If the noun ends with -y and the letter before the -y is a consonant, change the -y to -i and add -es to make the noun plural. arm y – arm ies suppl y - suppl ies sk y - sk ies Nouns ending in -ff become plural by adding -s tariff - tariff s sheriff - sheriff s plaintiff - plaintiff s
If the noun ends with -s, -ch, -sh, -x , or -z , add -es to make it plural. witness–witness es church – church es dish– dish es fox - fox es buzz – buzz es
If the noun ends with -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel, add -s to make the noun plural. boy–boy s bay – bay s key – key s toy - toy s
The inconsistency of rules is shown in the plurals of nouns which ends in –f or -fe Some become plural by replacing the -f to -v and adding -s or -es kni fe - kni ves wi fe - wi ves hal f - hal ves lea f - lea ves Other nouns ending in -f or -fe become plural by only adding -s belief - belief s proof - proof s chief - chief s
Common and Proper Nouns
A common noun names any regular, ordinary person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Nothing specific. A proper noun names a very specific, very particular person, animal, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun always begins with capital letter (is capitalized).
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
A concrete noun names a person, animal, place, or thing that you can actually see, touch, taste, hear, or smell. List of concrete nouns: spaghetti, muffins, perfume, water, book, room, pen, composer, boy, car
An abstract noun names an idea, feeling, emotion, or quality that cannot be detected by your five senses. List of abstract nouns: prettiness, pleasure, annoyance, skill, nature, communication, love, velocity, education
A collective noun names a group of people, animals or things. Sample noun lists. People: audience, crowd, jury, family, group, nation, staff, cast, gang, team Animals: flock, colony, swarm, gaggle, herd Things: bunch, bundle, set, stack, cache, batch, bouquet
A compound noun is made up of two or more words used together. Compound nouns can be One word: shoelace, keyboard, flashlight, applesauce, notebook, bedroom Hyphenated: sky-scraper, boy-friend, baby-sitter,, great-grandfather Two words: police officer, seat belt, high school, word processor, post office
Types of compound nouns (hyphen)
The ‘solid’ or ‘closed’ forms in which two usually moderately short words appear together as one. Solid compounds most likely consist of short ( monosyllabic ) units that often have been established in the language for a long time. Examples are housewife , lawsuit , wallpaper , etc.
The hyphenated form in which two or more words are connected by a hyphen . Compounds that contain affixes , such as house-build(er) and single-mind(ed)(ness) , as well as adjective-adjective compounds and verb-verb compounds, such as blue-green and freeze-dry , are often hyphenated. Compounds that contain articles, such as mother-of-pearl and salt-and-pepper , editor-in-chief are also often hyphenated.
The open or spaced form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words, such as distance learning , player piano , lawn tennis , etc.
Usage in the US and in the UK differs and often depends on the individual choice of the writer rather than on a hard-and-fast rule; therefore, open, hyphenated, and closed forms may be encountered for the same compound noun, such as the triplets container ship / container-ship / containership and particle board / particle-board / particleboard .
In addition to this native English compounding, there is the classical type, which consists of words derived from Latin, as horticulture , and those of Greek origin, such as photography , the components of which are in bound form (connected by connecting vowels, which are most often -i- and -o- in Latin and Greek respectively) and cannot stand alone.'