Culture-Inspired approach for designing sustainable practice

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Culture-Inspired approach for designing sustainable practice

  1. 1. A Culture-Inspired Approach to Gaining Insights for Designing Sustainable Practice A study of sustainable bathing practice for the Living Lab project Noriko Matsuhashi (Sudo) 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Background 2. Research questions and approach 3. Research phase 1 4. Research phase 2 5. Conclusions Key words: • Cross-cultural research, • Design method, • Eco-Design, • Product Development, • Sustainability, • Household routines 2
  3. 3. 1. Background 3
  4. 4. Practice oriented co-design approach Aim: Generate insights on less resource-intensive everyday practices Take shower Shorten the time less frequently for shower Shower culture D Difficult for participants to let go of common practice Different kinds of insights can help participants to generate ideas with radical innovations 4
  5. 5. How to obtain different kinds of insights? 5
  6. 6. Looking at everyday practice in different cultures 6
  7. 7. Assumption Information about everyday practice in different culture can be a source of inspiration to generate insights on possible less resource-intensive practices. proach In s pired Ap Culture- ultures n from  different c + inspiratio Shower culture Practice-oriented D Co-design 7
  8. 8. 2. Research questions and approach 8
  9. 9. Questions 1. What kinds of information about the everyday practice can play a role in insight and design idea generation? 2. What kinds of insights and ideas are generated by the information about the everyday practice in multiple cultures? 3. How to collect the information about the everyday practice from multiple cultures? 9
  10. 10. Questions 1. What kinds of information about the everyday practice can play a role in insight and design idea generation? 2. What kinds of insights and ideas are generated by the information about the everyday practice in multiple cultures? 3. How to collect the information about the everyday practice from multiple cultures? 10
  11. 11. Approach Qualitative research: Phase 1 Phase 2 Information Insight and idea Conclusions collection generation 11
  12. 12. Study topic Bathing practice 12
  13. 13. 3. Research phase 1: Information collection 13
  14. 14. Experimental culture survey Target cultures (countries): The Netherlands, India and Japan 14
  15. 15. Recording units: Elements of bathing practice Action Expectation Resource (water) 15
  16. 16. Recording format: Cultural probes (self-observation tools) 16
  17. 17. Results of the culture survey • Participants: 3 Dutch, 2 Indian and 3 Japanese • Total 11 bathing experiences were collected 17
  18. 18. = 20 liters Different ways of bathing and respective water consumption 1. Shower only 2. Bathtub only 3. Reservoir only 4. Combination of 5. Combination of 6. Combination of shower, shower and bathtub shower and reservoir reservoir and bathtub 18
  19. 19. Different ways of doing single tasks Task: Rinse soap off from the body get clean get clean get clean standing sitting standing & sitting Shower (fixed) reservoir Shower (by hand) 4–8 liters 2-4 liters 4–8 liters 19
  20. 20. 4. Research phase 2: Insight and idea generation 20
  21. 21. Experimental insight and idea generation Methods: • Qualitative interpretation by researcher • Creative workshop with designers Communication materials used in the creative workshop 21
  22. 22. Results of insight and idea generation Participant designers of the creative workshop: 3 Dutch master-level students in TU Delft 22
  23. 23. Insights on less resource-intensive practice 60 ‐115 liters Directions to reduce the water use • Using a water reservoir 20 liters • Frequent turn on/off the running water • Reuse the water used for adjusting the water temperature New possible styles of bathing • Combination of standing posture and use of a water reservoir “Rinse soap off from the body” 23
  24. 24. Ideas of less resource-intensive practice and products 24
  25. 25. Three types of ideas Technology User behavior Alternative practice -oriented -oriented -oriented e.g. Computer-aided e.g. Clock-timer shower e.g. Bathing suit pinpoint shower 25
  26. 26. Three types of ideas Technology User behavior Alternative practice -oriented -oriented -oriented 50% 30% 15% Looking at different styles of bathing can encourage designers to step out of their own rituals (shower) 26
  27. 27. 5. Conclusions 27
  28. 28. Research question: What kinds of insights and ideas are generated by the information about the everyday practice in multiple cultures? Insights: Idea: •Directions to reduce the use of Alternative practice-oriented resource •New possible styles of the practice Standing Bathing suit  + Reservoir 28
  29. 29. Culture-inspired approach can… Provide a wider variety of insights on possible styles of everyday practice than a mono cultural survey Encourage participants to let go of their conventions and generate ideas with radical innovation that has higher resource-saving potential D 29
  30. 30. Thank you! Noriko Matsuhashi (Sudo) 30
  31. 31. Appendix 31
  32. 32. Recording unit • As many details as possible • Breaking the bathing practice into many easy elements • Two basic models IMAGE Materials STUFF Behavioral norms Values and Basic  SKILL assumptions Model of culture Model of everyday practice (Based on Moalosi, Popovic and Hickling-Hudson, 2007) (Shove, after Scott, 2008 ) 32
