2.0 FERROUS MATERIAL STRUCTURE AND BINARY ALLOY SYSTEM2.1 Understand the metal productionMetal Production IndustriesAutomated Welding Robotic Welders Seam Welders Spot WeldersMetal Cleaning Equipment Vacuum Chambers R O SystemsFoundry Equipment Automated Molding Machines Kilns Sand CastersCNC Machine Refit Mills Lathes Cutting TablesPlasma and laser cutting X/Y TablesPress room equipment Clutch/Brake Punch Press Control Hydraulic Press Control Safety Equipment Press Feeders Automated Die Monitoring and Control In Die Transfer Systems Robotic take away and packagingDie Monitoring and Control
Spin formingPrecision windingRemote Control Systems Radio Control Systems Web SystemsKilns2.2 State the content of iron oreIron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Theores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple,to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3),goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Ores carrying very highquantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than ~60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or"direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Mostreserves of such ore have now been depleted. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron(Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke,usually with limestone as a flux.), which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% ofthe mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integralto the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil".The types of iron orea)MagnetiteMagnetite iron - iron of high quality mineral - Almost 70% of the metal / black metalb)Iron carbonateIron carbonate - a low-grade material.- Containing 20% ironc)HematiteHematite iron - iron of high quality mineral - Contains 40-60% iron redd)LimoniteLimonite iron - containing 20-55% iron - Brown
2.1.2 Explain the process of iron production by using Blast Furnace.Liquid pure iron ore resulting from a reduction to pure iron oxide. Among the best method is touse the blast furnace. First blast furnace tank filled with iron oxide (ore, pellet, sinter), limestone or dolomite and fuel (coke) in the funnel above. Further oxygen gas is injected into the tank to assist combustion. Oxygen gas will react with coke and produces carbon dioxide gas. Then the resulting carbon dioxide will react just about menghasilkangas coke carbon monoxide. Monoxide gas produced is used to react with iron oxide to produce pure liquid iron and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not required and issued through the funnel above. As a result, the products derived from this furnace is the melting of pure iron which is accumulated in the bottom of the furnace (hearth) for the heavier mass and liquid slag (slag) floats on the molten iron. This process is carried out at a temperature of 1500C. Pure liquid iron will come out through the bottom of the funnel while the slag out of the funnel slightly on the availability of liquid slag. Slag is the liquid produced during the process of reduction of iron ore, which contains silica and alumina produced from the reaction of limestone iron oxide and magnesium oxide. Slag is suitable for the production of construction materials especially cement for concrete and road making.
2.2 Understand the steel production2.2.1 Explain the process of steel production by using this methoda)Basic Oxygen Furnaceb)Electric Arc Furnace