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  1. 1. *POLLEN ALLERGY*Mehwish Noreen(031)M.Sc. -4th
  2. 2. AnabnormallyHighsensitivitytowardspollens iscalled PollenAllergy&nasal allergy
  3. 3. POLLEN IS VERY FINE POWDERTHAT COMESMOSTLY FROM; Trees Grasses Flowers weeds
  4. 4. HOW THEY REACHTOHUMANS??Wind and birdscarry this pollenfrom plant to planttoFertilize them. Whenpeople who have apollen allergy getthem by inhalation.Make it to contact
  5. 5. Allergy variationin accordto pollen originpeople can be allergic to differenttypes of pollen.For instance, some are allergicto pollen from only beech trees, other areallergic to pollen from only certainkinds of grasses.
  6. 6. SIZE OFPOLLENGRAINPollengrainsCan be aslarge asabout 90-100
  7. 7. The tendency todevelopallergies isOften heredity,which means itcan be passeddown throughyour genes.However, justbecause aparent orsubling might
  8. 8. Plants that usuallycause allergyWeedsI. pigweedII. SagebrushIII. TumbleweedsTreesI. BeechII. BirchGrassesI. RedtopII. RyeIII. Johnson
  9. 9. Pollen countPollen counts give the number of grains of pollen in a certainamount of air in a set time period(usually 24 hours). The pollen ismeasured for specific plants such as grasses, oak trees andcottonwood trees. Pollen counts change with the weather (rain,humidity, sun and wind) and time of day; for example, they areusually higher on warm, breezy day and lower on chilly, wet days.Some places give a total pollen count rather than pollen counts ofspecific plants. A high total pollen count doesn’t mean you willhave allergy symptoms. The pollen from the pant you are allergicto may not be high.
  10. 10. SYMPTOMS OF POLLENALLERGY Running nose Nasal congestion Sneezing Vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal pain Head ache Difficulty in breathing Wheezing Tightness in chest Cough and a discharge from the back ofthe nose in to the throat Red and itchy eyes Watery eyes Itching on the skin Skin rashes Some people will complain that their foodhas lost taste or cannot smell their food
  11. 11. Causative seasonsVary according to places. Islamabadin month of march there is a difference in intensity of symptoms of allergy indifferent people Punjab & Hazarafrom June till mid of September LahoreOrdinary grasses cause the allergy. But due to pollution the vegetation in Lahoreis decreasing day by day therefore the possibility of this grass to cause allergycan be ruled out. KarachiAmerican grass is responsible for causing allergy in Karachi. There could beother factors as well but research is being done to find them Central PakistanThe place where wheat is cultivated, allergy is cause by the threshers used tothresh wheat. The small particles of wheat cause allergy.
  12. 12. Mechanisms behindpollenosis1. pollen allergens(antigens) are released in the air and reach the airways and so the mucosa2. Once in the blood stream of mucosa the antigens are taken up by cellsof immune system(antigen-presenting-cells =APC), broken down intobits and bound to specific proteins called AHL to be “presented” at thecell surface.3&4. these APCs stimulates B andTh2 cells to produce the antigen-bindingprotein.5. Th2 cells stimulates the B cell.6. To make even more antigen-binding protein.7. B cell in het blood plasma secretes antigen-binding protein(IgE).8. By B cell secreted antigen-binding proteins bind to surface of mastcells( also called mastocyte).9. Therefore the mast cells become more sensitive to antigens.10. After the mast cell has bound antigen it produces vesicles withhistamine and other hormones.11. The histamine is released and caused an allergic reaction.
  13. 13. DIAGNOSIS OF POLLENALLERGY• Blood test: :are taken to diagnosethe pollen allergy. Thisblood test is known asRAST(radioallergorbenttest)• Skin test: :are also taken todiagnose the pollenallergy. Doctor injectsdifferent types of pollenin the skin of theperson and sees thereaction. If skin swells,becomes red or rashesappear doctor confirmsthat the patient isallergic to that type of
  14. 14. Treatment ofpollen allergyPollen allergy can be treated in theFollowing three ways:1. Avoiding the allergen2. Medication of symptoms3. Injection therapy
  15. 15. AVOIDING THEALLERGY Close your windows and outsidedoors Avoid using window and attic fansduring pollen season. Use air-conditioning to cool your home. Roll up your car windows whendriving. Use the air-conditioning, ifyou need it. Dry clothing and bedding in thedryer. Don’t hang them out. Remember that pets can bring inpollen on their fur, too. Don’t allowpets that spend time outdoors inyour bedroom. Wear mask and gloves
  16. 16. Medication ofsymptoms Antihistamine tablets or syrups(non-sedating) help sneeze, itchand irritating eyes, but they are not as effective in controlling severe nasalblockage and dribble. The advantage of antihistamine is their flexibility; youcan take them when you have problems and avoid them when you are well.Antihistamine eye drops can also be helpful in controlling watery eyes due toallergies. Intranasal Corticosteroid NasalSpray(INCS) a potent action on inflammation when use regularly.Decongestant sprays unblock and dry the nose, but should not be used formore then a few days as they can cause long term problems in the nose Decongestant tablets unblock and dry the nose, but shouldbe used which caution as they can have “stimulant "side effects like tremors,trouble sleeping, anxiety or an increase in blood pressure. People with highblood pressure should not take this medication. Appropriate management of“pollen asthma” includes commensing anti-inflammatory asthmamedication either preventatively or with the first wheeze of spring. Somepatients undergoing immunotherapy for their allergic rhinitis find that theirseasonal asthma improves as well.
  17. 17. INJECTIONTHERAPYImmunotherapy is long termtreatment option.Medicines only reduce theseverity of symptoms. Theydo not cure it. Where by onetry to switch off the allergicreaction by repeatedly smalldoses of allergen extracts,by injection or sublingualdrops.Both are long termtreatments, which are oftengive over a few years.Immunotherapy should onlybe initiated by a medicalspecialist (allergist/clinicalimmunologist)
  18. 18. WAY TO EASE YOURALLERGIESNATURALLY Fight back with folicacid Make a clean sweep Kick off your shoes Wipe down yourdogs Work out at dusk,not dawn Spice thing up Pick up a neti pot Stay sneeze-free Pucker up Vitamin C Clean their withHEPA Filter.
  19. 19. ConclusionWe can’t remove pollen fromour environmentbut still there are some drugsthat lessens the severityand some remedies to avoidPollen allergy.