Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposaltitle:Does Entrepreneur...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of pro...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Overview       Research into entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneu...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313entrepreneurs), Sweden (technology commercialization students) and gl...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Sponsor RationalesWhy MED?Does entrepreneurship education work? More ...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Why PTC?This symposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact of ...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Key PresentersUniversity of Twente VentureLab -Aard Groen [presenter]...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313   5. Training evaluations in which entrepreneurs give their opinion ...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313The first has a positive effect of entrepreneurial intentions but its...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313reason to not only measure traditional know-how or know-what factors ...
Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Knowledge is conceptualized as a transferrable, retainable and re-use...
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Measuring the Impact of Entrepreneurial Training

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AoM 2013 proposal for a panel symposium on measuring the impact of entrepreneurship training - panelists from Twente, Chalmers, Aalto, Malaysia, Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship and PACE plus top global trainer from EO. The first 3 programs are also among the very best in using students for technology commercialization.

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Measuring the Impact of Entrepreneurial Training

  1. 1. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposaltitle:Does Entrepreneurship Teaching/Training Actually Work?A Symposium on Developing MetricsSponsors: Lead: ENT Division Also relevant: Teaching (TTC), Practice (PTC), TIMChair/organizer: Norris Krueger Participating countries/programs: [I = invited]Finland: Aalto UniversitySweden: Chalmers University of TechnologyGlobal: Entrepreneurs Organization (EO):Netherlands: University of TwenteDenmark: Danish Foundation for EntrepreneurshipDenmark/EU: PACE/Aarhus UniversityMalaysia/USA: Stevens Institute of Technology/UKM Discussant/Provocateur: Jon Potter, OECD Office of Entrepreneurship [I] Discussant/Provocateur: Thom Ruhe, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation [I] Discussant/Provocateur: Dianne HB Welsh, UNC-Greensboro, Technology TransferSocietyAbstractDoes entrepreneurship education work? More important, how can we make it work? And howcan we measure the impact? This symposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact ofentrepreneurial education in ways that we have rarely seen in single papers, let alone bringingtogether some of the best programs in the world. These speakers are all from deeply experientialprograms and almost all from programs whose experiential activities center intensively aroundtechnology commercialization. If scholars and educators want to know how to “move the needle” 1
  2. 2. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of programs doing enviable work andsome fascinating, robust tools for measuring the impact of experiential entrepreneurshipeducation. Creating viable new businesses AND creating deep entrepreneurial thinkers? Thesepanelists will show you the state of the art of what we know about doing that and the immensepotential for future research on how do we grow the expert entrepreneurial mindset and measurethat growth. 2
  3. 3. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Overview Research into entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurial education has increasinglyrecognized that to be effective requires transformative learning at a very deep level. Theliterature on how we learn to become experts (e.g., Gladwell’s recent book, Outliers) reinforcesthat one cannot learn to think like an expert without dramatic changes in how we organize whatwe know. Knowing more is simply not enough; experts organize their knowledge far differently,often in ways that are clearly not obvious to novices. Entrepreneurship education and training isno different. Why Assess Impact? In a world that increasingly recognizes the need for increases inentrepreneurial thinking to support economic growth, it seems imperative that we identify whatmethods are most effective at this transformational learning. It is equally imperative that weidentify what methods are less effective, even counterproductive. We propose here to integrateexisting theoretical and especially empirical field work to help us to (a) understand better whyand how our best pedagogies work, (b) why and how other pedagogies do not, and (c) createmechanisms to allow us to map pedagogical methods to corresponding deep cognitive changes.But we need good metrics. The implications from great metrics? Imagine the ability to match pedagogicalexercises to learning needs –at a deep transformative level. If education research in general isany predictor, we will eventually be able to not only identify which of our tools serve to makewhich specific cognitive changes. For example, if trainees or students are weak at counterfactualthinking (per Gaglio) what exercises are most effective at providing the needed cognitive scriptsand maps. We all want to believe that entrepreneurship teaching and training matters. Mattersdeeply. However, metrics have been in short supply, especially when we move past tests ofknowledge and skills. Several programs around the globe are tackling this with rigorous researchprojects that simultaneously provide great practical value. We will be able to improveentrepreneurial training but we first need to take a rigorous look at the cognitive impact ofentrepreneurship training methods. This PDW begins that effort in earnest with four relativelynew projects from the Netherlands (with tech entrepreneurs in an incubator), Denmark (youth 3
