Physic garden

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Physic garden

  1. 1. American  Physic  Gardens  and   Herbal  Medicine  
  2. 2. The  Pennsylvania  Hospital   original  Cornerstone  in  East  Wing  of  1755  building  
  3. 3. •  On  June  7,  1774,  physicians  at   Pennsylvania  Hospital  aBended  a   meeDng  of  the  Board  of  Managers   and  heard  a  proposal  to  establish  a   Botanical  Garden  on  the  hospital   grounds.  Such  a  proposal  pleased   them  mighDly  as  a  garden  of  this   kind  would  provide  physicians  with  a   ready  source  of  ingredients  for  the   medical  remedies  of  the  period,   almost  all  of  which  were  based  on   plant  material.  For  a  variety  of   reasons,  chiefly  financial,  the   Botanical  Garden  did  not  become  a   reality  unDl  1976,  200  years  aSer  the   original  proposal,  when  it  was   "generously  executed"  as  a   Bicentennial  project  by  the   Philadelphia  CommiBee  of  the   Garden  Club  of  America  and  friends   of  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  including   physicians  and  other  staff  members.  
  4. 4. •  Greek  concept  of  four  basic  elements  [fire,  air,   water,  and  earth]  and  corresponding  humors:   –  Blood   –  Phlegm   –  Black  bile   –  Yellow  bile   Physician’s  job  to  maintain  balance  by  bleeding,   purging,  emeDcs,  blistering,  poisoning  [i.e.   herbs]  
  5. 5. Beginnings  of  botanical  science   •  During  the  16th  and  17th  centuries  the  first  plants   were  being  imported  to  major  Western  European   gardens  from  Eastern  Europe  and  nearby  Asia  (which   provided  many  bulbs)  and  these  found  a  place  in  the   new  gardens  where  they  could  be  conveniently  studied   by  the  plant  experts  of  the  day.     •  For  example,  Asian  introducDons  were  described  by   Carolus  Clusius  (1526  –  1609)  who  was  director,  in   turn,  of  the  Botanical  Garden  of  the  University  of   Vienna  and  Hortus  Botanicus  Leiden.     •  Many  plants  were  being  collected  from  the  Near  East,   especially  bulbous  plants  from  Turkey.    
  6. 6. •  Herbalism  reached  its  first  major   peak  in  Europe  in  1652  when  Dr   Nicolas  Culpeper  published  his  book,   The  English  Physician,     •  Filled  with  some  300  herbs,   drawings,  and  their  medicinal  uses.   He  is  considered  by  many,  to  be  the   father  of  alternaDve  medicine.    
  7. 7. 18th  century  methods  for  producing  herbal   remedies   •  Tincture:  herb  is  soaked  in  alcohol,  strained  and  used.   •  DecocDon:  This  method  was  used  for  tougher  parts  of   the  herb  plants,  the  roots,  stem  and  bark.  The  herb  is   boiled  in  water  unDl  water  is  reduced  by  1/2  to  1/3.   •  Infusion:  Immersing  the  herb  in  water  as  in  the  leaves.   Don’t  boil  herbs.  Use  one  rounded  spoon  of  infusion:   Immersing  the  herb  in  water  as  in  tea.   •  DisDlled:  Infusing  the  herb  with  water,  boiling  same   and  catching  the  condensed  steam.  Makes  a   condensed  form  of  an  infusion.  
  8. 8. HOREHOUND     •  Used  to  make  a  cough  syrup.  OSen  used  with  honey  and   other  herbs.  Mixed  with  plaintain  for  snakebites.  Soaked  in   fresh  milk  to  repel  flies.  The  leaves  are  used  for  flavoring   beer,  cough  drops,  honey  and  for  making  tea.  Leaves  should   be  gathered  just  before  the  flowers  open.     •  To  make  candy,  steep  two  heaping  teaspoons  of  dried   horehound  in  one-­‐cup  water  for  half  an  hour.  Strain.  Put   the  leaves  in  a  cloth  and  press  or  twist  to  get  the  remaining   flavor.  Add  3  1⁄2  pounds  of  brown  sugar  to  the  water  and   boil  unDl  it  reaches  the  ball  stage.  Pour  into  flat,  well-­‐ greased  pans  andmark  into  sDcks  or  squares  with  a  knife.   You  can  adjust  the  taste  by  adding  more  tea.  
  9. 9. Colonial  herbals  as  modern  medicine   •  Seneca  Snakeroot   –  A  member  of  the  dogbane  family,  snakeroot  has   been  used  as  a  sedaDve  for  centuries.  The  acDve   element,  reserpine,  is  now  used  in  treaDng  a   variety  of  psychiatric  disorders  and  hypertension.   •  Willow   –  Tea  made  from  the  bark  of  the  willow  tree  has   been  used  since  the  Romans  for  curing  headaches   or  other  pains.  Its  ingredients,  Salicylates,  is   known  to  us  today  as  aspirin  (acetylsalicylic  acid).  
  10. 10. Reserpine   The  Columbia  Encyclopedia,  Sixth  EdiGon  |  2008  |     reserpine  ,  alkaloid  isolated  from  the  root  of  the  snakeroot  plant   (  Rauwolfia  serpen6na  ),  a  small  evergreen  climbing  shrub  of  the   dogbane  family  na6ve  to  the  Indian  subcon6nent.  Known  in  India  as   Sarpaganda,  it  was  used  for  centuries  to  treat  insanity  as  well  as   physical  illnesses  such  as  fevers  and  snakebites.  AEer  its  isola6on  in   1952  it  was  used  to  lower  high blood  pressure  ,  but  its  property  of  producing  severe  depression  as  a   side  effect  also  made  it  useful  in  psychiatry  as  a  tranquilizer  in  the   control  of  agitated  psycho6c  pa6ents.  It  has  largely  been  replaced  in   psychiatric  use  by  the  phenothiazine  tranquilizers,  although  it  is  s6ll   used  as  an  experimental  tool  in  the  study  of  psychosis.  Reserpine   causes  many  toxic  side  effects  including  nightmares,  Parkinsonism   (see  Parkinson's  disease  ),  and  gastrointes6nal  disturbances.

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