A new pathway to sustainability in malaysia

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  • 1. The Pathway to a New Sustainability Paradigm for Malaysia Mohd Nordin Hasan DirectorICSU Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
  • 2. Plan• Origins of interest in SD in Malaysia• UNCED 1992 and after • EPU, Selangor, LESTARI• Three pillars, segregated paradigm through 2002 Earth Summit• Rio+20, The Future We Want and ICSU’s Future Earth• Prerequisites for success and possibilities of a new paradigm 2
  • 3. Early years1980 WorldConservationStrategyIUCN/UNEP/WWF 3
  • 4. Developments in Malaysia• Series of state conservation strategies developed for Malaysia (Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Perlis, Sarawak, Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan, Sabah) during 5th and 6th Malaysia Plan Period 1986 – 1990; 1991 – 1995.• M. Nordin, 1990. The Conservation Strategy Malaysia Projects: National Resource Assessment and Analysis for Development Planning and Implementation. Proceedings International Conference and Workshop on Global Natural Resource Monitoring and Assessments: Preparing for the 21st Century. Vol. 2 pp. 763-768. Fondizione G. Gini, Venezia (Italy).• 1993 – National Conservation Strategy (EPU) 4
  • 5. Own interest in SD• Has always been on knowledge for SD • Mohd Nordin Hj Hasan, Zakri A. Hamid and Chow Kok Kee, 1992. National Response to UNCED 1992: Science and Technology Issues. Proceedings National Seminar on Malaysia and UNCED: The Road From Rio. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Kuala Lumpur.• Little direct engagement at the community and political level – but active with national and international NGO• Main role as knowledge provider – the how and why (sometimes!); EPU, LESTARI, Selangor State• Supplied technocrats (state; federal) and the sometimes receptive business and industry 5
  • 6. Was there an “old” paradigm?• Landmark …1976 3rd Malaysia Plan interplay between environment and development given due consideration in development planning• Focus: Avoiding impairment of the country’s land and forest resources, pollution from industries and environmental degradation from urban development• Institutions: Promulgated the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and established the Department of the Environment• Goal: Not to impair productivity of Malaysia’s land and forest resources and cause extinction of unique elements of natural ecosystems• Scope: Included health of Malaysians, sustainability of recreational resources and productivity of fisheries 6
  • 7. Our Common Future• Then came the “three pillars”! 1987 Brundlandt’s Our Common Future and after UNCED 1992, Agenda 21• The environmental focus started it all• Economics? ….a difficult preposition, nevertheless the EPU established a sub-section on environment in 1994 that became Environment and Natural Resources Section of the EPU (Freddie Cho, Himmat Singh, Ali Hamsa)• Social? ….. poverty alleviation model• The three pillars - largely compartmentalised 7
  • 8. • Environment • Mohd Nordin Hj Hasan, 1998. Review of Environmental Quality Management in Malaysia. In Mohd Nordin Hj Hasan, Lizuryati Azrina Abdullah and Ibrahim Komoo (Eds.) National Review on Environmental Quality Management in Malaysia: Towards the Next Two Decades. Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. pp 1-9. ISBN 983-9444-11-5• Economics • Mohd. Nordin Hj. Hasan, 1992. Environmental Management as a Strategy for Sustainable Development. In Teh Hoe Yoke and Goh Kim Leng Malaysias Economic Vision: Issues and Challenges. Pelanduk Publications. 421-437.• Social/Institutional • Mohd Nordin Hj Hasan, 1994. Sustainable Development: A Challenge for Malaysia. In Noor Aziah Hj Mohd Awal and Siti Faridah Abdul Jabar (Eds.) An Appraisal of Environmental Law in Malaysia: People, Development and Sustainability. Faculty of Law Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Asia Foundation. pp 7-19. 8
  • 9. Socio-economic success• Meeting the needs of current generation• Malaysian economy in 2011 was about fourteen times the size it was in 1980s (PPP GDP $447b 2011 est.)• GDP growth of 5% to 7% since 2007• Brought development - economic and financial benefits, alleviated poverty, enhanced the education and health services, and brought enduring peace and stability• In 2007 - 3rd largest economy in South East Asia; 28th largest in the world by purchasing power parity.6 November 2012 Universiti Malaya 9
  • 10. MDGMalaysia has made remarkable progress in achieving theMillennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the globallyagreed blueprint for halving extreme poverty, halting thespread of diseases, promoting access to education andimproving health care – ahead of the 2015 deadline.UN Secretary Generalhttp://www.un.org/apps/news/infocus/sgspeeches/statments_full.asp?statID=148622 March 2012 10
  • 11. Environmental success 11
  • 12. Rio+20• Until Rio+20 – model was disjointed incrementalism• The Future We Want.• 283 paragraphs and 53 pages long• Statements on a common vision; desirable end-points• Renewing political commitment;• Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication;• Institutional framework for sustainable development;• Framework for action and follow-up; and• Means of implementation. 12