  4. 4. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313entrepreneurs), Sweden (technology commercialization students) and globally (the renownedEntrepreneurs Organizations peer learning groups. We offer here short examples of the research projects attached to each initiative, however,the PDW presentations will focus on these as opportunities: Opportunities to identify tools that the audience can take home Opportunities for the audience to offer advice to the participants Opportunities to identify additional collaborations and possible extensions.To this end, we have brought together several of the best initiatives existing today from well-established programs like Chalmers to a brand-new project in Malaysia. We have invited expertdiscussants from OECD and the Kauffman Foundation.We fully intend for this to become a community of practice – we also want to learn what othersare doing as well as share the very best of what is out there. 4
  5. 5. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Sponsor RationalesWhy MED?Does entrepreneurship education work? More important, how can we make it work? And howcan we measure the inpact? This symposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact ofentrepreneurial education in ways that we have rarely seen in single papers, let alone bringingtogether some of the best programs in the world. These speakers are all from deeply experientialprograms and almost all from programs whose experiential activities center intensively aroundtechnology commercialization. If scholars and educators want to know how to “move the needle”in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of programs doing enviable work andsome fascinating, robust tools for measuring the impact of experiential entrepreneurshipeducation.Why ENT?Does entrepreneurship education work? More important, how can we make it work? And howcan we measure the inpact? This symposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact ofentrepreneurial education in ways that we have rarely seen in single papers, let alone bringingtogether some of the best programs in the world. These speakers are all all from deeplyexperiential programs and almost all from programs whose experiential activities center aroundtechnology commercialization. If scholars and educators want to know how to “move the needle”in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of programs doing enviable work andsome fascinating, robust tools for measuring the impact of experiential entrepreneurshipeducation.Why TIM?Technology commercialization-based entrepreneurial learning – we are looking deeply here.Thissymposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact of entrepreneurial education, all fromdeeply experiential programs and almost all from programs whose experiential activities centeraround technology commercialization. If scholars and educators want to know how to “move theneedle” in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of programs doing enviablework and some fascinating, robust tools for measuring the impact of experientialentrepreneurship education. 5
  6. 6. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Why PTC?This symposium focuses on measuring rigorously the impact of entrepreneurial education inways that we have rarely seen in single papers, let alone bringing together some of the bestprograms in the world. These speakers are all from deeply experiential programs and almost allfrom programs whose experiential activities center around technology commercialization. Ifscholars and educators want to know how to “move the needle” in turning ideas into reality, thispanel will show both a set of programs doing enviable work and some fascinating, robust toolsfor measuring the impact of experiential entrepreneurship education.Why Strategic Doing Initiative?Creating viable new businesses AND creating deep entrepreneurial thinkers? This symposiumfocuses on measuring rigorously the impact of entrepreneurial education, all from deeplyexperiential programs and almost all from programs whose experiential activities center aroundtechnology commercialization. If scholars and educators want to know how to “move the needle”in turning ideas into reality, this panel will show both a set of programs doing enviable work andsome fascinating, robust tools for measuring the impact of experiential entrepreneurshipeducation. 6
