What we believe about how best to teach and why we teach that way based on what we know about how children learn.
Three ways of thinking about Teaching Teaching Relationships Teaching Models Reflection Teaching Skills
Teaching Models Our toolbox is the models of teaching, actually models for learning, that simultaneously define the nature of the content, the learning strategies, and the arrangements for social interaction that create the learning contexts of our students. For example, in powerful classrooms students learn models for:
Extracting information and ideas from lectures and presentations
Building hypotheses and theories
Attaining concepts and how to invent them
Using metaphors to think creatively
Working effectively with other to initiate and carry out co-operative tasks
Achievement of students Number of students Reaching for the Double Sigma Effect Whole class Group Individual
The Common Curriculum of L2L
Gardner’s multiple intelligences
Goleman’s emotional intelligence
How the brain works Study skills
Guy Claxton’s ‘4Rs’ (resilience, recoursefullness, reflectiveness, and reciprocity)
General Teaching Knowledge Generalised pedagogical knowledge Effective subject teaching
Disconnected Knowledge Generalised pedagogical knowledge Knowledge of the discipline Effective subject teaching
Pedagogical Content Knowledge Generalised pedagogical knowledge Knowledge of the discipline Effective subject teaching Pedagogical content knowledge
Capacity to Learn Principles of learning Effort is a more important determinant of achievement than ability Given the right time and support, almost all can become proficient learners Principles of teaching High expectations and challenging targets should be set for all While the standards should remain constant, time and support should be varied according to individual student need Are there standards in place and targets for all students? Do we vary time and support?
Constructing Knowledge Principle of Learning Knowledge is a constructive process: learners actively make meaning and construct ideas and the connections between them Principle of teaching Students should be encouraged to be active learners and problem-solvers
Are students encouraged to be active learners when:
About 2/3 of the talk in classrooms is done by the teacher,
About 2/3 of teacher talk is organization-controlling talk?
So … We teach not to produce little living libraries on a subject, but rather to get students to think mathematically for themselves, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Knowing is a process not a product. Adapted from: Jerome Bruner, Toward a Theory of Instruction (1966)