Entrepreneurial Learning: from Novice to Expert! Knowledge Content? or Structure? Perceived Barriers? Pattern recognition? Deep Beliefs (role identity?) Importance of understanding entrepreneurial emotion Understanding cognitive change...
Two Ways to Learn Behavioristic - fill the bucket -define the buckets Constructivistic - light the fire (or fan it!)- assume knowledge structures evolve (often discontinuously)
Change in what we know (content)Novice Entrepreneurial Mindset Expert Change in how we know it (knowledge structures) Change in Deep Beliefs Critical Developmental Experiences 11
Key Mechanisms What truly induces transformative learning? Key developmental experiences? What do entrepreneurship classes actually do? HOW do we support? (ecosystem?)
Transformative Learning• There is excellent theory to support – Constructivism – Mental prototyping, role identity – Cognitive developmental psych – Cognitive & social neuroscience• There is excellent empirical evidence – Even in entrepreneurial settings! – Changes in key mental prototypes • And a lot more data about to be released • 2011: ISEEO, GUESSS; 2012: Neergaard
Keys to Transformative Learning• “Book Throwing” – Constructivist versus Behaviorist – Entrep educators have always been constructivistic (cue Voltaire)• Neuro-entrepreneurship?* – Neuroplasticity – Emotions – Deep beliefs (Neo, take the...)• Centrality of Action * if curious http://www.slideshare.net/norriskrueger/icsb- 2010-neuroentrepreneurship
Accelerating Learning• Problem-Based Learning (“authentic” questions)• Two overlapping themes:• IMMERSION – Action before thinking• MENTORING – Learn the right lessons – Expert mentors – Peer mentors – Or THREE? Ecosystem that supports all of this? – Social infrastructure; cognitive infrastructure – http://bit/ly/EcoSys
So what IS this “entrepreneurial mindset” anyway??• Thoughts? Which are the hardest to change? – (More important for here... what can we measure?)Seeing opportunities• Seeing self as entrepreneur (role identity)• Strategic thinking• Dot-connecting / pattern recognition• Effectual thinking (bricolage, improv)• Optimist (attributional)• Metacognition• Counterfactual thinking• Bias for action (vs. FoF!)• Value creation as sine qua non (Market-pull?)
Replicable models of entrepreneurial learning Key entrepreneurial training methods maximize entrepreneurial learning deep, transformative learning Existing practices that demonstrably grow entrepreneurial thinking Concrete examples: program level course level
Existing Best Practices that demonstrably grow entrepreneurial thinking... Action learning e.g., Living cases Problem-based learning Counterfactual thinking Explicit script building Active reflection (collaborative)
But…. Not just universities It is the entire ecosystem Follow the entrepreneurs Help them!
Immersion/Mentoring Chalmers/Gothenburg NU Singapore The Foundry (Utah) http://business.utah.edu/node/1203/ TechStars (www.techstars.org) Startup Weekend www.startupweekend.org Lean Startup http://www.slideshare.net/sblank/successful -entrepreneurship-1
Critical Implications For teaching? For training? For practice? For public policy? (and... for research?)
Implications: Teaching Need to be constructivistic Need to understand entrepreneurial thinking Need to understand expert thinking Need to address deep beliefs Instructor MUST understand – or share- the expert mindset.
Implications: Public Policy Entrepreneurial Potential = F(quantity and quality of potential entrepreneurs) Promote educational activities that nurture expert entrepreneurial thinking . Support similar mechanisms for growing an entrepreneurial community Program leaders MUST understand – or share- the expert mindset.
Implications: for Entrepreneurs Work toward expert thinking – lifelong process? Understand their own deep beliefs Good entrepreneurs are good at dot- connecting; great entrepreneurs... Make sure your advisors understand the “Entrepreneur Mind”(tm).
To those who want to really make a difference: We know how to teach individuals (and organizations and communities) to think more entrepreneurially. We now understand why and how. How can we translate these insights into helping communities worldwide?
If you want to get involved in projects – research or applied: Norris Krueger: email@example.com @entrep_thinking Facebook LinkedIn
Implications: Research Focus on expert entrepreneurial thinking Focus on emotions Focus on cognitive change Focus on deep cognitive change Take advantage of: Multi-disciplinary approaches New tools – theory & method Take advantage of... us
Research Agenda:Antecedents & Consequences Antecedents Impact of teaching/training methods Impact of instructor characteristics (e.g., mental models) Impact of context (including students) Developmental experiences?
Research Agenda:Antecedents & Consequences Consequences Change in intent (Informed intent?) Change in knowledge content? Change in knowledge structure? Change in deep beliefs? How will we know? Better dot-connecting? Amygdala lights up differently?