  7. 7. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Key PresentersUniversity of Twente VentureLab -Aard Groen [presenter], Jeroen Kraajibrink, Gabi KaffkaMeasuring impact of entrepreneurship support in an integrated high-tech pre-incubator Initiated and executed by the Nikos Institute of the University of Twente, VentureLab is apre-incubator facility at which entrepreneurs – even without business idea – are facilitated instarting up their high-tech venture. It offers an intensive and integrated training and coachingprogram, aimed at developing the necessary competencies to create a high-technology, high-growth company. It also provides entrepreneurs office facilities and access to newly developedtechnologies, venture capitalists and relevant networks of (international) companies andscientists. Measuring the impact of an integrated program such as VentureLab comes with at leastthree major challenges. The first is that there is a distinction between the impact on theentrepreneur and the impact on the venture. Hence, in measuring impact there are at least twodependent variables. Second, the most important impact may only become visible after a delay ofa number of years – when we can see to what extent the entrepreneurs and ventures have grownsuccessfully. Third, because entrepreneurs do not operate in isolation and because they receive anintegrated offer, it is challenging to measure the individual impact of parts of the program. To address these three challenges, VentureLab Twente is set up as a quasi-experimentwith extremely rich forms of data collection throughout and after the program. The followingdata are collected:Dependent variable: entrepreneur’s and venture performance: 1. Three four-monthly panel presentations in which an independent business panel assesses the quality of the entrepreneurs and their venture. 2. Three four-monthly surveys in which entrepreneurs report about their individual progress and the progress of their venture. 3. Yearly follow-up surveys and Chamber of Commerce data to assess venture growth and performance.Independent variables: attributing impact to elements of the program: 4. Attendance of trainings and coach meetings in order to assess the extent to which entrepreneurs have actually participated. 7
  8. 8. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313 5. Training evaluations in which entrepreneurs give their opinion on a particular training in terms of quality and usefulness. 6. Weekly diary in which entrepreneurs mention what they have learned in the past week, and the results achieved in that week. 7. Exit interviews and focus groups in which entrepreneurs reflect on the quality and usefulness of the program.Control variables: 8. Intake interview and survey in which entrepreneurs report about their experience, ambitions, capabilities and personality.Since its inception in 2009, 200 entrepreneurs have entered the VentureLab program. This hasresulted in a voluminous and rich data set that forms the basis for various PhD projects. Researchis currently ongoing and the first results on impact are expected to be available shortly.Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise, Kare MobergImpact of Experiential Learning on Young Entrepreneurs – from ABC to PhDDifferent educational levels have different learning goals. This must obviously be taken intoaccount when it comes to evaluation projects. Still, there is a need for comparability betweenevaluation projects that target these different levels. The Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship– Young Enterprise has launched a major research project which measures the effects ofentrepreneurship education at basic, secondary as well as tertiary level.At basic level the focus is on the learning process, in particular how entrepreneurship educationaffects if the students internalize and take responsibility for their learning process, and how thisin turn affects their connectedness to school, classmates, educators and society. The survey isbased on two rounds of data collection. In all 1312 randomly selected 10th graders (574) and 9thgraders (738), are included in the analysis. The effects of two approaches to entrepreneurshipeducation are compared: the cognitive skill oriented “Entrepreneurship as a tradesmanship”approach and the non-cognitive skill oriented “Entrepreneurship as a method” approach. 8
  9. 9. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313The first has a positive effect of entrepreneurial intentions but its effects on school attachmentare negative; the opposite is true for the latter. At secondary and tertiary levels the evaluationprojects are mainly based on the effect that entrepreneurship education has on entrepreneurialself-efficacy (ESE), and how this affects entrepreneurial behaviours. The evaluations are set upas quasi experiments with tests before, during and after the education. At university level, 15master-programmes are included in the sample, 7 in the control group and 8 with a strong focuson entrepreneurship. Two rounds of data have been collected with a total of 1256 responses. Thisallows us to analyze the effects that different educational designs have on different ESEdimensions, in particular regarding their focus on the creation and discovery approaches.In order to do this, however, we had to develop a new ESE scale which is not jargon biased(possible to understand for students in the control group), and which covers five different skill-sets: creativity, planning, marshaling of resources, financial literacy and managing ambiguity.Chalmers University of Technology Martin Lackeus [presenter], co-authors: Karen MiddletonWilliams, Mats LundqvistMeasuring Entrepreneurship Education Performance The School of Entrepreneurship at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg,Sweden has since 1997 championed an action-based approach to technology entrepreneurship.Classes of about 30 selected student per year (approximately 50% from technology/science and50% from business) work with real venture creation during their second year in teams of three,trying to develop IP from technology transfer into a viable start-up. Over the years, performance measurement of this and other educational venture creationprograms has focused on startup outcome or on individual level learning (through questionnairesor more interactive evaluations). Although there arguably are significant effects coming from realventures being created – learning-wise and other-wise, you could also argue that outcome-basedmeasurement in combination with traditional individual-level assessments could and should becomplemented by other learning categories, such as team-level based and context-based (i.e. howmuch students interacts with and draws from context). On the individual level, there is also 9
