Eyck, Annunciation, left panel, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza 1435-40
Northern (Flemish) Renaissance Robert Campin 1378–1444 Jan van Eyck 1385–1441 Hugo van der Goes 1440–1482 Italian Renaissance Duccio 1255-1319 Giotto 1267-1337 Cimabue 1272-1302 Martini 1284-1344 Brunelleschi 1377-1446 Donatello 1386 -1466 Fra Angelico 1395-1455 Masaccio 1402-1429 Mantegna 1431-1506 Botticelli 1445-1510 Ghirlandaio 1449-1494 da Vinci 1452-1519 Filippino Lippi 1460-1504 Crivelli 1468-1500 Michelangelo 1475-1564 Raphael 1483-1520
But before we begin, let’s put things in “PERSPECTIVE” literally
Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, “Saint Peter Enthroned” Masolino, Masaccio, & Lippi
Masolino, Masaccio, Alberti, Brunelleschi the central vanishing point appears to have been first used in 1423 by Masolino da Panicale (1383-c.1440) ("Little Tom") may have been the first artist to create oil paintings in the 1420s, rather than Jan van Eyck in the 1430s; influenced by Masaccio The first documented method for constructing perspective, based (albeit roughly) on a mathematical rule, published by Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) in his book De Pictura in 1435
Masaccio, (1401–28) Holy Trinity , c. 1427, Fresco, 667 x 317 cm, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Masaccio, Holy Trinity , c. 1427, Fresco, 667 x 317 cm, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Trinity with the Virgin, Saint john the Evangelist, and Donors, fresco in the Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1425-1427/28
Chiaroscuro, which means "light-and-dark" in Italian add volume by use of light & dark, & shadows
LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne & the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505-1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, approx. 4' 6" x 3' 3". National Gallery, London. Burlington House Cartoon This large drawing is a cartoon, that is, a full-size preparatory study for a painting. Usually, in order to transfer a design onto a panel, the outlines of cartoons were pricked or incised. This example is intact. It must have been preserved in its own right as a finished drawing, although some areas have deliberately been left inconclusive or in rough outline.
What is the medium? Tempera or Oil? What was its first useage? Who commissioned the painting? church, nobility, burghers (reflect ideology) What is the setting within the painting? How is Jesus / Mary portrayed? What are they doing? How do they interact? How old does Jesus appear to be? Notice Mary’s hands How does the artist use perspective, light…? What symbolism is used? How does it engage?
Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333, Uffizi (104.3 × 120.1 in) Altarpiece by Martini & his assistant (and brother-in-law) Lippo Memmi for the Chapel of Sant’ Ansano in Siena Cathedral trained in the workshop of Duccio in Siena Martini adapted the luxuriant patterns of the French Gothic manner to Sienese art & helped form the so-called International Style. Martini's altarpiece is characterized by elegant shapes, radiant color, flowing & fluttering line, and weightless figures placed in a spaceless setting. The painting is then fully Sienese for the beauty & the gentleness of lines & colors, just in opposition to Florentine style, more related to the volume and the shape. The painting is enhanced by the intricate tracery of the richly tooled Late Gothic frame (19 th century addition). flanking panels depicting St Ansanus, (Left) the namesake of the chapel & St Margaret(?) (Right) may not have been originally attached Document "Ave gratia plena dominus tecum" ("Greetings most favored one! The Lord is with thee") http://www.flickriver.com/photos/28433765@N07/sets/72157626583848228/
Martini, Annunciation, detail, Holy Spirit
"Ave gratia plena dominus tecum" ("Greetings most favored one! The Lord is with thee") Martini's great achievement in this work is to focus on the human drama of the moment, without any sacrifice of the otherworldly splendor of the traditional altarpiece.
Cestello Annunciation, tempera Sandro Botticelli, circa 1489-90. Uffizi commissioned in 1489 by the church of the Florentine convent of Cestello (today Santa Maria Maddalena de'Pazzi) in Borgo Pinti. Botticelli enables the observer to look through a room structured according to the laws of perspective and across the red floor tiles, along its converging lines, out onto a landscape. The lively movement of the figures contrasts with these spatial dynamics, which lead towards the background. There is a diagonal line running from the edge of Gabriel's robes to his raised hand, and it continues in the arm which Mary is holding across her chest. The angel's robes, which are billowing in great folds, show that he has just made a sweeping landing. Gabriel is kneeling reverently in front of Mary and his mouth, which is slightly open, suggests that he is in the process of speaking the words of St. Luke's Gospel, which are written underneath him in Latin on the painting's original frame: "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee."
