The Traditional Model
The Human Relations Model
The Human Resources Model
The three (3) theories are :
• Need theory or content theory
• Process theory
• Reinforcement theory
Need theory /
Theory X & Y
The study concluded that individuals work
satisfaction & dissatisfaction arise from two
different sets of factors
The factors were :
Hygiene factor (dissatisfied)
Satisfier factor (motivating)
Also known as the dissatisfier factor.
It is associated with the work setting of an
individual, often called job context.
Hygiene factor causes feelings of job
The determinants of job dissatisfaction
were found to be :
Also known as motivating factor
Satisfier factor causes feelings of
The determinants of job satisfaction :
The managerial implications associated
with the two factor theory are :
• Improvements made in the hygiene factors can
prevent or eliminate job dissatisfaction.
However, they will not improve job satisfaction.
• Improvements made in the satisfier factors can
increase job satisfaction. However, they will not
prevent job dissatisfaction.
This theory describes the views or
perception of managers with regards to
Theory x Theory Y
Avoiding work whenever possible Willing to work
Irresponsible Willing to accept responsibility
Having to be pushed by managers to
• A theory of motivation that centers around the
principle of balance or equity.
• According to this theory level of motivation in an
individual is related to his or her perception of
equity & fairness practiced by management.
• Restoring inequity
Change the outcome (rewards)
Change the comparison person
Leave the situation
• Developed by Victor Vroom
• A person is motivated to the degree that he or she
(1) effort will lead to performance
(2) performance will be rewarded
(3) the value of the reward is highly positive
This theory argues that behavior is
reinforced & controlled by external events.
For example : people will repeat behaviors
that are positively rewarded & avoid
behaviors that are punished or reinforced