Course Title: Poetry Course Code & NO.: LANE 447 Course Credit Hrs.: 3 weekly Level: 7th Level Students Introductory Lecture Pt. 2 Poetic Structure, Forms & Genres A note on ScansionInstructor: Dr. Noora Al-MalkiCredits of images and online content are to their original owners.
This Presentation• is divided into three sections (Pt. 1, Pt. 2, and Pt. 3), each dealing with a distinct topic.• sums up the main points to be discussed in the course’s introductory lecture.• introduces main concepts related to the meaning of poetry, poetry types and forms, elements of a poem…etc.• encourages students to read further about English poetry in the listed references and websites. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 2 email@example.com
Poetry VS. Prose Overall, prose and poetry differ in the following aspects: 1. Poetry is more rhythmical, formal and metered in terms of structure compared to the more ordinary prose. 2. Poetry is more expressive and attractive as opposed to the usual dull quality of prose. 3. Lines are considered to be the basic units of poetry, whereas sentences fill the exact same role in the case of prose. 4. Generally, poetry often has some rhymes and relationships between its words as opposed to their absence in prose. http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-poetry-and-prose/ Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 3 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Structure The main structural elements in a poem include: the line, couplet, strophe and stanza. Poets combine the use of language and a specific structure to create imaginative and expressive works. Abondolo, Daniel (2001). A poetics handbook: verbal art in the European tradition. Curzon. pp. 52–53. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 4 email@example.com
Poetic Forms Poetry as Form: Ancient philosophers tried to decide on what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad. This led to the emergence of "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Abondolo, Daniel (2001). A poetics handbook: verbal art in the European tradition. Curzon. pp. 52–53. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 5 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms Abondolo, Daniel (2001). A poetics handbook: verbal art in the European tradition. Curzon. pp. 52–53. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 6 email@example.com
Poetic Forms The Bedford Online Glossary defines closed form, or "fixed form" poetry as follows: [Closed or fixed form poems are those] that may be categorized by the pattern of its lines, meter, rhythm, or stanzas. A sonnet is a fixed form of poetry because by definition it must have fourteen lines. Other fixed forms include limerick, sestina, and villanelle. However, poems written in a fixed form may not always fit into categories precisely, because writers sometimes vary traditional forms to create innovative effects. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 7 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms What distinguishes closed form poems is that they develop regular patterns with regard to lines, meter, rhythm and stanza. When we discuss a poems structure, were observing its pattern of lines and stanzas. Examples of Fixed Verse Forms can be found here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_verse Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 8 email@example.com
Poetic Forms A stanza consists of a grouping of two or more lines, set off by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme. The stanza in poetry is synonymous with the paragraph that is seen in prose, related thoughts are grouped into units. Kirszner & Mandell. Literature Reading, Writing, Reacting. Ch. 18,pg. 716. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 9 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms In traditional English-language poems, stanzas can be identified and grouped together because they share a rhyme scheme or a fixed number of lines (as in distich/couplet, tercet, quatrain, cinquain/quintain, sestet). In much modern poetry, stanzas may be arbitrarily presented on the printed page because of publishing conventions that employ such features as white space or punctuation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanza Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 10 email@example.com
Poetic Forms The Bedford Online Glossary defines "free verse" poetry as follows: “Sometimes called "free verse," open form poetry does not conform to established patterns of meter, rhyme, and stanza. Such poetry derives its rhythmic qualities from the repetition of words, phrases, or grammatical structures, the arrangement of words on the printed page, or by some other means. The poet E. E. Cummings wrote open form poetry; his poems do not have measurable meters, but they do have rhythm.” Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 11 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms What distinguishes open form poems “free Verse” is that they do not develop regular patterns with regard to lines, meter, rhythm and stanza. Their structure is more "organic" instead of being predetermined, following its own inner logic according to the emotion or thought expressed. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 12 email@example.com
Poetic Genres Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses (mode). The result is distinct genres or sub-genres of poetry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 13 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Genres Aristotles Poetics describes three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic —and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre. Heath, Malcolm, ed. (1997). Aristotles Poetics. Penguin Books Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 14 email@example.com
Poetic Genres Mainly, there are three major types of poetry: 1-Dramatic poetry 2-Lyric poetry 3-Narrative poetry However, each of these major types includes various poetic forms. Heath, Malcolm, ed. (1997). Aristotles Poetics. Penguin Books Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 15 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms Dramatic poetry uses the elements of drama. One or more characters speak to other characters, to themselves, or directly address the reader. This type of poetry often includes emotional conflict. Heath, Malcolm, ed. (1997). Aristotles Poetics. Penguin Books Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 16 email@example.com
Poetic Forms Lyric poetry expresses the thoughts and emotions of a single speaker. Usually short, a lyric poem creates a single, unified impression. Heath, Malcolm, ed. (1997). Aristotles Poetics. Penguin Books Lyric poetry, on the other hand, may tell about events, but the focus is on creating a mood or recalling a feeling. Lyric poems express the character, impressions and emotions of the poet, and are usually short. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 17 firstname.lastname@example.org
Poetic Forms Narrative poetry tells a story in verse form. A narrative poem has a beginning, a middle, and an ending, just like a prose story. Unlike prose, however, a narrative poem is much more concentrated. Heath, Malcolm, ed. (1997). Aristotles Poetics. Penguin Books Narrative poetry tells a story. It combines poetic techniques, such as rhyme and alliteration, with the elements of fiction, such as characters and a recognizable plot. . Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 18 email@example.com
A Note on Scansion Scansion: Putting It All Together The analysis of the patterns of rhythm in poetry is known as scansion (i.e. to "scan"). When you are asked to scan a poem, follow these steps: 1. Determine the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the poem. 2. Draw a line separating each foot, then count the number of feet per line. 3. Using the information from steps 1 and 2, name the type of metre for the poem (e.g. tetrametre). . Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 19 firstname.lastname@example.org
A Note on ScansionHave a look at the example below, which is from Thomas Grays"ElegyWritten in a Country Churchyard." The first stanza of the poem hasbeen written for you so you can see its metre and foot pattern.U / u / u / u / u /The cur / few tolls / the knell / of par / ting dayU / u / u / u / u /The low / ing herd / wind slow / ly oer / the lea,As this poem follows a pattern of one unstressed syllable and onestressed syllable, the name of the metre is iambic. Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 20 email@example.com
Extra material to check out http://structureandsurprise.wordpress. com/pedagogy/poetic-structures- summarized/ http://www.types-of-poetry.org.uk/ http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072405228/student_vie w0/poetic_glossary.html Dr. Noora Al-Malki 2012 21 firstname.lastname@example.org
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