The Annunciation oil painting by the Early Netherlandish master Jan van Eyck , from around 1434-1436. National Gallery of Art, Washington. originally on panel but transferred to canvas. It is thought that it was the left (inner) wing of a triptych; It is a highly complex work, whose iconography is still debated by art historians. bought by Czar Nicholas I of Russia for the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg. Probably between 1864 & 1870 transferred to canvas; bought by Andrew Mellon 1930 It has been suggested that Mary has been given the features of Isabella of Portugal, wife of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, who may well have commissioned the painting from van Eyck, his (part-time) court painter. hands raised in a gesture known as the expansis manibus Mary's posture is ambiguous; it is not clear if she is standing, kneeling or sitting glass roundels
The inscription shows his words: "AVE GRÃ. PLENA" or "Hail, full of grace...". She modestly draws back and responds, "ECCE ANCILLA DÑI." or "Behold the handmaiden of the Lord". Her words are painted upside down for God above to see. The Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit descend to her on seven rays of light from the upper window to the left, with the dove symbolising the Holy Spirit following the same path. "This is the moment God's plan for salvation is set in motion. Through Christ's human incarnation the old era of the Law is transformed into a new era of Grace". [Wikipedia]
underdrawing infrared reflectography
Eyck, Annunciation, Nat'l Gallery 1425-30, 1968 US postage stamp cope over a dalmatic worn by Gabriel
Fra Angelico, St Marks convent, Florence, fresco 1438-1445 If you place this fresco in a museum, it becomes a painting, but…
Fra Angelico, Annuciation, S.Mark's convent, Florence, 1450
Fra Angelico, Annunciation, Prado 1426
This altarpiece was painted for the monastery of Santo Domenico in Fiesole . The central panel shows the Archangel Gabriel’s Annunciation to Mary under a portico. On the left, Adam and Eve are being expelled from Paradise. The predella has scenes from the life of the Virgin; Mary’s Birth, Her Wedding with Joseph, Mary’s Visit to her cousin Elisabeth, the Birth of the Christ Child, the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple & the Dormition of the Virgin with Christ receiving her soul. Fra Angelico, dedicated his work exclusively to religious subjects as he understood art to be an aspect of religious devotion. He was particularly meticulous in the details and qualities of Nature and of the objects and persons depicted. In his style, Fra Angelico merged the late Gothic Italian style with the new language of the Renaissance. An example of this is the architecture’s spatial depth, which, while in keeping with Brunelleschi’s recommendation to occupy the center of a square and unadorned stage, nevertheless shows some of the errors present in Angelico’s early works.
Campin, Metropolitan Merode Triptych “ The Mérode Altarpiece, Robert Campin (Master of Flémalle) c.1428” Georges Braque ― “The hard and fast rules of perspective which [the Renaissance] imposed on art were a ghastly mistake which it has taken four centuries to redress.”
The left wing panel, which was added, was probably created by Campin's apprentice, Rogier van der Weyden . commissioned by Peter Engelbrecht & his wife Margarethe Campin depicted a solitary burgher couple praying in the privacy of their home & experiencing a sacred vision without ecclesiastical intermediaries & spaces, without churches, popes, priests, saints, or altars the Annunciation appeared as a personal, individual vision entering the hearts & home of the patrons & where the sacred figures were described in familial terms of domestic virtue & hard work
In contrast to the rigors, supervision, and hierarchical order of true monastic piety, Devotio Moderna piety relocated monastic inwardness in a very different arena of the autonomous, meditating, lay person's heart . No sharp break with worldly life & occupations was needed. No submission to official religious authorities was necessary. No giving up of worldly possessions, conjugal sexuality, and relative autonomy was needed (to cite the three monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience).
Michelangelo, Manchester Madonna 1497
Crivelli, Carlo (c.1430-94) The Annunciation, with Saint Emidius Libertas ecclesiastica [Freedom under the Church] Egg tempera & oil on canvas transferred from wood; 207 x 146.7 cm The town of Ascoli (Crivelli’s home town) under papal rule when in 1482 Pope Sixtus IV granted it a degree of self-government. This altar piece was painted for the church of Annunziata in Ascoli to celebrate the event. The coats of arms are those of the Pope (left) & the local bishop, Prospero Cafferelli (right). News of Ascoli's new status reached the town on the feast of the Annunciation, March 25th which then became a special day when the town celebrated its liberty. It is rare to include a saint with the Archangel Gabriel in a depiction of the Annunciation. Saint Emidius, the patron saint of Ascoli, is shown carrying a model of the town. The sacred subject is almost crowded out of the picture by the profusion of the painting’s physical, secular detail.... The commercial transaction on the bridge... mirrors the spiritual transaction between God & his chosen handmaiden in the foreground.... Every bit as much a visual celebration of conspicuous consumption & of trade as it is a tribute to the chastity of Christ’s mother.... Mary’s surroundings gather together desirable material possessions from across the globe. They announce with pride Italian access to markets from northern France to the Ottoman Empire.... the entrepreneurial & the spiritual rub shoulders in this early Renaissance world.
Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, Niklaus_von_Hagenau carved panels painted and guilt limewood, 9’ 9 1/2” x 10’ 9” (center) 2’ 5 1/2” x 11’ 2” predella. Each wing, oil on panel, 8’ 2 1/2” x 3’ 1/2”
Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, (2nd pair exterior panels) “ Annunciation,” “Angelic Concert,” “Madonna and Child,” and “Resurection
Unusual for showing the annunciation of Christ’s birth as taking place in the Virgin’s bedroom at night, by candlelight, this vibrant oil sketch is rapidly painted on a rough panel & incorporates numerous changes. Influence of mannerism. It is related to an altarpiece painted by Parmigianino’s cousin Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli (ca. 1500–1569) for a church near Parma. (modello?) Suggested that he painted it shortly before his death in 1540. Metropolitan Museum of Art Document renders Mary's receptiveness unmistakably genital, & her downward-reaching right arm confirms this. At almost the same time, older & more orthodox theories of how the Virgin conceived—through the ear, were being parodied by Rabelais.2 [Gargantua, ch. 6]
Henry Ossawa Tanner The Annunciation (1898) Tanner painted The Annunciation soon after returning to Paris from a trip to Egypt and Palestine in 1897. Mary is shown as an adolescent dressed in rumpled Middle Eastern peasant clothing, without a halo or other holy attributes. Gabriel appears only as a shaft of light. Tanner entered this painting in the 1898 Paris Salon exhibition, after which it was bought for the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1899, making it his first work to enter an American museum. In 1899, at the age of forty, he married Jessie Macauley Olssen, who posed as Mary. a professional singer, she was fifteen years his junior
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850) Sister, Christina Rossetti, “In the Bleak Mid-Winter”, modelled Cf. “Drastic Innovations on a Traditional Theme: Rossetti's Ecce Ancilla Domini”
Paul Woefel, Annunciation
О lga Suvorova, (1966- ) Annunciation
The Visitation , the meeting of Mary with the aged Elizabeth. Behind Elizabeth are two maidens, while on the two extremities are other groups of women. The group on the right include portraits of contemporaries: the first, in profile, is Giovanna degli Albizzi, who had married Giovanni Tornabuoni's son. Vasari wrongly identified her as Ginevra de' Benci. The background shows the influence of both classical & Flemish art on Ghirlandaio. On the right is an ancient edifice, while the city landscape on the right is typical of Early Netherlandish painting. The balcony in the middle with two young men stretching out is probably a reference to Jan van Eyck's Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, or to Rogier van der Weyden's St. Luke Painting the Madonna. The city is fanciful, but details like the tower of Florence's Palazzo Vecchio & the Santa Maria Novella campanile, as well as Rome's Colosseum are from real buildings. All the elements in this picture were explicitly required in Tornabuoni's contract with Ghirlandaio: the landscape, the city, the animals, the perspective, the portraits and the classical elements.
Ghirlandaio, Giovanna Tornabuoni (1488) This portrait, one of the most famous of the Quattrocento, depicts Giovanna degli Albizzi in a magnificent garment made of gold brocade with tight, slitted silk sleeves. She came from one of the most important Florentine families & in 1486 married Lorenzo Tornabuoni. After her early death Ghirlandaio created two portraits, and it is possible that he was able to produce the cartoon for them while she was still alive. epigram written by the Roman poet Martial in the 1 st century A.D.: Ars utinam mores animumque effigere posses pulchrior in terris nulla tabella foret. (Art, if only you could portray mores and spirit, there would be no more beautiful picture on earth). http://hoocher.com/Domenico_Ghirlandaio/Domenico_Ghirlandaio.htm
Ghirlandaio, Cappella Tornabuoni (1485-90) Santa Maria Novella commissioned by Giovanni Tornabuoni to decorate the main chapel [Cappella Tornabuoni]
Master of the Spes Nostra, “ Four Augustinian Canon Regulars Meditating Beside an Open Grave ” c. 1495-1510 Memorial for four Rectors at the Monastery at Mariënpoel, near Leiden. Mary playing with Jesus in the garden; Jesus riding a hobbyhorse (a common image in medieval art) In the Hortus conclusus are Angels & birds. Peacocks are the Christian symbol of Eternal Life; the multitude of eyes on the peacock’s tail symbolize the all seeing eyes of God.
Master of the Spes Nostra, “ Four Augustinian Canon Regulars Meditating Beside an Open Grave ” c. 1495-1510 Memorial for four Rectors at the Monastery at Mariënpoel, near Leiden. On the left stands Jerome, on the right, Augustine. On the lid of the tomb are the words: "Requiescant in pace" ("May they rest in peace") Beside the grave in gilded Gothic lettering: "Si quis eris qui transieris hoc repice plora, Sum quod eris es ipse fui pro me precor ora” -- "Whomsoever passes by here, let him gaze and mourn, I am what you will be, what you are I once was, I beg you to pray for me.“
Jacopo Carucci [Pontormo] Visitation 1529 Church of San Francesco e Michele, Carmignano, west of Florence
Maurice Denis, Visitation 1894
Conrad von Soest , (c.1370 in Dortmund-c.1422) Wildungen altar, left panel 1403 Niederwildungen Altarpiece, a Crucifixion Altarpiece in the protestant Stadtkirche of Bad Wildungen, originally dated 1403. It shows scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ. Left panel : Maria Verkündigung, Christis Geburt , Anbetung der Drei Heiligen Könige, Präsentation Christi im Tempel
Conrad von Soest , (c.1370 in Dortmund-c.1422) Wildungen altar, left panel 1403 Niederwildungen Altarpiece, a Crucifixion Altarpiece in the protestant Stadtkirche of Bad Wildungen, originally dated 1403. It shows scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ. Left panel : Maria Verkündigung, Christis Geburt , Anbetung der Drei Heiligen Könige, Präsentation Christi im Tempel
Niederwildungen Altarpiece, a Crucifixion Altarpiece in the protestant Stadtkirche of Bad Wildungen, originally dated 1403. It shows scenes from the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of Christ (and seems to contain the oldest depiction of glasses north of the Alps. Spectacles were introduced at the end of the 13th century by Venetian glass workers and are depicted with increasing frequency in Europe from the 14 th to the 16 th centuries in frescoes and paintings.
