2. 1. According to Ruth Strang: Guidance is the process of helping every individual, through his own efforts, to discover and develop his potentialities for his personal happiness and social usefulness.
3. 2. According to Crow & Crow. Guidance is assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any age to help him manage his own life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own burdens.
4. 3. According to United States Office of Education. Guidance is the process of acquainting the individual with the various ways including special training in which he may discover his natural endowments so that he makes a living to his own best advantage and that of society.
5. Need of Guidance:Complex nature of society.Individual Differences.Welfare state and the individuals.Changed industrial and educationalpattern of the country.Changed economic patterns of thecountry.Conservation of human energy.
6. Basic Principles of Guidance. Guidance is a slow process. Guidance is developing the insight of an individual. Problems for which guidance is required arise out of situations, Problems are interrelated. Guidance is based on individual differences. Guidance is based on planning. Guidance is based on rigid code of ethics.
7. Cont….. Guidance is related to the development of the student. Guidance and instructional activities are complementary. Guidance is meant for all. Guidance is based on educational objectives. Guidance is a specialized service. Standard of ethics are observed. Periodical evaluation of guidance work is done.
8. Objectives:1. To make the students to discover information about themselves.2. To develop educational and occupational plans.3. To promote self concept in an individual.4. To improve personal potentialities.
9. Cont….5. To enhance forward- looking attitude in an individual.6. To bring in desirable changes in curricular activities to improve educational standards.7. To help each individual to meet and solve his problems as they arise.
10. Elements of guidance. It focuses our attention on the individual and not the problem. It leads to the discovery of abilities of an individual. Guidance is based upon the assets and limitations of an individual.
11. It leads to self development and self direction. It helps the individual plan wisely for the present and the future. It assists the individual to become adjusted to the environment. It assists to achieve success and happiness.
13. Advantages of Guidance.1. It helps the pupil to understand himself.2. It helps the pupil in making careful choice of subjects and courses.3. It enables the teacher to understand the strengths and weaknesses of his pupil.
14. Cont…4. It enables the parent to understand their children.5. It feeds the community with better adjusted citizens.6. It serves to prevent problems which may lead to mental illness.7. It enables the administrator to make the best use of the energy, money, time and resources available.
15. Limitations of Guidance:1. Guidance services are not well organized.2. It is limited due to lack of personnel and other facilities.3. There is an overdoing of psychological tests.4. Conditions of life are too complex for any person to solve the problems of another.5. Qualified guidance personnel may do great harm.
16. According to Perez (1965): Counseling is an interactive process conjoining the counselee who need assistance and the counselor who trained and educated to give this assistance.
17. According to Pepinsky andPepinsky (1954) Counseling is that interaction which Occurs between two individuals called counselor and clients. Takes place in professional setting and Is initiated and maintained to facilitate changes in the behaviour of a client.
18. According to Patterson: Counseling is the process involving interpersonal relationships between a therapist and one or more clients by which the former employs psychological methods based on systematic knowledge of the human personality in attempting to improve the mental health of the later.
19. Purposes of Counseling1. To give the student information on matters important to his success.2. To help the student in solving his problems.3. To establish mutual understanding between students and teachers.4. To help the student work out a plan for solving his difficulties.
20. Cont….5. To help the students to known his interests, abilities, attitudes etc….6. To encourage and develop special abilities and right attitudes.7. To assists the student in planning educational and vocational choices.
21. Characteristics of Counseling. Person to person relationship. Involves two individual. Helps the counselor to discover and solve his personal problems independently. Helps and assist properly Establish a relationship of mutual respect, cooperation and friendliness between the two individuals.
22. Cont….. Discovers the problem of the client and helps him to set up goals and guide him through difficulties and problems. Counseling process the main emphasis is on the counselor’s self direction and self acceptance. Counseling is democratic.
23. Steps or Phases of Counseling. G ---- Greet the client A ---- Ask clients about themselves. T ---- Give information of Strategies of coping mechanisms H ---- Help the client to choose a method. E ---- Explain how to use a method. R ---- Return for follow-up.
24. Counseling process.I. Phase-1: Establishing Relationship: Introduce yourself. Listen attentively. Always address the individual by his/her name. Ensure physical comfort. Do not interrupt the individual while he is talking. Observe non-verbal communication.
25. II. Phase- 2: Assessment:
26. III. Phase- 3: Setting Goals: The skills of drawing inference. Differentiation and Teaching individuals to think realistically.
27. IV. Phase- 4: Intervention: Handling the interventions. Knowledge of its effects. Ability to read clients reaction.
28. V. Phase – 5: Termination and Follow-up:
29. Types of Counseling.
30. I. Directive counseling. Also known as Prescriptive or counselor-centered Counseling and the Steps involved. Analysis. Synthesis. Diagnosis. Prognosis. Treatment. Follow-up.
31. II. Non Directive Counseling. Also called Permissive Counseling or client centered Counseling. The client or the counselee is the pivot. He actively participates in the process. Steps involved are Need. Attitude. Understand. Accept Translate. Steps.
32. III. Eclectic Counseling: It is the combination of Directive and non directive Counseling Steps involved are, Diagnosis of the cause. Analysis of the problem. Preparation of a plan. Interviewing and stimulating a client. Proper handling of any related problems.
33. Organization of Guidance andCounseling centre in a school/college .of Nursing
34. Purposes: To help adolescents with normal developmental problems. To help individual through temporary crisis. To identify signs of disturbed behaviour at the earliest.
35. To refer cases needing specialist treatment. To support tutors who are helping individual but who themselves want guidance and reassurance.
36. The organization setup; For constituent colleges on the campus. For affiliated college at a distance. At universities.
37. Members in thecommittee: Dean. Liason officer Teacher from academic disciplines. Parents. Librarian. Warden. Medical staff.