Education and Free Software - Jon Maddog Hall in Campus Party London

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Jon Maddog Hall, hace un repaso de las ventajas del software libre en la educación, como puede emponderar pequeñas comunidades. También nos habla de las cosas que deberíamos enseñar y las que no. Consejos para una educación más libre y solidaria.

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  • FOSS has allowed these students and others to see how real operating system software, developed by their peers, is being used on 1/3 of all the server systems shipping today, most of the supercomputers being developed, a large number of embedded systems and (finally) is being delivered to the desktop. This software is being used all over the world, in countries that can not afford the high costs of closed source, proprietary software, but can contribute to the over-all generation of this software. This allows them to contribute to their own well-being...the essence of a democracy.
  • What are the real goals of a University? It is NOT just to give students a job, nor to teach them how to use some specific software to do their job. If this was true, we should pull back their diplomas when the products change. The goals of the undergraduate university is to teach students how to learn from books, magazines and (today) the Internet, how to be a thinking electorate and to make decisions and how to be a self-trained workforce for industry. This creates a life-long education. Furthermore, the university also does research to further move human knowledge. If most of the university is funded with public and government funds, this research should be as public as possible. It should be done with FOSS.
  • If you are teaching computer science or computer engineering, you have more than just “Linux” to look at for your courses. Other major kernel designs are available, all the way from general purpose operating systems such as Linux and the various BSD kernels, to real-time and embedded systems, both monolithic kernels and micro-kernels. There are even MS-DOS clones such as FreeDOS
  • These operating systems do not run just on Intel-like architectures, but other architectures as well. So you can select high-speed, high-power hardware or low-power, embedded systems. You can also have a 32-bit or 64-bit system. 64 bits, of course, allows for very large address spaces, useful to solve super-computer style of problems. But it is good to be able to use the same programming interfaces (API)s for all different types of systems
  • Different file systems have advantages in various areas, so it is good to study all of them. Of course compatibility with other systems is also a goal. Linux, as an example, can access many different file systems, so can read and write existing data on different existing disks. Networked file systems allow data-sharing across operating system boundaries.
  • Networking is more than just TCP/IP. Legacy networking protocols also have to be supported, as well as emerging wireless technologies.
  • Much is said about how FOSS systems can not be secure because people can see the holes in them. But the counter-argument of FOSS is that there are many eyes looking for those faults, and they are quickly patched when found. In addition, there is no such thing as a “retired” FOSS system that no one is willing to patch, as each user has the source code available to them, and can have it fixed if it needs it. On the other hand, major developments in security and authentication were developed in the FOSS community. The X Window System is a distributed, client/server model of graphics, both 2-D and 3-D. Clusters, both High-Performance “Beowulf” sytsems and High Availability systems are also freely available.
  • But if operating systems were the only things available, FOSS would be boring. Major (and even minor) computer languages are also supported, and you get th e sources to look at so you can see how they work. Many people now use high-level languages such as Perl, Python, Ruby and TCL/TK to write code that runs portably across lots of operating systems, even Microsoft Windows. Relational and object-oriented databases, office systems and multimedia editors, players and other programs are also available. VoIP is a technology to help with communication and lower costs. End user softphones, libraries of codecs, and open source PBX systems such as Asterisk are allowing people to communicate all over the world where normal telephony solutions are simply too expensive or not commercially feasible.
  • SourceForge is a repository of FOSS which allows people to house their software projects. Currently (September, 2005) it has over 103,000 projects and over 1.14 million registered users. A lot of people say that there is a lot of overlap on these projects, and that some of them are not so good, or that some of them were started, but there are no longer people working on some of these projects. While some of these claims may be true, the projects that are “stagnate” often come back to life, and even if they do not, the sources are still there to help teach other people. Finally, even if only 1/10 th of these projects and people are “real”, it is still more projects and developers than any company has.
  • SourceForge is a repository of FOSS which allows people to house their software projects. Currently (September, 2005) it has over 103,000 projects and over 1.14 million registered users. A lot of people say that there is a lot of overlap on these projects, and that some of them are not so good, or that some of them were started, but there are no longer people working on some of these projects. While some of these claims may be true, the projects that are “stagnate” often come back to life, and even if they do not, the sources are still there to help teach other people. Finally, even if only 1/10 th of these projects and people are “real”, it is still more projects and developers than any company has.
  • There has been a movement away from the fundamentals of teaching in computer science. Universities are teaching JAVA as the programming language now, with no instruction in how a computer really works. This fosters really bad coding habits, that cause programs to work forty or fifty times slower than they have to work. They do not teach such things as parallel programming, or hardware issues. Universities also teach some courses such as “How to run your business using Microsoft Office.” At a minimum this course should be changed to “How to run your business using various different office systems” to allow students to learn how to make their own choices of software.
  • Universities need to teach different things for this type of service to survive. Some of these topics are listed in this slide.
  • FOSS is more than just software: The Free Standards Group is a non-profit group which is defining an Application Binary Interface to allow applications to work across different distributions of Linux from different vendors. The Linux Professional Institute is a non-profit creating a world-wide, distribution and hardware independent systems administration certification. Both of these organizations allow people and companies to help define the interfaces and certifications. If you produce or deliver training, you can have your company listed for free on lintraining.com Open Hardware designs are also beginning to appear, allowing companies to improve them through manufacturing efficiencies.