Hodegetria by Berlinghiero of Lucca, (ca 1230) shows the Byzantine influence on Italian 13th century art. A Hodegetria (Οδηγήτρια, literally: "She who shows the Way"; Russian: Одигитрия) — or Virgin Hodegetria — is an iconographic depiction of the Theotokos holding the Child Jesus at her side while pointing to Him as the source of salvation for mankind.
Byzantine Late Gothic / Proto-Renaissance Duccio di Buoninsegna (active 1278-1318) The "Maestà" Altar , Siena 1308-11 Renaissance
Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets , c. 1280-90. Tempera on wood, 12' 7" x 7' 4” ( Santa Trinita in Florence) Uffizi last of the great Byzantine painters overall flatness of the image, the lack of dimensionality, and the majesty, rather than realism, the amount of gold leaf, hierarchy of scale (angels are smaller than Mary) as well as the gestures & the clothing, conform to Byzantine style, though Cimabue adds details in what seems an attempt to make an emotional connection with the viewer. Although he moves beyond the strict conventions of the Italo-Byzantine style towards an increased naturalism in the treatment of space & in the solid three-dimensionality of the Virgin's throne, yet she still seems to float in space Chirst, childlike in size, but adult in his proportions, posture, and intelligence
Duccio di Buoninsegna (active 1278-1318) The "Maestà" Altar , Siena 1308-11 14 1/2' by 7 1/2', painted both front & back; apprenticed with Cimabue ; formality of the Italo-Byzantine tradition is fused with the new spirituality of the Gothic style. It is probably the most important panel ever painted in Italy; Martini trained in the workshop of Duccio in Siena, helping him to paint portions of his Maesta,
Lippi, Filippo “Madonna with Child & Two Angels” (c1465) Nat’l Gal Lippi was chaplain to a convent in Prato, near Florence, where, says Vasari, he was painting an altarpiece for the nuns of St Margherita. There he saw the "beautiful & graceful" Lucrezia Buti, a novice. He persuaded the nuns to let him paint her as Our Lady, then persuaded Lucrezia to run away with him. one of the most beautiful paintings of the Florentine Renaissance, a daring example of the humanising of religion [doc]
Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow 1505/06 The Kunsthistorisches Museum ("Museum of Art History") Vienna, Austria. Madonna and Child (1503) The Granduca Madonna (1504) Madonna and Child (The Ansidei Altarpiece) (1505) Madonna and Child (The Small Cowper Madonna) (1505) Madonna of the Meadow (Madonna del Prato) (1506) Madonna with Beardless St. Joseph (1506) Madonna del Cardellino (1507) The Canigiani Madonna (1507) The Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist (La Belle Jardiniere) (1507) Madonna and Child (The Large Cowper Madonna) (1508) Madonna del Baldacchino (1508) Madonna of Loreto (Madonna del Velo) (1510) The Alba Madonna (1511) The Madonna of Foligno (1512) The Sistine Madonna (1512) Madonna dell'Impannata (1514) Madonna della Seggiola (Sedia) (1514) Madonna della Tenda (1514) Madonna with the Fish (1514)
“ Sistine Madonna” (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden) commissioned by Pope Julius II for the high altar of S. Sisto in Piacenza To the question, to what the Pope is pointing & what the Mother & Child are looking, the answer is as astonishing as it is persuasive. In many churches, opposite the altarpiece in S. Sisto & above the rood screen at the far end of the chancel there stood a crucifix. The expressions of horror on the faces of Mother & Child are thus their reaction to the sight of death.
Raphael painted the “Madonna di Foligno” (Pinacoteca Vaticana) in 1512, before receiving the commission to produce the “Sistine Madonna” (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Dresden) from Pope Julius II in the same year. It is therefore highly probable that the two paintings stood together in Raphael’s workshop . exhibition: “Himmlischer Glanz. Raffael, Dürer und Grünewald malen die Madonna” (Heavenly Splendour. Raphael, Dürer & Grünewald paint the Madonna) Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, 9/2011–8/2012
Raphael's Madonna della Seggiola (Sedia), Madonna of the Chair , 1514, one of Raphael's most intimate Madonna paintings. Raphael's Madonna engages the viewer directly as she sits closely confined within the circular tondo format affectionately & protectively cuddling her young son, the infant Christ Child. On the right, the figure of Christ's young cousin, the boy St. John the Baptist. Raphael painted this Madonna while in Rome where it was soon acquired for the art collection of the Medici family. “Borrowed” by Napoleon's troops in 1799, it was returned to Florence in 1815 & housed in the Palatine Gallery at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. It appears that the model is the same one Raphael used for his Donna Velata portrait Woman with a Veil (La Donna Velata)” 1516 Galleria Palatina, Florence
Jan van Eyck: The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin
Eyck, “The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin” detail, Christ Child
Eyck, “The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin” detail, Madonna with crown
Jean Fouquet (1420–81) Madonna & Child (right panel of Melun dyptich) 1452-55 Koninklijk Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium The right wing of a diptych, originally located in Melun. The left wing shows Étienne Chevalier & St Stephen. She has the bulging shaved forehead fashionable at the period. Wealthy and influential women liked to accentuate their breasts, especially for public display. Since at least the 17 th century, the Virgin has been recognized as Agnès Sorel (1421-50), Charles VII’s mistress & confidante.