  10. 10. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313reason to not only measure traditional know-how or know-what factors in venture creationprograms. Rather, know-why can arguably be the most important learning outcome for nascententrepreneurs to figure out – a concept related as much to emotionality and action as it is totraditional cognitive learning. This session draws upon 15 years of experience from and research around action-basedentrepreneurship education that among other things have produced a quarter of all the revenuethat university incubated technology ventures generated 2010 in Swedish. Measurements in fourcategories will be addressed – the individual-based, group-based, context-based and outcome-based. Focus will be on evaluating the development of entrepreneurial competence andentrepreneurial ecosystems and on the appreciation of “know-why” in entrepreneurship. At Chalmers, we investigate links between strong emotions and entrepreneurial learningoutcomes in a formal learning environment consisting of an action-based entrepreneurshipeducation program. Students’ own experiences were quantitatively and qualitatively assessedduring their participation in an entrepreneurship program where they were expected to start a realventure as formal part of curriculum. This kind of learning environment has previously beencharacterised as an emotional roller coaster with transformative learning experiences frequentlyreported, due to the learning environment’s capacity to approximate the process of starting a realventure quite accurately. It thus represents a rare opportunity to conduct laboratory studies onnascent entrepreneurs. We continue to build on previous work on these so-called venturecreation programs (e.g., Babson paper in 2011). We now also ask: How are emotional amplitudeand entrepreneurial learning outcomes linked?Entrepreneurs Organization Lesley Hayes, EO & University of AthabascaEntrepreneur – Peer Learning Groups. A number of entrepreneurial organizations offer international entrepreneurial supportsystems – i.e. the Entrepreneur’s Organization with over 8,000 members globally runningbusinesses over $1MM USD in annual revenue. Their primary entrepreneurial learning structureis a version of a peer-learning network popularized by Napoleon Hill - a ‘mastermind group’. Underlying many current efforts to ‘educate’ entrepreneurs is the belief thatentrepreneurial cognition – or decisions - can be improved with training, skills & knowledge, andthese improvements lead to improvements in marketplace performance (Matlay, 2008). 10
  11. 11. Academy of Management Panel Symposium Proposal #15313Knowledge is conceptualized as a transferrable, retainable and re-useable asset (Macpherson andHolt, 2007). The emerging field of entrepreneurship research is littered with disagreementsregarding the source of entrepreneurial skills and successes as being primarily environmental,political, biological, personality, skill or uniquely individual. Traditional models of teaching are often a expert lecturer controlling a highly structuredlearning environment; determining where and when learning occurs. However, researchindicates entrepreneurs learn best from experience, reflection, problem solving, and peerinteraction (Gibb, 1993; Deakins and Freel, 1998; Politis and Gabrielsson, 2007). EO & otherorganizations offer programs that support entrepreneurs to learn from their own experiences.This discussion will delve into the structures, language protocols, demographic and psychometricvariables which may be controlled for or influenced which can increase the potential forgenerative (double-loop) entrepreneurial learning to occur. There is minimal data collection from within these current groups, although one study byJoakim Tell, “The emergent nature of learning networks’ (2008), did examine a learning network.What are the best practices from the ‘60s and ‘70’s regarding optimum number of participants,topics, structures, and other practices that influence these groups usefulness? Does groupdynamics, team cultures, social identity, social networks, or weak and strong ties, provideinsight, co-vary or predict into variables such as trust, cohesion, leadership and confidence.What are the ways that we can support and measure Smilor’s statement “Effective entrepreneursare exceptional learners…they learn from other entrepreneurs, they learn from experience andthey learn by doing” (Smilor, 1997: 344)Format: As we are sharing here multiple overlapping but unique projects (at different stages ofdevelopment) we opt for the panel symposium format. We want to ensure that the audiences getsenough time to: (a) offer advice to one or more of the projects, (b) identify ways to adapt one or more of these to their own interests and c) share their own research opportunities around this theme.It is clear that universities are eager to assess impact and the process of doing that has grownimmensely in quality… but it can only get better! 11

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