Motivation

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motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. The willingness to put forth effort in the pursuit of organizational goals (MONDY) Forces either internal or external to a person that influence action to do something
  2. 2. NEED DRIVE TENSION BEHAVIOR GOAL REWARD
  3. 3. The Traditional Model The Human Relations Model The Human Resources Model
  4. 4. The three (3) theories are : • Need theory or content theory • Process theory • Reinforcement theory
  5. 5. Contemporary views of motivation Need theory / content theory Hierarchy of human needs Two factor theory Theory X & Y Process theory Equity theory Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory
  6. 6. The study concluded that individuals work satisfaction & dissatisfaction arise from two different sets of factors The factors were :  Hygiene factor (dissatisfied)  Satisfier factor (motivating)
  7. 7. Also known as the dissatisfier factor. It is associated with the work setting of an individual, often called job context. Hygiene factor causes feelings of job dissatisfaction The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be :  Company policy  Administrative policies  Salary  Working conditions
  8. 8. Also known as motivating factor Satisfier factor causes feelings of satisfaction. The determinants of job satisfaction :  Work itself  Responsibility  Achievement
  9. 9. The managerial implications associated with the two factor theory are : • Improvements made in the hygiene factors can prevent or eliminate job dissatisfaction. However, they will not improve job satisfaction. • Improvements made in the satisfier factors can increase job satisfaction. However, they will not prevent job dissatisfaction.
  10. 10. This theory describes the views or perception of managers with regards to their employees. Theory x Theory Y Avoiding work whenever possible Willing to work Irresponsible Willing to accept responsibility Having to be pushed by managers to work Self direction
  11. 11. Equity theory • A theory of motivation that centers around the principle of balance or equity. • According to this theory level of motivation in an individual is related to his or her perception of equity & fairness practiced by management. • Restoring inequity  Change the outcome (rewards)  Change the comparison person  Leave the situation
  12. 12. Expectancy theory • Developed by Victor Vroom • A person is motivated to the degree that he or she believes that  (1) effort will lead to performance  (2) performance will be rewarded  (3) the value of the reward is highly positive
  13. 13. This theory argues that behavior is reinforced & controlled by external events. For example : people will repeat behaviors that are positively rewarded & avoid behaviors that are punished or reinforced to avoid.
  14. 14. Reinforcement strategies : • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Extinction • Punishment
  15. 15. S : smart M : measurable A : achievable R : realistic T : time related
  16. 16. A department manager establishes a goal to increase profitability by 10% by the end of December 2013 as compared to profitability in 2006.

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