Durer (school?), The Dresden Altarpiece (Dresden Gemaldegalerie) commissioned for the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg by the Elector Frederick the Wise. Wings (c.1504) represent Saints Sebastian & Anthony, whose apotropaeic powers Frederick sought in his phobic fear of the plague.
Baldung, Maria mit schlafendem Kind
Rembrandt, Joseph’s Dream 1645
Tamara Lempicka Madonna, c.1937 Jack Nicolson & Madonna collectors
Marc Chagall The Madonna of the Village 1938-42 102,5 x 98 cm; Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid [http://www.museothyssen.org/en/thyssen/contenidos_articulo/7]
Salvador Dali, The Madonna of Port Lligat 1949 name of three paintings by Dalí. The first was created in 1949 (19.3 x 14.8 in) Haggerty Museum of Art at Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, Wis. Dalí presented a smaller version of this composition to Pope Pius XII who blessed it during a visit with the artist in 1949. The seated Madonna ( posed by Dalí's wife, Gala ) with the infant Christ both have rectangular holes cut into their torsos, suggestive of their transcendent status. In the 1950 version Christ has bread at the center of his figure. They are posed in a landscape, with a view of Port Lligat, Catalonia seashore in the background, with surrealist details, including nails, fish, seashells, and an egg. The 1949 Madonna has a sea urchin (a personal symbol of fragility & insecurity); the 1950 Madonna has a rhinoceros & figures of angels, also posed by Gala. [1950 version in surrealism ppt photo] Dalí based his composition for the Madonna of Port Lligat on Piero della Francesca’s circa 1475 Brera Altarpiece, Madonna and Child with Angels and Six Saints
Dali, Corpus Hypercubus 1954, wife Gala as Mary
Robert Campin, Dijon Nativity c.1428 Oil on panel, 84.1 x 69.9 cm; Dijon, Musee des Beaux-Arts Inscriptions: - on the Virgin's mantle is the beginning of the Salve Regina : SALVE REGIN(A MATER MISERICOR)DIE V(I)TA DVLCEDO ET SPES NOSTRA SALVE AD TE CL(AMAMV)S EXVLES FILII EVE AD TE SVSPIRAMUS GEMENTES ET FLENTES IN HAC LACR(IMARVM VALLE). - on the banderole of the three angels: Gloria in exelsis deo Et in terr(a pax homi)nibus bone vol(untatis). - on the banderole of the kneeling woman: Azel. Virgo peperit filium. - on the banderole of the standing woman: Salome. (Nullum) credo quin probavero. - on the banderole of the white angel: Tange puerum et sanaberis. On this painting Campin integrated the biblical scene with every day life, which was followed by Netherlandish painters down the centuries. The landscape in the background was a realistically depiction of a 15 th century walled town in Flanders. It was connected with the foreground scene with a path, which was used for the first time in the history of painting.
Hugo van Goes, Portinari altar, 1474 center panel
Ghirlandaio, Adoration of the Shepherds 1482-85 Francesco Sassetti, a partner in the Medici bank. By the end of the 1470s, Sassetti had acquired the rights of patronage to a small side chapel, the second to the right of the choir in the Florentine church of Santa Trinità . Ghirlandaio was commissioned to paint the chapel, which he decorated with frescoes with scenes from the life of St. Francis between 1482 & 1485. And the altarpiece of the chapel, Adoration of the Shepherds . The sarcophagus in the picture is not just a manger for the ox and ass. It also has an iconographical significance indicated by the Latin inscription along its front: Ense cadens. Solymo. Pompei Pului[us] Augur Numen. Ait. Quae me conteg[it] Urna Dabit. [While Fulvi(us), augur of Pompey, was falling by the sword in Jerusalem he said: the urn that covers (conceals) me shall bring forth a god]. This is an ancient prophecy by Fulvius. Ghirlandaio combines this reference to the Roman classical age with knowledge of Flemish art and turns them into an integrated whole. An historic event that took place a few years before this work was painted clearly left its mark behind on Ghirlandaio's work. An altarpiece ordered by Tommaso Portinari from Hugo van der Goes in Bruges reached Florence in May 1483. Florentine artists saw van der Goes' Adoration of the Shepherds as a shining comet showing new ways of painting. In Ghirlandaio's altarpiece, the shepherds pushing their way into the picture from the right, with their harsh, life-like features, are drawn directly from this Flemish model. Ghirlandaio's landscape in the background also displays features from north of the Alps.
Ghirlandaio, Adoration of the Shepherds 1482-85 Ghirlandaio himself appears in the scene, as a shepherd. He is closer to the Christ Child than the donors.