  • FOSS is more than just software: The Free Standards Group is a non-profit group which is defining an Application Binary Interface to allow applications to work across different distributions of Linux from different vendors. The Linux Professional Institute is a non-profit creating a world-wide, distribution and hardware independent systems administration certification. Both of these organizations allow people and companies to help define the interfaces and certifications. If you produce or deliver training, you can have your company listed for free on lintraining.com Open Hardware designs are also beginning to appear, allowing companies to improve them through manufacturing efficiencies.
  • These are all relatively small systems utilizing the Linux operating system. The top is a 30 pin SIMM that has a Motorola CPU, ETHERNET, Serial interface and Parallel interfaces on it, as well as an LCD screen controller. The second is a Linux-based wrist-watch, a research project now looking to be implemented by a watch company The last two photographs are of a “server system” that has a 1 Gbtye disk, 32 Mbytes of main memory, Ethernet and USB port. Linux would be in flash memory.
  • A challenge for a university....to act as an incubator for new innovations.
  • Education and Free Software - Jon Maddog Hall in Campus Party London

    1. 1. Copyright Linux International 2013 1 of 38 A Comprehensive System of Education Using Free Software by Jon "maddog" Hall Executive Director Linux® International®
    2. 2. Copyright Linux International 2013 2 of 38 Introducing You To A Few Friends: Would Closed Source allow them to...?  Enterprise Creator – 22  President - 21  Kernel Developer – 12  Distribution Developer - 14  Soweto Entrepreneur – 22  Distribution Developer - 12
    3. 3. Copyright Linux International 2013 3 of 38 My Latest Hero: Marcelo Balisteri Favela Vila Parque da Cidade in Rio de Janeiro ● Taught himself computers ● Taught himself networking ● Started Wireless ISP in favela ● Started school for training young people
    4. 4. Copyright Linux International 2013 4 of 38 What Are Goals of Education?  Create a: − Thinking Electorate − Thinking Workforce − Lifetime knowledge  Research − Public Research with Public money − Private Research with Private money • Even then, sometimes it is “public”...
    5. 5. Copyright Linux International 2013 5 of 38 Four Functions Of Educational Body  Set a path of objectives  Teach to these objectives  Certify that people have retained and can use the knowledge  Research new objectives
    6. 6. Copyright Linux International 2013 6 of 38 Paths For “University Education”  Cooperative Education  Guild Program − Apprentice − Journeyman − Master Craftsman  Mentors  Self-learning  Self-teaching - “Do not be afraid”
    7. 7. Copyright Linux International 2013 7 of 38 What To Teach and Not To Teach: That Is The Question  Teach networking standards and implementation − Not Cisco networking  Teach how to select and use office products − Not Microsoft Office  Databases and Data structures − Not Oracle Database  Telephony − Not Nortel Communications
    8. 8. Copyright Linux International 2013 8 of 38 What Is Free Culture and How Can It Help?  Free and Open Source Software – Reduce costs – Allow real-life projects (fun and useful)  Free and Open Standards – Enable interoperability and longevity  Creative Commons  Free and Open Hardware
    9. 9. Copyright Linux International 2013 9 of 38 K-12 ● K12Linux – LTSP plus Fedora ● http://fedorahosted.org/k12linux/ ● Edubuntu ● Poseidon Linux – scientific − GIS, 3D Visualization, Mathematics, Statistics, Genetics, Bio-Informatics, other research − Portuguese, Spanish, English, German, Greek, Italian, French
    10. 10. Copyright Linux International 2013 10 of 38 University Computer Science
    11. 11. Copyright Linux International 2013 11 of 38 A Complete Computer Science Curriculum  Operating Systems Design − Kernels  Linux  *BSD  FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD  FreeDOS – www.freedos.org  TinyOS – http:tinyos.net  CMU MACH  Hurd
    12. 12. Copyright Linux International 2013 12 of 38 A Complete Computer Science Curriculum (Cont.)  Operating Systems Design (Cont.) − Multi  user  tasking  threaded  architecture − memory managed and not  32 and 64 bit
    13. 13. Copyright Linux International 2013 13 of 38 Operating System Design (Cont.)  Filesystems − FAT (FAT-16, FAT-32, VFAT, etc.) − NTSC − Unix − Log-based − Journaled  Networked file systems − NFS, SAMBA
    14. 14. Copyright Linux International 2013 14 of 38 Operating System Design (Cont.)  Networking − TCP/IP − X.25 − Appletalk − SMB − DECNET − 802.11x − IR − Bluetooth
    15. 15. Copyright Linux International 2013 15 of 38 Operating System Design (Cont.)  Security aspects − Kerberos − SELinux − AppArmor  Graphics − X Window System − OpenGL  Clustered systems (HPC and HA)  Virtualization (Xen and KVM)  Emulators – Wine, BOCHS, QEMU
    16. 16. Copyright Linux International 2013 16 of 38 FOSS Not Just “An Operating System”  Compilers − “C”, C++, Fortran, Pascal, Lisp, BASIC, etc.  Interpreters − Python, Perl, Ruby, Tcl/Tk  Database engines  Office Systems  Multimedia tools  VoIP
    17. 17. Copyright Linux International 2013 17 of 38 SourceForge 430K+ projects 3.4M+ developers Without China, India, Latin America, etc. being fully on connected to Internet