  • 13. From the scientificperspective• 3 key requirements • More integrated knowledge • Greater valuation of ecosystem services • Understanding interdependence – economic, social, ecological • At all scales – local/community, nations, global 13
  • 14. In practical terms the global challenges are• Feeding 9 billion people within sustainable planetary boundaries• Valuing and protecting nature’s services and biodiversity• Adapting to a warmer and more urban world• Transitioning to low carbon societies• Providing income and innovation opportunities through transformations to global sustainability• Reducing disaster risks• Aligning governance with stewardship 14
  • 15. …..leading toEarth System Science 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. COSUST special issue for PuPWithout understanding the social andpolitical dynamics, aspirations, beliefsand values, and their impact on our ownbehavior, we only describe the world’sphysical, biological and chemicalphenomena, observe and documenttheir changes, and apply technology tosecure access to resources but wouldultimately fail to ensure sustainability.Transdisciplinary research can contributeto solutions for a sustainable world.There is no other viable way forward.The sustainability challenges must bemet and the Earth system sciencecommunity will have an important role.Source: Rik Leemans presentation to MAIRS 17
  • 18. Co-design and co-production ofknowledge requires theinvolvement of researchers and Dissemination ofstakeholders during the entire Resultsresearch process. (translation, transparency, dialogue, responsivity) Scientific Integration (interdisciplinarity, consistency, uncertainty) Relevance (transdisciplinarity, stakeholder involvement) Co-Production Implementation (funding calls, proposals, review, etc.) Research Definition (research scale, research questions) Joint Framing (topic depends on societal emergence) Co-Design Slide from G. Klepper’s presentation at Planet Under Pressure
  • 19. 19
  • 20. WMO as observerScience and Technology Alliance for Global Sustainability 21
  • 21. A global platform for international research collaboration• augments earth system science with impacts of environmental change on people, adaptation and transformation• delivers interdisciplinary research on global environmental change for sustainable development• strengthens partnership between researchers/funders/users (co-design) 22
  • 22. • How and why the global environment is changing,• What are likely future changes and what the implications are for human wellbeing and other species,• What choices can be made to reduce harmful risks and vulnerabilities and enhance resilience,• and how this knowledge can support decisions and sustainable development?
  • 23. Transformation towards Sustainability Global DynamicDevelopment Planet
  • 24. What is then the pathway to a new sustainability paradigm for Malaysia?Sept,2012 Hazards w.shop, KL 25
  • 25. Dynamic Planet What are the states, variability and trends in biodiversity, climate, soils, cryosphere, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and oceans? What is happening to the human and geophysical driving forces of change such as consumption, population, technology, greenhouse gases, and evolution and how do they interact? What are the scenarios for the future including natural variability, the risks of tipping points and catastrophic change?Development What are the patterns, trade offs and sustainable options for land use? How can we ensure secure and sustainable food, water, air, energy and materials for our people? How is global environmental change risking human health, biodiversity and ecosystem services? What energy options are available to provide energy for all with reduced environmental impacts?Transformation towards Sustainability How can we align governance to manage environmental change and sustainable development? What are the options for innovative green technology and economics to promote, for example, lower carbon futures and more rewarding work? How do information, values and policies influence individual and corporate behavior to more sustainable patterns of production, trade and consumption? What triggers system transformations and what leverage points can be used to promote deliberate and equitable change towards sustainability?
  • 26. In conclusionNew paradigm requires• Stakeholders working together to co-design and coproduce knowledge and know-how• Trans- and multi-disciplinary approach to the search for knowledge and understanding that cuts across social, economic and ecological dimensions• Global frameworks are being developed that could be interpreted for local and national applications• The path to a new sustainability paradigm is wide open and it’s up to us all to rise to the occasion 27
  • 27. Future Earth newsletterRegister on the ICSU website! www.icsu.org/future-earth 28
  • 28. Thank you all, for your attention. www.icsu.org/asia-pacific 29