Georges La Tour, Adoration of the Shepherds 1644, Louvre
Gauguin, Ia Orana Maria (Hail Mary) 1891 MMA
Gislebertus, Dream of the Wise Men, St. Lazare, Autun.doc
The 'Wilton Diptych' a portable altarpiece for the private devotion of King Richard II, who ruled England from 1377 to 1400. The artist remains unknown. It is called From Wilton House in Wiltshire, the seat of the Earls of Pembroke. That it remained intact is remarkable because little religious pictorial art survived the Puritan iconoclasm that followed the execution of Charles I . Richard's birth on 6 January, the feast of Epiphany the kneeling King Richard II is presented by the Saints John the Baptist , Edward the Confessor & Edmund the Martyr (holds the arrow which killed him in 869) staff with a pennon (banner), topped by an orb on which a tiny map of England is painted. The red cross of St George on the pennon the symbol of England, [also refers to Christ's resurrection (banner of the papal Guelph party 12-13 th cent. Italy; Guelphs & Ghibellines)] Richard II inherited a kingdom at the age of ten, in which the black death had left a depopulated countryside - and emboldened survivors. Richard faced down the leaders of the peasants' revolt at Smithfield in 1381. But his leadership against poorly armed rural rebels did not compensate for alienating powerful nobles. After a series of conflicts, Henry of Bolingbroke, whom Richard had exiled, returned to London while the king was in Ireland. Sailing back from Ireland, Richard was arrested & imprisoned in Pontefract castle, where, in 1400, Bolingbroke, now Henry IV, had him murdered.
Piero della Francesca's Resurrection (circa 1463), in the Palazzo Communale of Borgo, Sansepolcro banner of the papal Guelph party 12-13 th cent. Italy; Guelphs & Ghibellines
Gozzoli, Journey of the Magi, 1459-61
Botticelli, Adoration of the Magi, (1475)
Botticelli, Adoration of the Magi, (1475)
Quintin Matsys, The Adoration of the Magi , 1526
Burne-Jones, Adoration of Kings 1887
He Qi 2002
Andrea Mantegna, Christ Presentation in the Temple c. 1455, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Germany.
Bellini, Presentation at the Temple c.1460
Filippo Lippi, Circumcision (1460-65)
Paula Rego, Presentation in the Temple
Durer, Flight into Egypt
Titian, “The Flight into Egypt” 1507 Hermitage document His gift for landscape stems from his tuition under Bellini & the looser approach of Giorgione, another Bellini pupil. For Titian, landscape was as important as figures & both are afforded equal detail even if his skill set wasn’t quite balanced at this stage. The figures in the foreground are rather stiff & generic; they appear to be superimposed on the scene, frieze-like in their inflexibility.
Caravaggio, Rest During the Flight to Egypt 1597 document
flight into Egypt, capital, St. Benoit sur Loire, France, Benedictine Abbey
Giotto, 1304-1306, fresco, Capella degli Scrovegni, Padua
The Rubens work was identified by Sotheby's expert George Gordon just weeks before it was auctioned. It was originally assumed to have been painted by a follower of Rubens, Jan van den Hoecke,. One of the most valuable paintings in the world, after being purchased by Kenneth Thomson, (1923–2006) 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet for £49.5 million GBP (then equal to some $76.7 million USD) at a July 10, 2002 Sotheby's auction; donated to the Art Museum of Ontario It is widely regarded as a demonstration of the artist's learnings from his time spent in Italy between 1600 and 1608, where he observed first-hand the works of Italian Baroque painters like Caravaggio. These influences are seen in this painting through the sheer drama and emotive dynamism of the scene, as well as the rich colour. There is also evidence of the use of chiaroscuro. Towards the end of his life, between 1636-38, Rubens painted a second version of the Massacre of the Innocents, which was acquired by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich by 1706.
Pismenny, Alexey_(1955- ) Massacre of the Holy Innocents 2008
Hunt, Wm. Holman The Triumph of the Innocents 1876-87
Masaccio has placed the vanishing pointbeneath the base of the Cross whichcorresponds to our actual vantage pointin viewing the work.
How else can you make a two-dimensional objecton a flat surface appear three-dimensional?Chiaroscuro,"light-and-dark" in Italianadd volume by use of light & dark, & shadows
Leonardo da Vinci, The Virgin and Child, St. Anne & the Infant St. John(cartoon detail), c.1498 4’6” x 3’3” charcoal heightened with white on brown paper
• What is the medium? Tempera or Oil?• What was its first useage?• Who commissioned the painting?church, nobility, burghers (reflect ideology)• What is the setting within the painting?• How is Jesus / Mary portrayed?What are they doing? How do they interact?How old does Jesus appear to be?Notice Mary’s hands.• How does the artist use perspective, light…?• What symbolism is used?• How does it engage?• How is it different from others in its genre?