    18. 18. Copyright Linux International 2013 18 of 38 What Types of Programs?  Audio & Video  Business & Enterprise  Communications  Development  Home & Education  Games  Science & Engineering  Security & Utilities  Systems Administration  Emulators and Simulators
    19. 19. Copyright Linux International 2013 19 of 38 SourceForge  Build on top of other programs − Not just whole programs, parts of programs  Meet other people of like interest  Research can go faster, since large portions of existing code might be used freely
    20. 20. Copyright Linux International 2013 20 of 38 More Things To Teach (and not teach)  Teach: − Fundamentals  How does computer really work? − Machine language − Cache  How do compilers, OS really work? − Comparison evaluation  Various office packages − How to share  Do not teach: − Specific products
    21. 21. Copyright Linux International 2013 21 of 38 Things to Teach In New Education  How to do distributed development  How to license software  How to develop formal standards  How to write code to standards  How to motivate software developers  How to locate and engage the community of users and developers  How to innovate, everywhere, always How to evaluate and size customer needs
    22. 22. Copyright Linux International 2013 22 of 38 Free Tools For Teaching Free as in Freedom, as well as Free as in Beer
    23. 23. Copyright Linux International 2013 23 of 38 LTSP – Linux Terminal Server Project  Highly Available Server − All programs − All data  Thin diskless clients for desktops − Easy to administer − Atlanta Public Schools  4400 students, 2200 Clients, 233 classrooms 31 servers, 4 systems administrators
    24. 24. Copyright Linux International 2013 24 of 38 Curitiba, Brazil High School that had “nothing”... ....except pride
    25. 25. Copyright Linux International 2013 25 of 38 Bootable, Persistent Pen Drives With your URL printed on the outside!  A complete GNU/Linux Operating System on a Flash-based Pen Drive  Persistent storage for the user  Can be used with “any” desktop or notebook  Student carries their data with them  No licensing “worries”
    26. 26. Copyright Linux International 2013 26 of 38 More Than Just Software: Open Processes  Free and Open Standards – www.openstandards.org  Linux Professional Institute – www.lpi.org
    27. 27. Copyright Linux International 2013 27 of 38 More Than Just Software Open Hardware  Open Telephony  Arduino  Raspberry Pi – GNU/Linux for 35 USD
    28. 28. Copyright Linux International 2012 28 of 38 Adapteva – 99 USD Supercomputer On A Card ● Two core ARM processor ● Field Programmable Gate Array ● Digital Signal Processing chips ● 16 or 64 core processor, each core having its own MB of memory directly addressable ● 5 W
    29. 29. Copyright Linux International 2013 29 of 38 ....Other Embedded Systems...  Imagine students building products with these  Imagine students designing these
    30. 30. Copyright Linux International 2013 30 of 38 A Challenge for This Region  Find your brightest students  Get them to create a proposal for an embedded system products  Choose best five proposals  Get CS students to develop software on GNU/Linux systems  Get EE students to develop controllers  Get companies to manufacture products, create jobs
    31. 31. Copyright Linux International 2013 31 of 38 Creative Commons A simple licensing model for:  Text − Project Gutenberg – www.projectgutenberg.org  39000 free books  Gateway to 100K  Photographs  Music  Art
    32. 32. Copyright Linux International 2013 32 of 38 Today Even The Student Who Has No Money..  Can find the college curriculum on the Internet  Can find the objectives of the curriculum on the Internet  Can find the information on the Internet − Khan Academy − MIT, Stanford, Rice  Can learn the information from the Internet If they have access to the Internet
    33. 33. Copyright Linux International 2013 33 of 38 What About “Certification”? ● LPI – Linux Professional Institute ● www.lpi.org ● Portfolio ● programs ● email ● Letters of recommendation
    34. 34. Copyright Linux International 2013 34 of 38 How To Develop A Portfolio ● Find a Free Software Project to Work On ● Start by reading the mailing list, getting used to the code ● Start by working on fixing bugs, matching the code style of others ● Eventually join the project as a developer ● Keep records of your contributions
    35. 35. Copyright Linux International 2013 35 of 38 How To Develop A Portfolio (Cont.) ● Ask for letters of recommendation from your project leaders and peers ● And give praise where praise is due... ● Show your work to prospective employers Mark Shuttleworth – developing Canonical
    36. 36. Copyright Linux International 2013 36 of 38 Closed Source Interns Can show no real portfolio..... ...their contributions are hidden behind closed doors.
    37. 37. Copyright Linux International 2013 37 of 38 Co-operatives For Business  Way of setting up a business  Owned by the workers (or the customers)  Share resources − Sales people − Legal people − Administrative help − Expertise  Companies work with company
    38. 38. Copyright Linux International 2013 38 of 38 Questions?

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