Bio psychology


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Bio psychology

  1. 1. BIO PSYCHOLOGY The Nervous System
  2. 2. Neurons – The building block STRUCTURENeuron: A single cell.Nerve: a bundle of neurons.Parts of neurons:1. Dendrites2. Axon3. Axon Terminal4. Cell body
  3. 3. Neurons – The building block FUNCTION Neurons vary greatly in size and shape. Neurons are classified into three categories ◦ Sensory neurons – transmit impulses from receptors to CNS ◦ Motor neurons – carry outgoing signals from CNS to muscles and glands ◦ Inter-neurons – connect sensory and motor neurons
  4. 4. Neurons – The building blockSTRUCTURE
  5. 5. Neurons – The building blockFUNCTION- Neural Communication Action Potentials ◦ Information travels along neuron in form of neural impulse called an action potential ◦ Each action potential is the result of movement of electrically charged particles (ions) in and out of neuron ◦ Movement of ions controlled by ion channels - when these are closed the neuron is referred to as “resting” ◦ When a neuron is depolarized above the excitation threshold cell membrane is temporarily unstable, resulting in action potential. Resting Potential: The state when neuron is charged but waiting for next action potential to be generated.
  6. 6. Neurons – The building blockFUNCTION- Neural Communication Action Potential
  7. 7. Neurons – The building blockFUNCTION- Neural Communication Importance of eating bananas!!
  8. 8. Neurons – The building block Synapse: tiny fluid filled gap between axon terminal and dendrites.
  9. 9. Neurons – The building block
  10. 10. Neurons – The building blockFUNCTION Communication Between Neurons Synaptic transmission and neural coding ◦ All-or-none law – a neuron is either firing action potential, or not, so how can the nervous system code for/represent complexity of experience? ◦ Power of nervous system lies in the complexity of the connections between neurons ◦ Lock-and-key action – the way a neurotransmitter and receptor fit together, which causes a change in permeability of ion channels, either excitatory or inhibitory.
  11. 11. Neurons – The building blockNeurotransmitters ◦ More than 70 identified ◦ Acetylcholine – involved in memory and attention and transmits signals between nerve and muscle. ◦ Dopamine – mediates effects of natural rewards (e.g. food). Excess activity associated with schizophrenia. ◦ Serotonin – important role in mood regulation (SSRI). Also important in sleep and appetite
  12. 12. Neurons – The building blockNeurotransmitters Excitatory Effect: A neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential, or “fire.” Agonist: A drug that boosts the effect of a neurotransmitter. Inhibitory Effect: A neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that a receiving neuron will generate an action potential, or “fire.” Antagonist: A drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter.
  13. 13. The Structure of Nervous System Nervous System Peripheral Central Autonomic Somatic Sypathetic Parasympathetic
  14. 14. THE BRAIN
  15. 15. THE BRAIN- Case Studies Psychologist and Doctors began to learn about brain functions by studying the changes in ability and personality caused by brain injuries. Case of Phineas Gage. The injury leading to his personality change. Whats another important information about function of the damaged area?
  16. 16. THE BRAIN- Scanning Structure: ◦ Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)-X-rays. ◦ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-magnetic fields and radio waves Function: ◦ Functional MRI ◦ Electroencephalogram (EEG)-electrodes ◦ Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – radioactive glucose
  17. 17. THE BRAIN- Parts The BrainSTEM- no visible or structural end. Spinal chord enters the brain and changes the shape into medulla and reticular formation. ◦ Medulla: Basic life support. ◦ Reticular formation: Nerve network involved in wakefulness and alertness.
  18. 18. THE BRAIN- Parts The Thalamus: Sits at the top of brainstem. “sensory Switchboard” All incoming sensory nerves go through thalamus and its function is to send them to correct cortical area. Cerebellum : (little brain) Its controls emotions, hearing, touch. Coordination of physical movements and balance.
  19. 19. THE BRAIN- Parts The Limbic System: a border in between brain stem and cerebral cortex. 3 parts of limbic system: ◦ Hypothalamus- hunger, thirst, fight or flight. ◦ Hippocampus- MEMORIES ◦ Amygdala- emotions.
  20. 20. THE BRAIN- CEREBRAL CORTEX 20-30 billion neurons can exist in a layer of brian tissue 1/8th inch thickness. Two kinds of Cells: ◦ Glial cells ◦ Neurons
  21. 21. THE BRAIN- CEREBRAL CORTEX Major division of cerebral cortex:1. Frontal Lobe2. Temporal Lobe3. Parietal Lobe4. Occipital Lobe
  22. 22. THE BRAIN- CEREBRAL CORTEX Movement: ◦ Motor Cortex Feelings ◦ Somatosensory cortex  Plasticity: The ability of our brain to reprogram an a section for a new function.