The Annunciation Luke 1:26-38In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town inGalilee called Nazareth, to a virgin engaged to a man whose name wasJoseph, of the house of David. The virgin’s name was Mary. And he cameto her and said, ‘‘Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you.’’But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort ofgreeting this might be. The angel said to her, ‘‘Do not be afraid, Mary, foryou have found favor with God. And now, you will conceive in your womband bear a son, and you will name him Jesus. He will be great, and will becalled the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him thethrone of his ancestor David. He will reign over the house of Jacobforever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.’’Mary said to the angel, ‘‘How can this be, since I am a virgin?’’ Theangel said to her, ‘‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power ofthe Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will beholy; he will be called Son of God.And now, your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived ason; and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren. Fornothing will be impossible with God.’’ Then Mary said, ‘‘Here am I, theservant of the Lord; let it be with me according to your word.’’ Then theangel departed from her.
Simone Martini with Lippo Memmi, Annunciation, Chapel of S.Ansano, Siena Cathedral,1333 8’4” x 10’
Jan van Eyck,The Annunciationc. 1434-36National Gallery of Art,Washington –Mellon (1930)via Nicholas I Hermitagetransferred to canvas c.1864-70Isabella of Portugal,wife of Philip the Good,Duke of Burgundy ?(Eyck, court painter)Perspective, proportion…Is Mary standing, kneeling orsitting?Oil paint; use of light (& refracted),Color, detail, sizeMary’s hands raised in a gestureknown as the expansis manibus
Joseph became a positive modelfor the newly prosperous, urbanmerchant families just as Marywas portrayed as the ideal wife &mother
Campin depicted a solitaryburgher couple praying in theprivacy of their home &experiencing a sacred visionwithout churches, popes, priests,saints, or altars.Devotio ModernaRelocation of monasticinwardness - piety of the heartNo sharp break with worldlylife & occupations wasneeded.the Annunciation appeared as apersonal, individual visionentering the hearts & home ofthe patrons & where the sacredfigures were described in familialterms of domestic virtue & hardwork
CrivelliCrivelli, Annunciation with S EmidiusCrivelli, Annunciation with St EmidiusCrivelli, Annunciation with St.EmidiusCarlo Crivelli,The Annunciation,with Saint EmidiusThe sacred subjectis almost crowdedout of the pictureby the profusion ofthe painting’smaterial, seculardetail
The Visitation Luke 1:39-45Mary set out and went with haste to a Judean town in the hillcountry, where she entered the house of Zechariah and greetedElizabeth.When Elizabeth heard Marys greeting, the child leaped in herwomb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit and exclaimedwith a loud cry, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is thefruit of your womb.And why has this happened to me, that the mother of my Lordcomes to me? For as soon as I heard the sound of your greeting, thechild in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed is she who believedthat there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her by theLord."
Ghirlandaio The VisitationCappella Tornabuoni, Santa Maria Novella,Florence
Master of the Spes Nostra, “Four Augustinian Canon Regulars Meditating Beside an Open Grave” c. 1495-1510
Master of the Spes Nostra, “Four Augustinian Canon Regulars Meditating Beside an Open Grave” c. 1495-1510Master of the Spes Nostra,“Four Augustinian Canon Regulars Meditating Beside an Open Grave”c. 1495-1510
The Birth Luke 2:1-7In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustusthat all the world should be registered. This was the firstregistration and was taken while Quirinius was governor ofSyria. All went to their own towns to be registered. Joseph alsowent from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city ofDavid called Bethlehem, because he was descended from thehouse and family of David. He went to be registered with Mary,to whom he was engaged and who was expecting a child.While they were there, the time came for her to deliver herchild. And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him inbands of cloth, and laid him in a manger, because there was noplace for them in the inn.
Soest, Wildungen altar, left panel 1403Conrad von SoestWildungen altar,left panel 1403
Hodegetria by Berlinghiero of Lucca, (ca 1230)The simplicity & stylizations areintentional & not due to the inability toportray realism. Rather, the personpraying with the icon is to look beyondthe representation in the icon to thedivine reality behind it.Icons are referred to as “windows toheaven”. One doesn’t look at a windowbut through it, to see what’s on the otherside.Their forms & colors depend not upon theimagination or creativity of the artist, but onspecific rules handed down fromgeneration to generationthe icon’s “space” is not the linearperspective of the Renaissance tradition
Virgin Hodegetria[Wayshower] the Virgin holdsChrist on her left arm &gestures, showing that He isthe way to salvation, while Heraises his right hand in agesture of blessing. (The index& middle fingers are joined torefer to the two natures ofChrist, & the thumb locks overthe other fingers to signify theTrinity.)Virgin Eleousa, the merciful;mother of tenderness. She isshown bending to touch hercheek with that of her child,who reciprocates this affectionby placing his arm around herneck.The Hodegetria emphasizesthe divinity of the Christ Child,the Eleousa focuses on Hishuman nature.ΜΡ θУ,Meter Theou =Mother of GodIcons became increasingly popularin Byzantium in the 6th & 7thcenturiesIn some degree, this popularityprecipitated the Iconoclastcontroversy of the 8th& 9thwhichcalled into question the place of artin the liturgical life of the Church.in about 725 the iconoclasts (thosewho would have religious imagesdestroyed) won the day against theiconodules (those who believedthey were justified) with a number ofimperial edicts against images.even as it declined, Byzantineinfluence continued to make itselffelt in the 13th & 14th centuries,notably in the Sienese School ofpainting & the InternationalGothic style (1375-1450).Theotokos typology