  33. 33. Process of information collection R P P STEP 2 1 2 P Self-observation R Send out  Answer to   a questionnaire questions 3 P R R Hand in  P STEP 1 answers 4 5 Work on cultural probes, Send out  6 Customize  take photos Preparation cultural probes cultural probes Hand in cultural probes  7 and photos Feedback interview Survey tools & techniques: P R Preparatory interview Cultural probe P Participant STEP 3 P 8 Follow‐up Interview (workbook & recording format) Researcher Wrap-up and R complement R Feedback & follow up Interview Data analysis 33
  34. 34. Example of survey findings: Unique actions and respective expectations Get warm Get warm Get warm Relax muscles Stimulate blood flow Relax muscles Relax  Relax  Get  Feel  Smell good Get soft clean better Get soft  appr. 15-25 liters appr. 10-15 liters appr. 80-160 liters Standing under the Brushing teeth under Soaking in a bathtub running water for a while the running water (without using it) 34
  35. 35. Process of information communication Communication tools: D Designer Introduction movie  STEP 1 1 homework  R Researcher Homework (workbook) D Preparation for the Personal cardset workshop Watch the  2 introduction movie D Unfinished storyboard  Questionnaire STEP 2 Ice break and  introduction Workshop 3 D STEP 3 (creative session) Presentation of the  information  D D Focus group interview Idea generation round 2 Present  (products) Idea generation round 1 4 (practices) design assignments Fill in a questionnaire  7 and interview 8 6 5 Idea evaluation  D R and selection D D D D D D D D D Conclusions 35
  36. 36. Process and tools/techniques STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 Preparation Idea generation Feedback Homework Workshop Focus group interview R D D D Workbook Storyboards Based on “Guidelines for communicating rich experience information to designers” Sleeswijk Visser (2009) Introduction movie Cardsets 36
  37. 37. Research question 1: What kinds of information about the everyday practice can play a role in insight and design idea generation? 37
  38. 38. Information that can play a role in… Understanding the everyday practice of different cultures • Local context (climate, conditions of resource supply, economic and residence) • Context of the everyday practice (timing, frequency, duration) • Facilities and products • Procedure Generating insights and design ideas • A variety of styles and their respective resource consumption • Actions and their respective resource consumption • Posture and product use • Body movement • Expectations for action with resource • Feelings and emotions during the action 38
  39. 39. Recording units for culture survey Local life Context  •Location  Action General context •Procedure •Timing  •Frequency •Climate •Duration •Duration (total) •Resource supply condition •Posture  •Style  •Economic condition •Movement •Social aspects •Residential condition •Product  •Feeling &  Emotion Expectation – Action link Action – Resource link Bathing practice Expectation Resource action with  bathing water use Expectation – Resource link each action 39
  40. 40. Research question 3: How to collect the information about everyday practice from multiple cultures? 40
  41. 41. Method used in this study The three step survey method with self-observation probes resulted in a rich source of data on the actions involved in the bathing practice from people in three countries. However…. 41
  42. 42. Challenges in the survey process • Finding participants and a contact person in unfamiliar countries • Handling of the differences in communication means P P P R Researcher PP P Participants Face‐to‐face C P P Calling  Contact  person E‐mail 42
  43. 43. Challenges in the survey tools • Reduction in the overall workload of participants • Definition of ‘single action’  Handling of the differences in means for recording resource use • Localization of distribution means and languages = duration of shower (min) x 8 liter = number of mugs x 0.5 liter Definition of single action can vary Difference in the way of measuring by participants the amount of water 43
  44. 44. Discussion • A variety of different bathing practices may also be collected through survey in one culture by looking at different people or past • What is the incentives to change practice? (when and why people have adopted new ways of doing practice in the past?) • Small-scale experiment of insight and idea generation (depends on researcher and designers) • Estimation of resource consumption of the new ideas (how to judge the idea is less resource-intensive than current practice)? • Application of the approach to other everyday practices • Ideas with radical innovations may be difficult to try out in context of co-designer’s own home 44
  45. 45. Further directions Validation of the effectiveness of culture-inspired approach • Conducting more experimental information collection and insight/idea generation (mono vs multi culture, with info vs without info) Method improvements • Process and tools for collecting information (on-line survey?) • Process and tools for communicating information with designers Practical applications • Application to other everyday practices (different resource) • Incorporation into the practice-oriented co-design (scale and timing) 45

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