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Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
Anatomy And  Physiology Of The  Nervous  System Ch12
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Anatomy And Physiology Of The Nervous System Ch12

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  • 1. Chapter 12 The Nervous System By: Norma Gongora
  • 2. Organs of the Nervous System
    • Brain
    • Nerves
    • Spinal Cord
  • 3.  
  • 4. The Brain
    • It is one of the largest organs in the body, and coordinates most body activities.
    • It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion.
    • Each part of the brain is responsible for controlling different body functions, such as temperature regulation and breathing.
    • There are 4 sections to the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brain stem.
  • 5.  
  • 6. Cerebrum
    • It is the largest section of the brain
    • It is located in the upper portion of the brain and is the area that processes thoughts, judgment, memory, problem solving, and language.
    • The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, which is composed of folds of gray matter.
    • The cerebrum is subdivided into the left and right halves called cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes.
  • 7. Lobes of the Cerebrum
    • 1. Frontal lobe : Most anterior portion of the cerebrum, controls motor function, personality, and speech
    • 2. Parietal lobe : The most superior portion of the cerebrum, receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language.
    • 3. Occipital lobe : The most posterior portion of the cerebrum, controls vision.
    • 4. Temporal lobe : The left and right lateral portion of the cerebrum, controls hearing and smell
  • 8. The Cerebellum
    • Second largest portion of the brain
    • Located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrum
    • Aids in coordinating voluntary body movements and maintaining balance and equilibrium
    • Refines the muscular movement that is initiated in the cerebrum
  • 9. Brain Stem
    • Midbrain — acts as a pathway for impulses to be conducted between the brain and the spinal cord.
    • Pons means bridge—connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.
    • Medulla oblongata — most inferior positioned portion of the brain; it connects the brain to the spinal cord.
  • 10. Spinal Cord
    • Protected by cerebrospinal fluid.
    • Inner core of the spinal cord contains gray matter.
    • The outer portion of the spinal cord is myelinated white matter.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Includes both the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
    • A nerve is a group or bundle of axon fibers located outside the central nervous system that carries messages between the CNS and the various parts of the body.
    • Whether a nerve is cranial or spinal is determined by where the nerve originates.
    • Cranial nerves arise from the brain, mainly at the medulla oblongata.
  • 13. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Involved with the control of involuntary or unconscious bodily functions.
    • It is divided into two branches: sympathetic branch and parasympathetic branch.
    • The sympathetic nerves stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis.
    • The parasympathetic nerves serve as a counterbalance for the sympathetic nerves.
  • 14. Somatic Nerves
    • Serve the skin and skeletal muscles.
    • These are also the nerves that carry motor commands to skeletal muscles.
    • Large variety of sensory receptors found in the dermis layer of the skin use somatic nerves to send their information, such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain, to the brain.
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