Late Gothic / Proto-RenaissanceLate 1200s – Early 1400sByzantine Renaissance1400-1500High Renaisannce1520-1580
Cimabue,Madonna Enthroned,Santa Trinita,Florencec. 1280-90 (12’7” x 7’4”)
Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow1505/06The Kunsthistorisches Museum("Museum of Art History") ViennaThe Granduca Madonna (1504)Madonna and Child (The Ansidei Altarpiece) (1505)Madonna and Child (The Small Cowper Madonna) (1505)Madonna of the Meadow (Madonna del Prato) (1506)Madonna with Beardless St. Joseph (1506)Madonna del Cardellino (1507)The Canigiani Madonna (1507)The Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist (1507)Madonna and Child (The Large Cowper Madonna) (1508)Madonna del Baldacchino (1508)Madonna of Loreto (Madonna del Velo) (1510)The Alba Madonna (1511)The Madonna of Foligno (1512)The Sistine Madonna (1512)Madonna dellImpannata (1514)Madonna della Seggiola (Sedia) (1514)Madonna della Tenda (1514)Madonna with the Fish (1514)
Everyonehas seen part of itAre you familiar withthis painting, the“Sistine Madonna”by Raphael
“Heavenly Splendour. Raphael, Dürer & Grünewald Paint the Madonna” Dresden, 9/2011–8/2012“Madonna di Foligno” “Sistine Madonna”Pope Julius II commissioned both paintings in 1512
Raphaels Madonna della Seggiola,Madonna of the Chair, 1514“Woman with a Veil(La Donna Velata)”1516
Eyck, “The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin”Jan van Eyck,The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin
The Shepherds Luke 2:8-20In that region there were shepherds living in the fields, keepingwatch over their flock by night. Then an angel of the Lord stoodbefore them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and theywere terrified. But the angel said to them, "Do not be afraid; for see Iam bringing you good news of great joy for all the people to you isborn this day in the city of David a Saviour, who is the Messiah, theLord. This will be a sign for you you will find a child wrapped inbands of cloth and lying in a manger." and suddenly there was withthe angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God and saying,"Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace amongthose whom he favours!"[When the angels had left them and gone into heaven, theshepherds said to one another, "Let us go now to Bethlehem and seethis thing that has taken place, which the Lord has made known tous" So they went with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and thechild lying in the manger. When they saw this, they made knownwhat had been told them about this child; and all who heard it wereamazed at what the shepherds told them. But Mary treasured allthese words and pondered them in her heart. The shepherdsreturned, glorifying and praising God for all they had heard and seen,as it had been told them.]
The Magi Matthew 2:1-12In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea,wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, ‘Where is the childwho has been born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at itsrising, and have come to pay him homage.’When King Herod heard this, he was frightened, and all Jerusalem withhim; and calling together all the chief priests and scribes of the people,he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. They told him,‘In Bethlehem of Judea; for so it has been written by the prophet: Andyou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among therulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who is to shepherd mypeople Israel.’Then Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them theexact time when the star had appeared. Then he sent them toBethlehem, saying, ‘Go and search diligently for the child; and when youhave found him, bring me word so that I may also go and pay himhomage.’When they had heard the king, they set out; and there, ahead of them,went the star that they had seen at its rising, until it stopped over theplace where the child was. When they saw that the star had stopped,they were overwhelmed with joy. On entering the house, they saw thechild with Mary his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage.Then, opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold,frankincense, and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not toreturn to Herod, they left for their own country by another road.
Wilton Diptych c 1396-99King Richard IIJohn the BaptistEdward the ConfessorEdmund the Martyrpennon (banner) – Crossof St. George
Piero della FrancescaResurrection (c. 1463),Sansepolcrobanner of the papal Guelphparty 12-13thcent. ItalyGuelphs & Ghibellines
Presentation Luke 2:21-22After eight days had passed, it was time to circumcisethe child; and he was called Jesus… When the timecame for their purification according to the law ofMoses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present himto the Lord.
Andrea Mantegna, Christ Presentation in the Temple c.
Rego, Presentation in the TemplePaula Rego,Presentation in the Temple
Flight into Egypt Matthew 2:13-14Now after the [Magi] had left, an angel of the Lordappeared to Joseph in a dream and said, ‘Get up,take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, andremain there until I tell you; for Herod is about tosearch for the child, to destroy him.’ Then Josephgot up, took the child and his mother by night, andwent to Egypt, and remained there until the death ofHerod. This was to fulfill what had been spoken bythe Lord through the prophet, ‘Out of Egypt I havecalled my son.’
Durer, Flight into EgyptDurer,Flight into Egypt
Caravaggio, Rest During the Flight to Egypt 1597Caravaggio,Rest During the Flight toEgypt 1597
The Innocents Matthew 2:16When Herod realized that he had been outwitted bythe Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to killall the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who weretwo years old and under, in accordance with thetime he had learned from the Magi.
Giotto, Massacre of the Innocents (1304)Giotto, fresco,Capella degli Scrovegni,Padua , 1304-06
Rubens, Massacre of the Innocents (1609-11)Rubens
Alexey Pismenny (1955- ) Massacre of the Holy Innocents 2008
Wm. Holman Hunt, The Triumph of the Innocents1876-87