refers knowledge sharing as the actof making knowledge available to otherswithin the team
19KM TECHNOLOGICALINFRASTRUCTURE• IT is enabler of KM (Kuo and Ye, 2010)GovernmentPortalLearningsystemsGroupwareIT supportCall Center
21PROPOSITIONS• P1: Government agencies that emphasize onknowledge characteristics (explicit and tacit)have extensive citizen relationship managementpractices.• P2: Government agencies with knowledgemanagement strategy have extensive citizenrelationship management practices.• P3: Government agencies with knowledgemanagement culture have extensive citizenrelationship management practices.
22PROPOSITIONS .. cont’• P4: Government agencies with KM processeshave extensive citizen relationshipmanagement practices.• P5: Government agencies with knowledgemanagement technological infrastructurehave extensive citizen relationshipmanagement practices.
24CONCLUSION• A conceptual framework is proposed to link toCzRM using KM approach• For researchers, this clarifies the relationshipsbetween KM & CzRM.• For government practitioners, this providesinsights into KM elements that may be consideredwhen managing citizen relations.• The paper presents an initial conceptualization ofassociation between KM & CzRM.
25CONCLUSION .. cont’• Future studies to consider exploration, test andvalidation of propositions.